Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
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Language: English
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: January 2010
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Volume ID: VID00543
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Vegetarian Newsletter


A Horticultural Sciences Department Extension Publication on Vegetable and Fruit Crops

Eat your Veggies!!!!!

Issue No. 553 January 2010



Integrating cover crops and mulch in reduced-tillage spring
squash (Cucurbita pepo) 'Delicata'


By: Danielle Treadwell, Assistant Professor and Mike Alligood, Senior Biological Scientist
Horticultural Sciences Department, Gainesville, Florida



Many growers appreciate the importance of soil quality on crop quality and yield. Reducing
tillage is frequently associated with an increase in organic matter and biological activity, and a
reduction in soil loss due to water or wind. Reduced-tillage vegetable production systems are
being tested throughout the U.S (Abdul-Baki et al., 2005; Cher et al., 2006, Treadwell et al.,
2007; Zhou and Everts, 2007). Unfortunately, these systems are also associated with an increase
in weeds, especially small-seeded annual grasses, as well as a delay in crop establishment
associated with cool soil temperatures. This project was designed to test several cover crop and
mulch systems to evaluate the effect of ground cover on soil temperatures, weed density, and
crop yield of spring squash (Cucurbitapepo) 'Delicata' (Figure 1).

Materials and Methods

Experimental Design. In this experiment, four production systems were tested using a
randomized complete block design with four replications at the North Florida Research and
Education Unit in Live Oak, Florida from October, 2008 to June 2009. All systems were
managed according the USDA National Organic Standards on land that was not certified organic,
but that had no history of prohibited materials for the previous five years. The systems were as
follows: 1) Standard Grower Practice with a Weedy Fallow (SGP-WF): Overwinter weedy
fallow, spring tillage, black plastic; 2) Standard Grower Practice with Cover Crops (SGP-CC):
Winter cover crops terminated in spring with a mower, incorporated with a off-set rolling disk
and followed by black plastic; 3) Reduced Tillage with Cover Crop Surface Residue (RT-
ROLL): Winter cover crops terminated with a roller-crimper in spring; and 4) Reduced Tillage
with Cover Crop Surface Residue covered by Landscape Fabric (RT-ROLL+FABRIC) (Figure
2).









Production. On October 28, 2008, winter rye (Secale cereale 'FL 401') was seeded to 90 kg ha-1
in a biculture mixture with an unnamed, commercially available cultivar of hairy vetch (Vicia
villosa) seeded to 22.4 kg ha-1 in three systems (SPG-CC, RT-ROLL and RT-ROLL+FABRIC),
while SGP-WF was allowed to establish with native vegetation. Each plot was 1.8m wide by 6m
long. On March 26, 2009, cover crops were in the mid-to late bloom stage and were terminated
with a flail mower and incorporated with an off-set rolling disk in SGP-CC and were terminated
with a roller-crimper in RT-ROLL and RT-ROLL+FABRIC. Native vegetation in SGP-WF was
mowed with the same flail mower, followed by disking with the rolling disk harrow.

On March 31, granular fertilizer (Nature Safe 8-5-5, Griffin Industries) was applied to all plots
according to the University of Florida's recommendations. Seventy-five percent of nitrogen (N)
was applied before planting resulting in the following application: N at 160 kg ha- phosphorus
(P) at 100 kg ha-1 and potassium (K) at 100 kg ha-'). In each system, fertilizer was added in the
following manner: a subsurface shank created a furrow approximately 15 cm off-center on both
sides of the anticipated crop line and 15 cm deep. Fertilizer was added to each furrow and
furrows were closed by hand. Drip tape (John Deere, Roberts Ro-Drip, 8ml, 30 cm spacing at 91
L per hour per 30 meters) was applied to all plots. Plastic mulch was applied to SGP-WF and
SGP-CC plots and landscape fabric (60 cm) was secured with ground staples over the rolled
cover crop residue in RT-ROLL+FABRIC treatment. Squash seed was planted to 3.8 cm depth at
60 cm in-row spacing in each plot for a planting density of 8,970 plants ha-1. Additional fertility
was supplied by an injectable, flowable powder composed of finely ground soybean meal
(Soyaplex-SP 8-1-2, NaEx Corporation). This material was applied through the drip system at a
nitrogen rate of 2.9 kg ha-1 weekly beginning at week two (April 8, 2009) and continuing for
nine weeks through week 11 (June 3, 2009). In addition, fish emulsion (3-1-1) was applied twice
with a foliar application rate of 2.34 L ha-1 at week 4 (April 22) and week 6 (May 6) until run-
off

Data collection. Cover crop above-ground plant material was cut at the soil surface in a 0.5 m2
frame, dried in a forced-air oven at 60 OC and weighed. Soil temperature was collected with four
automated sensors that were placed 4 cm in depth in one plot in each system in the same
replicate. Data was collected hourly. Weed density was evaluated on May 28 using a 0.6 m2
frame. Weeds were identified by species, counted and grouped into either broadleaves or
grasses/sedges for analysis. Squash was harvested on June 17, and mature fruit was counted,
weighed and graded. Marketable fruit were considered to include fruit that was at least 15 cm in
length, skin free from blemishes, uniform in color and typical for the cultivar. All data were
analyzed using SAS (V. 9.2) general linear models, and when treatments were significantly
different (a = 0.05) means were separated using Least Significant Differences.

Results and Discussion

Cover crop biomass. The winter cover crops were slow to establish due to cold weather in
October and early November. In the spring, neither hairy vetch nor rye produced as much
biomass as we have observed in previous years at this location. The combined weight of rye and
hairy vetch was 2,200 kg ha-1 on a dry weight basis, and was less than the 6,000 kg ha-1
recommended dry weight at cover crop termination if the cover crop surface residue is to be used









a weed-suppressive mulch (Morse, 2001). No differences were observed for dry weight biomass
among treatments planted to cover crops (data not shown).

Soil temperatures. Soil temperature was different among treatments and the effect of treatment
varied depending on the time of day (P < 0.0001). For simplicity, seasonal means are presented
in Figure 3. While evening temperatures were similar among treatments, daytime soil
temperatures were greatest in SGP-CC and SPG-WF and lowest in rolled cover crop treatments
(RT-ROLL and RT-ROLL+FABRIC). Temperature differences between the standard grower
practice treatments and the rolled cover crop treatments were greatest during April when air
temperatures were reaching highs in the low 30-degree Celsius range. We observed soil
temperatures differed by up to 15 C between treatments during the heat of the day. The
optimum monthly temperature range for the best growth and yield of squash is 18-24 OC, with a
maximum temperature around 35 C (Maynard and Hochmuth, 2007). The rolled cover crop
treatments consistently remained in the optimum range, while soil incorporated cover crops and
weed treatments were considerably warmer during the daytime (Figure 3).

Weed density and biomass. Predominant weed species included yellow nutsedge (Cyperus
esculentus), purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus), Florida pusley (Richardia scabra), crabgrass
(Digitaria sanguinalis), catchweed (Galium aparine), pigweed (Amaranthus spp.), cutleaf evening
primrose (Oenothera laciniata) and Virginia pepperweed (Lepidium virginicum). Rolled cover crop
with no landscape fabric (CC-ROLL) predictably had the most weeds compared to remaining
treatments, but it was surprisingly similar in weed density to treatments with black plastic (SGP-
WF and SGP-CC) (Table 1).

Squash Establishment and Yield. Plant establishment was 80% on three plots all in replicate
three, and 100% on remaining plots. Missing plants were immediately reseeded for a 100%
stand. The total number of fruit harvested from treatments ranged from 24,456 to 35,541 per ha;
very low numbers compared to commercial yields (Table 2). Many of the fruit were not
marketable due to small size, and the greatest percentage of marketable fruit occurred in the
SGP-WF and SGP-CC treatments. Similarly, total fruit weight was greatest in SGP treatments
compared to ROLL treatments. Although soil temperatures approached the maximum
recommended temperature for squash in SPG systems, those systems produced the greatest yield.

Three weeks prior to harvest, we observed chlorosis of mature leaves and attributed this to low
potassium measured in plant tissues with a Cardy meter. However, following harvest, further
investigation revealed extensive nematode damage to roots in nearly every plot, evidenced by the
presence of galls typically caused by Meloidogyne spp. The last income-producing crop in that
field was field corn in 2004, and subsequent crops were pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and
cereal rye (Secale cereal) with no fumigants or insecticides applied. The degree of infestation we
observed would likely reduce yields of any crop.

Summary

Our objective in this experiment was to evaluate the effect of ground cover on soil temperatures,
weed density, and crop yield of spring squash. Despite extensive nematode damage, yield
differences were observed among cover crop systems and were influenced by weed and most









likely soil temperature data. Soil incorporated cover crops and weeds, and a production system of
black plastic and drip irrigation performed better than rolled cover crops under the conditions of
this experiment.

For more information on reduced tillage vegetable production, visit UF-IFAS EDIS at
http://edis. ifas. ufl. edu/ andfor a series of educational videos based on results from land grant
university research, visit the national Extension website at:
http://ww. extension. org/article/18368.


Literature Cited

Abdul-Baki, A. A.,W. Klassen, H. H. Bryan, M. Codallo, B. Hima, Q. R. Wang, Y. Li, Y.-C. Lu
and Z. Handoo. 2005. A Biologically-Based System for Winter Production of Fresh-Market
Tomatoes in South Florida. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 118: 153-159.

Cherr, C. M, J. M. S. Scholberg and R. McSorley. 2006. Green manure as nitrogen source for
sweet corn in a warm-temperate environment. Agron. J. 98:1173-1180.

Maynard, D. and G. Hochmuth. 2007. Knott's handbook for vegetable growers. 5th Edition. John
Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey.

Morse, R. D. 2001. No-herbicide, no-till summer broccoli quantity of rye and hairy vetch
mulch on weed suppression and crop yield. P. 83-91. In: J. H. Stiegler (ed.) Proc. Southern
Conservation Tillage Conference for Sustainable Agriculture. Oklahoma City, OK.

Treadwell, D. D., N. G. Creamer, J. R. Schultheis, and G. D. Hoyt. 2007. Cover Crop
Management Influences Weed Suppression in Organically Managed Sweetpotato Systems. Weed
Tech. 21(4):1039-1048.

Zhou, X. G. and K. L. Everts. 2007. Effects of host resistance and inoculum density on the
suppression of fusarium wilt of watermelon induced by hairy vetch. Plant Dis. 91(1):92-96.









Figure 1. Early fruit set on squash (Cucurbitapepo) 'Delicata'.


Figure 2. Four spring squash production systems tested in Live Ok, FL: Standard Grower
Practice with a Weedy Fallow (SGP-WF): 1) Overwinter weedy fallow, spring tillage, black
plastic; 2) Standard Grower Practice with Cover Crops (SGP-CC): Winter cover crops
terminated in spring with a mower, incorporated with a off-set rolling disk and followed by black
plastic; 3) Reduced Tillage with Cover Crop Surface Residue (RT- ROLL): Winter cover crops
terminated with a roller-crimper in spring; and 4) Reduced Tillage with Cover Crop Surface
Residue covered by Landscape Fabric (RT-ROLL+FABRIC).










Seasonal Mean Hourly Soil Temperatures within Treatments
38
3 Plastic -Cov Plas A Cov Roll ,-Cov LSF
35
S32



24
21
18
Sr;
12 2 4 6 8 10 12 2 4 6 8 10 12
am am am am am am pm pm pm pm pm pm pm
Time (24 Hours)

Figure 3. Mean soil temperatures in treatments during squash production in Live Oak, FL in
spring 2009 over a 24-hour period. Treatments are as follows: SGP-WF = standard grower
practice, winter weedy fallow; SGP-CC = standard grower practice, winter cover crop; CC-
ROLL = winter cover crop terminated by rolling; and CC-ROLL+LSF = winter cover crop
terminated by rolling and covered with landscape fabric.


Table 1. Weed density of grass plus sedge weeds and broadleaf weeds per 0.6 m2 in squash
(Cucurbitapepo) 'Delicata' produced in four cover management treatments in Live Oak, FL in
May 2009.




SGP-WF 12.00by 0.50 12.50b

SGP-CC 17.00b 4.75 21.75b

CC-ROLL 60.25a 20.00 80.25a

CC-ROLL+LSF 9.75b 3.50 13.25b

Significance 0.0216 NS 0.0004

zTreatments are as follows: SGP-WF = standard grower practice, winter weedy fallow; SGP-CC
= standard grower practice, winter cover crop; CC-ROLL = winter cover crop terminated by
rolling; and CC-ROLL+LSF = winter cover crop terminated by rolling and covered with
landscape fabric.
YMean separation within column by Fisher's protected LSD at 0.05. NS = not significant.









Table 2. Number, quality and weight of harvested squash (Cucurbitapepo) 'Delicata' produced
in four cover management treatments in Live Oak, FL in May 2009.



SGP-WF 1.60ay 0.196a 19,846a 35,541a 4360a

SGP-CC 1.45ab 0.216a 15,003a 32,080ab 4792a

CC-ROLL 1.10b 0.156b 7,662b 24,458b 3446b

CC-ROLL+LSF 1.20ab 0.168b 7,699b 26,481ab 3731b

Significance 0.1030 0.0018 0.0025 0.1030 0.0018

zTreatments are as follows: SGP-WF = standard grower practice, winter weedy fallow; SGP-CC
= standard grower practice, winter cover crop; CC-ROLL = winter cover crop terminated by
rolling; and CC-ROLL+LSF = winter cover crop terminated by rolling and covered with
landscape fabric.
YMean separation within column by Fisher's protected LSD at 0.05. NS = not significant.









Vegetarian Newsletter


A Horticultural Sciences Department Extension Publication on Vegetable and Fruit Crops

Eat your Veggies!!!!!

Issue No. 553 January 2010



Stinger Labeled in Florida




By: William M. Stall, Professor Emeritus
Horticultural Sciences Department, Gainesville, Florida



Stinger (Clopyralid) has received labeling in Florida for use in cabbage, Chinese cabbage (bok
choy, napa), and Chinese mustard cabbage (gai choy).

Stinger may be applied post emergence on these crops for the control of several broadleaf weeds
including clover, ragweed and smart weed. One to 2 broadcast applications may be made at 1/4
to 1/2 pint per acre, not to exceed 1/2 pint per acre per year. A preharvest interval of 30 days is in
effect.

Growers must have the supplemental label in hand at application. Check the full label for plant-
back restrictions.









Vegetarian Newsletter


A Horticultural Sciences Department Extension Publication on Vegetable and Fruit Crops

Eat your Veggies!!!!!

Issue No. 553 January 2010



New Third-Party Labels for Dual Magnum




By: William M. Stall, Professor Emeritus
Horticultural Sciences Department, Gainesville, Florida




Transplanted Head and Stem Brassica Subgroup 5-A

Dual magnum provides preemergent weed control. The transplanted cabbage label has been
expanded to include the head and stem subgroup including cabbage, Chinese cabbage (napa),
broccoli, Chinese broccoli, Brussels sprouts, Chinese mustard, cauliflower, cavalo broccoli and
kohlrabi. Applications of 0.67 to 2.0 pints per acre may be made to transplants that are 5 weeks
old or grown in 1" diameter cells or larger. Use the lower rates on course-textured soils and the
higher rates on soils high in organic matter. The Chinese varieties are more sensitive to injury
and application should be at the lower rate.

Eggplant

Eggplant has been added to the Third-party pepper label.

A pre-transplant application may be made to the soil surface of pre-formed beds at 0.67 to 1.0
pint per acre prior to laying plastic.

A post-transplant application may be made as directed, shielded spray to row middles between
plastic rows at 1 pint per acre. A preharvest interval of 60 days is in effect. These labels must be
in possession of the grower at the time of application.









To obtain the labeling or for more information on the 24(c) registration contact: Third Party
Registrations, Inc., Maitland, Florida, or call (321) 214-5200.









Vegetarian Newsletter


A Horticultural Sciences Department Extension Publication on Vegetable and Fruit Crops

Eat your Veggies!!!!!

Issue No. 553 January 2010



Biography: Vance Whitaker, UF/IFAS, Strawberry Breeder


By: Vance Whitaker, Assistant Professor
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, Balm, Florida



My initiation to horticulture took place as a child, growing up in the small
town of Oak Ridge, NC amidst rolling hills and tobacco fields. There I
cultivated a love for plants and eventually went to North Carolina State
University to study horticulture. At NCSU I received my BS in
Horticultural Science and a second BS in Agricultural Business
Management. I later pursued my graduate studies at the University of
Minnesota, earning a MS in Horticultural Science in 2003 and a PhD in
Plant Breeding and Molecular Genetics in 2009. There my research
objective was to characterize genetic resistance to black spot disease of
rose. My academic connection to strawberries was through my advisor, Stan Hokanson, a
former USDA strawberry breeder, and Jim Luby, fruit breeder at Minnesota. In August, 2009 I
moved to Florida with my wife Terri and my children Isaac (4 yrs) and Claire (2 yrs).

My principal duty as the UF strawberry breeder and geneticist is to direct and oversee the
breeding program at the Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, developing cultivars with
superior performance in central Florida. I believe that continued gains can be made in several
important areas including early yield, fruit size, flavor, and disease resistance. Cultivar
development will be enhanced through genetic characterization of these traits and through
collaborative research with a statewide team of UF researchers in the areas of genomics,
pathology, production, and postharvest physiology.









Vegetarian Newsletter


A Horticultural Sciences Department Extension Publication on Vegetable and Fruit Crops

Eat your Veggies!!!!!

Issue No. 553 January 2010


Biography: Mercy A. Olmstead, UF/IFAS, Stone Fruit
Extension Specialist


By: Mercy A. Olmstead, Assistant Professor
Horticultural Sciences Department, Gainesville, Florida



S I grew up in the Detroit suburb of Warren, Michigan where my mother
and grandfather sparked my interest in horticulture. We seemed to be
the only family with several fruit trees in our backyard, which all of the
neighbors enjoyed.

I received my M.S. Degree from Washington State University in
Horticulture (Viticulture) investigating cover crop systems in wine
grape vineayrds, and a Ph.D. from Michigan State University in
Horticulture (Stone Fruit; 2004), where I studied scion-dwarfing
rootstock systems in sweet cherries. I came to the University of Florida
as the new stone fruit extension specialist in Horticultural Sciences in
July 2009 from Washington State University, where I was the viticulture (grape) extension
specialist. My statewide responsibilities include stone fruit extension and research to address key
production issues in peaches, nectarines, and plums. My main research interests lie in scion-
rootstock relations, nutrition management, and optimizing orchard production practices. I
recently authored and now maintain the UF Stone Fruit Research and Extension webpage which
houses information on peach, nectarine, and plum management (http://hos.ufl.edu/stonefruit).

I enjoy traveling around the state, walking around and working in the orchards, and exploring the
beautiful landscape of Florida. My husband (Jim) and I have a two-year old daughter, Lillian,
who also romps in the sand with us and our two cats.

My office is located at the Horticultural Sciences Department, Gainesville, Florida. I can be
reached at (352) 392-1928 x 208, or by e-mail at mercvylufl.edu.






REGISTRATION FORM


Name


Address


City, state, zip

Phone


email

COLUMBIA/SUWANNEE COUNTY
Located at the Suwannee County
Extension Office
Friday, Feb. 5, 2010 (Time: 1-4pm)
Friday, Feb. 12, 2010 (Time: 1-4pm)
Friday, Feb. 19, 2010 (Time: 1-4pm)
Friday, Feb. 26, 2010 (Time: 1-4pm)
Friday, Mar. 5, 2010 (Time: 1-4pm)
Friday, Mar.12, 2010 (Time: 1-4pm)

A $25.00 fee and registration must be postmarked
two weeks prior to classes starting (Jan. 22). After
that date fee is $35. The fee for this course is nor-
mally $50; however, due to grant funding it is tem-
porarily discounted to the amounts listed above.
MAKE CHECK PAYABLE TO:
Suwannee Extension Program Account
SEND REGISTRATION FORM TO:
Mary Sowerby at the address below

For more info: Mary Sowerby
1302 11th St. SW, Live Oak, FL 32064
meso@ifas.ufl.edu
(386) 362-2771


A project grant-funded by


Education Ceiiier


UNIVERSITY of
UF FLORIDA
IFAS Extension


jislk Management

-Annie's Project
'Il L70 011 r i.t,, 0 ornmo


Annie's Project Curriculum

Human Resources
Women and Money
Business Plans
Alternative Enterprises
Social Style
Farm Succession
Retirement & Estate Planning
Using Spreadsheets
Marketing Plan & Strategies
Types of Insurance
QuickBooks Pro
Financial Records and How to
Interpret Information
..... Much More


What is Annie's Project?

Annie's Project is a 6 week course
designed especially for farm/ranch
women. Sessions will combine
lecture, discussion, individual and
small group activities, and soft-
ware training.
Annie's Project strives to
help farm/ranch women gain the
understanding and knowledge
necessary to be active and
involved farm partners. Annie's
Project will also help women find
new ways to balance the
demands of family, community,
and professionalism within the ag
community.
The program is in honor of
Annie Fleck, a woman that lived in
a small town in Illinois. She spent
her lifetime learning how to
become a better business partner
with her husband.

The Foundation for The Gator Nation
An Equal Opportunity Institution






,Risk Management
Annie 's Project
" Z nt ton /r ,. F ... worss f


Management Education
for Today's Farm Women


If you are a farm woman with a passion for your farm business, you need to attend
this 6-week course designed just for you!

Critical decision-making and information topics on:
(1)Production Risk Management, (2) Marketing Risk Management, (3) Financial Risk Management,
(4) Legal Risk Management, and (5) Human Resources Risk Management.

Objectives

Annie's Project is a comprehensive educational program and support network for women in agricul-
ture designed to:

(1)Deliver technology training to farm women, enhancing their business skills
(2) Develop a support network, which is essential for continuing education and self-help.

At the end of the program, farm women will have increased
their knowledge about:


1. Making critical decisions for their operation; asking the right questions
2. Sustainability of their farming operation
3. The importance of implementing risk management strategies
4. Knowing who and where their local/regional resources and support are


State Coordinator
Nola Wilson
UF/IFAS Marion County
Extension Service
Ocala, Fl.
352-671-8400
novjan@ufl.edu




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