Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
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Language: English
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: June 2009
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Vegetarian Newsletter


A Horticultural Sciences Department Extension Publication on Vegetable Crops

Eat your Veggies!!!!!

Issue No. 546 June 2009



Direct Marketing: Bradford County Style


By: Jim DeValerio, Agricultural Extension Agent
UF/IFAS Bradford County Extension Service, Starke, FL


Bradford County boasts a total of ten roadside produce stands; eight are located along the US
301 corridor, three within the City of Starke and two are located off the major highway. In
addition to selling to highway travelers, these locally owned small businesses provide a daily
flow of fresh produce to residents of Lawtey, Starke and Hampton. They specialize in selling
seasonal commodities including fruits, vegetables, citrus, pecans and Christmas trees.

Bradford County's network of roadside stands benefits the community in many ways. It
provides local jobs, brings in revenue and supports local farmers. All of the proprietors sell
seasonal produce they either grow or buy from local farms. Many farmers do not want to direct
market their produce and they are happy to sell their produce wholesale to a local outlet. Local
supply is seasonal and is not available throughout the year so, out of necessity, all of the markets
sell produce that is shipped in from out of state and from foreign markets. If the markets do not
thrive all year they cannot support the local farmer during their growing season.

Half of Bradford County's roadside markets have been open between seven and twenty years and
their successes prove that locating a roadside stand near high density cities and/or high traffic
locations is a good business strategy. According to Florida Department of Transportation
statistics, twenty thousand potential customers see these stands every day. It is no accident that
the majority of Bradford County roadside stands are located on the Tampa Jacksonville
highway.

Another successful strategy for locating a roadside stand is to grow the produce near the stand.
Two prominent stand owners in Bradford County feature farms adjacent to their stores. Both of
these farmer's stands are adorned with trophies from the Bradford County Fair Association
recognizing them for their record winning berries over the years. Generally, the products they
grow are easy to sell and yield the greatest profit margins. The presence of those big berries and
other vegetables growing on location brings in customers. The word is, "Fresh is Best."






























-N


Bradford County roadside stands from north to south: White Oaks Produce, Kings, Normans, King's
Kountry Produce, J.C.'s Scales & Tails Seafood & Produce, Norman's County Market, Sara B's Market,
and Citrus Shop & Produce.


%*








Vegetarian Newsletter


A Horticultural Sciences Department Extension Publication on Vegetable Crops

Eat your Veggies!!!!!

Issue No. 546 June 2009



Make Room for Vertical Vegetable Gardening


By: Angela Sachson
Florida Yards & Neighborhoods, UF/IFAS Okeechobee County
Extension Service, Okeechobee, FL


You may be experiencing sticker shock in the produce department these days. It costs a lot to
bring vegetables all the way from Colorado (the origin of my bag of carrots) and Peru (the
onions). If you have a couple of tomato plants and think that's all you have room for think
again. You can ramp up your veggie production without taking over the entire yard. This is
about containers but containers in a major way. Containers are great for controlling nematodes
and weeds and providing a controlled environment for your produce and many containers in a
small space will give you lots more great edibles.

Just follow the example of Mr. M. T.
Alden a gardener in Okeechobee
County who grows 36 full-size plants in
a vertical wall just ten feet by three feet
and about six feet tall. Mr. Alden, a
kind of container-gardening guru, has
thousands of plants in hundreds of pots.
But just one of his ten foot segments
should grow enough for a family. This
"Wall of Vegetables" can also block an
unattractive view.

Here is his method. M. T. places three
8-foot landscape timbers in a row five
feet apart. He buries them 18-inches in
the ground after putting a notch in the top. The notch holds one-inch pipe at the top of the
structure. This is the pipe that holds the 18 ten-inch pots in each section. These 18 pots are an
under-approximation, as you can also put six pots on the ground. That would make 24 pots!








Pots are suspended, one under the one h v
above, for three layers. The pots are filled
with a lightweight mixture of composted
manure, perlite and vermiculite. Our
garden guru uses horse manure obtained
from a friend, but this may also be
purchased as composted manure at most
garden centers. The other two ingredients
for this mix are easy to find locally as well.

Mr. Alden grows just about all popular
garden crops in his intensive container
gardens. The ten-inch pots can
accommodate one large tomato plant. The
tomatoes are not staked and they have
plenty of room to produce. Three strawberry plants, three of beans and peas, several large onions
or many many scallions fit in these pots. Three corn stalks can grow upright from one pot and
several potatoes can be harvested in this small size container. One pepper plant can produce lots
of fruit also.

In addition to saving space, this gardening method
gets fungus-susceptible plants up where air
circulation is available so it is good for cukes and
melons too. You may need to support heavy melons.
Mr. Alden places them near a fence to provide
horizontal supports.

Although there is an initial start-up cost for this
method timbers, pipe, pots and potting mix, the cost
is pretty low. There are wholesale suppliers for pots
and timbers are not expensive. Mr. Alden uses a drip
irrigation system but a watering can or hose would
suffice for a small garden.

This garden is portable if you move you can take it
with you. It is frost-proof too: if low temperatures are
predicted you can bring the individual pots inside. And, if you add collecting troughs and a rain
barrel to this installation to catch and store water that runs out of the pots, you can conserve
water!


Adapted from an original article that appeared in the Okeechobee News December 21, 2008, and is archived on line
at: http://okeechobee.ifas.ufl.edu/News%20columns/FYN.Vertical.Veges.htm.


Trade names, where used, are given for the purpose of providing specific information They do not constitute an endorsement or guarantee of products named,
nor does it imply criticism of products not named The Florida Cooperative Extension Service Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal
opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information, and other services to individuals and institutions that function
without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin Florida Cooperative Extension Service I IFAS / University of Florida Millie Ferrer,
Interim Dean









Vegetarian Newsletter


A Horticultural Sciences Department Extension Publication on Vegetable Crops

Eat your Veggies!!!!!

Issue No. 546 June 2009



Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Resistant Variety Trial
North Florida Research and Education Center-Quincy, FL
Fall 2008



By: Stephen Olson, Professor
North Florida Research and Education Center, Quincy, Florida


During the 2007-2008 production season 31,500 acres of tomatoes were harvested in Florida
with a farm-gate value of over $619 million. Total production was 45.5 million 25-pound boxes.
Tomatoes accounted for about 26% of the total value of vegetables grown in Florida during that
production season making it the most valuable vegetable crop in Florida. In the panhandle area
of Florida, tomatoes are by far the most valuable of the vegetable crops.

A tomato variety trial was conducted at NFREC, Quincy during the fall season of 2008 to
evaluate fresh market (large rounds) tomato varieties and potential new hybrids. The replicated
trial started out with 23 entries but due to a very high incidence of tomato yellow leaf curl virus
(TYLC), only 5 entries are being reported on. Growing conditions were very poor. Plants
received extensive damage from wind rain due to a tropical storm. Crop also matured much later
than normal due to damage.

Entries were seeded on 26 June into planter flats containing a commercial media. Cell size of
flats was 1.5 in by 1.5 in by 2.5 in. Seedlings were fertilized weekly with a dilute solution of 15-
16-17 (N-P205-K20) peat-lite special. Plants were hardened off before transplanting by reducing
water and fertilizer. Production was on raised full bed mulched system. Beds were fumigated
with methyl bromide/chloropicrin (67/33) at broadcast rate of 200 lbs/acre before mulch (white
on black Blockade) application. Irrigation was with single drip tube placed 6 inches off center.
Total fertilization was 195-60-195 lbs/acre of N-P20O-K20. Row spacing was 6 feet between
rows with a finished bed width of 34 inches. Transplanting was done on 5 August. Plots
consisted of 12 plants spaced 20 inches apart. Plots were tied 4 times and maintenance
pesticides were used as needed to control pest problems. Design was a random complete block
with 4 replications. Fruit were harvested at or beyond the mature-green stage on 4 and 11









November. At each harvest fruit were graded and sized into medium, large and extra-large fruit.
Weights and fruit numbers were recorded for each size along with cull weight.

Incidence of TYLC in susceptible entries was nearing 100% by harvest time. Total yields ranged
from 490 boxes/a for 'Tygress' to 897 boxes/a for 'Tycoon' (Table 1). As comparison, 'BHN
602', a widely used variety in fall, only produced about 100 boxes/a total. Mean fruit size
ranged from 5.7 oz for 'Tycoon' to 4.7 oz for 'Tygress'.


Table 1. Yield and fruit size of TYLC resistant varieties trialed at North Florida Research
and Education Center, Quincy, Florida, Fall, 2008.

Yield (25 lb boxes/a) Mean fruit
EntryExtra-large size Total wt. (oz)
Tycoon 547 az 897 a 5.7 a
BHN 765 380 ab 810 ab 5.2 a
Inbar 396 ab 737 ab 5.5 a
Security 28 342 ab 645 ab 5.5 a
Tygress 189 b 490 b 4.7 b
z Mean separation using Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.










Vegetarian Newsletter


A Horticultural Sciences Department Extension Publication on Vegetable Crops

Eat your Veggies!!!!!

Issue No. 546 June 2009



Managing pH of Muck Soils for Vegetable Production


By: Alan L. Wright
Everglades Research & Education Center, Belle Glade, FL
and
David D. Sui, and Ronald W. Rice
Palm Beach County Extension, West Palm Beach, FL


Historically, the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) evolved under seasonally-flooded
conditions that predominately supported sawgrass and other wetland vegetation. Over several
thousand years, Histosol "muck" soils were deposited as organic matter accumulated above the
limestone (calcium carbonate) bedrock. In the early 1900s, these soils were drained. Declining
water table levels coupled with increased urban development and agricultural activities initiated
muck oxidation, soil compaction, promotion of muck fires, and increased potential for soil loss
due to wind erosion. These factors have led to decreases in soil depth above the bedrock
limestone, a phenomena commonly referred to as subsidence.

When these soils were initially drained, soil pH values were lower than they are now. Most
organic soils typically reflect acidic soil pH values ranging from 4.5 to 5.5. Current soil pH
values in the EAA for shallow muck soils are considerably higher, ranging from 6.5 to 8.5,
although soil pH is spatially variable.

As a consequence of field operations to prepare crop lands, tillage efforts for weed control,
incorporation of fertilizers, and planting, as well as subsurface irrigation, high pH particles of
calcium carbonate (originating from the bedrock) are transported from the subsurface into the
root zone (Figure 1). Since calcium carbonate is the source of agricultural lime, tillage of
shallow muck soils is effectively liming the soil. This tillage-induced transport is more
problematic for many of the shallow soils less than 2 feet in depth. Additionally, carbonates
dissolved in water can move up in the soil profile due to capillary action, and are often deposited
at or near the soil surface after water is evaporated. Evidence of this effect can be observed by
the white crust formation on the soil surface during drying weather conditions, which is a
combination of calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate.









Nutrient Availability


Organic soils within the EAA formed as oligotrophic wetlands, meaning that most nutrient
concentrations were commonly deficient for growth of plants other than the native vegetation.
This deficiency is readily observed for phosphorus and micronutrients, such as manganese,
copper, and zinc. Early research demonstrated that application of these nutrients as fertilizers
significantly increased crop growth and yield. However, required rates of fertilizer application to
support favorable crop growth responses have increased with time, corresponding with
decreasing soil depth and increasing pH. Clearly, crop nutrient requirements have also increased
over time due to the adoption of modem-day cultivars that have significantly greater growth
potentials.

Most micronutrients and P are readily available to vegetables at lower acidic soil pH values.
Phosphorus and micronutrient availability to crops typically declines as soil pH values increase
into the higher ranges characterizing current EAA muck soils. Due to increases in soil pH in the
EAA, the problem is not so much that total concentrations of nutrients are low but rather that the
availability of these soil nutrients to crops is too low. Thus, the current situation is that muck
soils are increasingly developing soil chemical conditions that compromise the availability of
applied fertilizer nutrients for crop growth.

How to Address the pH Problem

There are several practical ways to address the problem of increasing soil pH. One way is to add
an acid-forming amendment to reduce the pH, resulting in increased nutrient availability.
Another strategy is to adopt improved fertilizer management practices, such as improved timing,
placement, split applications of fertilizers, and use of slow-release fertilizers. Modified cultural
practices, such as a reduction in the number and intensity of tillage operations, may attenuate the
vertical movement of calcium carbonate through the soil profile, and could likely be attractive
due to reduced energy costs. Reductions in the rate of soil subsidence by flooding of fields
during fallow will also help to decrease soil pH. It is likely that stabilizing the water table will
slow the movement of solubilized calcium carbonate upward with capillary water movement.

Soil pH Adjustment

A common method to reduce soil pH in the EAA is the application of elemental sulfur. When
mixed into soil, sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms utilize the sulfur and convert it to sulfate, and
in the process, generate acid-forming hydrogen ions which decrease the soil pH. However,
depending on the buffering capacity of the soil, large quantities of sulfur are often needed to
effect a change in pH. The routine use of sulfur to reduce soil pH across large field areas is
improbable since the large amounts that would be required annually would simply be cost-
prohibitive. This statement is especially true considering the large amounts of calcium carbonate
present in EAA soils that can potentially buffer or neutralize the acidifying effects of sulfur
addition.









Strategic banding of sulfur near the plant row is an effective means of adding considerably less
sulfur while improving nutrient availability in sufficient soil volume to satisfy immediate crop
nutrient requirements for phosphorus and micronutrients. Applying sulfur primarily in
problematic (high soil pH hotspots) areas such as along field ditches and near roadways, where
calcium carbonate ditch spoils accumulate, is a successful practice that is used for sugarcane in
the EAA. These precise placement techniques result in low sulfur application rates.

Fertilizer Management Practices

Fertilizer management strategies can be used to avoid or minimize nutritional problems
associated with increasing soil pH. One option is to just increase total fertilizer application rates
to overcome nutrient availability limitations. However, rising fertilizer costs and the desire by
growers to impart good land stewardship in areas near sensitive wetlands makes this option
unattractive.

Banding of fertilizers has been recognized as an effective practice that supports lower fertilizer
application rates while maintaining economically attractive vegetable crop yields. The use of
banding techniques is even more important given the previous discussion on changing soil
chemistry conditions. Currently, a popular "banding" strategy is to band-apply fertilizer sources
in a band 1-2 feet wide during vegetable bed preparation, with the fertilizer band incorporated
into the bed profile, with the expectation that roots will be able to utilize these fertilizers more
efficiently than fertilizers broadcast across the entire field. More precise application methods
such as utilization of narrow bands of fertilizer should minimize direct contact of fertilizers with
soil, while maintaining higher plant-available nutrient concentrations for the longest period of
time.

Another potential strategy is the split-application of fertilizers, which would also reduce nutrient
fixation to soil particles and increase potential nutrient availability for different crop growth
stages, and adapt to open bed operation. The timing of applications would be more time-
consuming and require additional trips through the field, increasing fuel and equipment costs, but
may ultimately reduce the total amount of fertilizer necessary to produce crops. With the
increasing costs of fertilizers, especially in combination with reduced tillage trips, the expanded
use of split applications may prove viable in the future.

Most P fertilizers for vegetables grown in muck soils are soil-applied at planting, which has
proven reliable in the past. However, another management option that could avoid nutrient
deficiencies brought about by increasing soil pH trends is to expand the use of foliar application.
Many micronutrients are currently applied via foliar application, especially for vegetable crops.
Since soil-applied nutrients are increasingly rendered unavailable due to rising soil pH, their
application directly to crop canopies may be a viable option in the future.

The use of slow-release fertilizers (SRF) has not received much attention in the EAA in the past
due to their high costs relative to traditional fertilizer sources. However, SRFs offer potential
benefits including the slow-release of nutrients, which minimizes their fixation to soil particles
and thus increases nutrient availability for crop growth. The disadvantage of the relatively
higher cost for this type of fertilizer can be offset somewhat by the lower rates of slow-release









fertilizers that may be required. The result of wide-spread use of SRFs may also include a
potential reduction in the total amount of fertilizers applied to EAA soils, which would be
consistent with region-wide efforts to reduce the export of phosphorus and other nutrients into
waterways entering the Everglades wetlands while still supporting required commercial yields
and market quality.









Vegetarian Newsletter


A Horticultural Sciences Department Extension Publication on Vegetable Crops

Eat your Veggies!!!!!

Issue No. 546 June 2009



'Florida Elyana': First Florida-Bred Cultivar Designed for
Tunnel and Greenhouse Production


By: Craig K. Chandler, Professor, Bielinski M. Santos, Assistant
Professor, and Natalia A. Peres, Assistant Professor
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Wimauma, FL


Introduction

There are two predominant strawberry (Fragaria x aananssa Duch.) production systems
throughout the world: Open-field cultivation and production under protective structures (e.g.
high-tunnels and greenhouses). In California and Florida, strawberry is produced predominately
under open-field conditions, whereas in Japan and in parts of Europe, such as Spain,
Netherlands, and Germany, the latter system is widely utilized. Because the environmental
differences between of these two systems, there is a necessity for breeding cultivars that could be
adapted to each specific situation. 'Florida Elyana' is the first Florida-bred cultivar designed for
tunnel and greenhouse production. It is a short-day plant and produces flavorful fruit. 'Florida
Elyana' produces larger fruit than 'Strawberry Festival', which is the predominant cultivar in
Florida and it holds a large market share in Spain, Morocco, and Egypt.

Origin

'Florida Elyana' strawberry (Fragaria x aananssa Duch.) originated from a 2000 cross between
FL 96-114 and FL 95-200. FL 96-114 resulted from a cross between 'Sweet Charlie', a 1992
University of Florida release, and 'Cuesta' (U.S. Plant Patent 8,662), a Univ. of California
cultivar released in the early 1990s. FL 95-200 is a result of a cross of the lines FL 93-46 and FL
93-66, both of which have a number of cultivars in its complex pedigree, including 'Rosa Linda'
and 'Pajaro'.

Based on the desirable appearance and firmness of 'Florida Elyana' fruit, it was included in
randomized complete block trials at the Gulf Coast Research and Education Center of the
University of Florida at Dover and Balm, Fla., respectively, during the 2004-05 and 2006-07
seasons. Ripe fruit were harvested, graded, counted, and weighed twice a week from December
through March. For postharvest quality analysis, sensory evaluations were conducted at the Gulf









Coast Research and Education Center two times during 2006 and three times during 2007. At
least 50 untrained panelists participated in the sensory panels, and rated fruit for appearance,
texture, and flavor. Panelists were asked to taste the berries following the codes written on their
ballot sheets and answer the questions on the ballots. Presentation was randomized across
panelists and serving order was balanced so that each sample was tested in each station. Panelists
were asked to rate samples for appearance, flavor and texture on a 9-point hedonic scale (1 =
dislike extremely and 9 = like extremely). A line for comments was provided after each question.
Fresh fruit were analyzed for soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA). Fruit were
analyzed for surface color using a colorimeter (Konica Minolta Sensing, Inc., Japan), and
firmness using a penetrometer (Instron, Model 4411, Canton, Mass.).

Description

'Florida Elyana' is a short-day cultivar. It is smaller and has a lower stature plant than
'Strawberry Festival'. This habit, along with fruit that are attached to long pedicels, makes the
fruit easy to harvest (Fig. 1). 'Florida Elyana' produces larger fruit than 'Strawberry Festival'.
It has a mean fruit weight in west central Florida of between 24 and 27 g, compared to between
17 and 21 g for 'Strawberry Festival' (Tables 1 and 2). Fruit are mostly medium-conic to
wedge-shaped, with the wedge-shaped fruit often showing a longitudinal crease on the broad
sides of the fruit (Fig. 2). 'Florida Elyana' fruit are quite susceptible to surface cracking, which
is due to exposure to free moisture. Thus we are not recommending this cultivar for open-field
culture where there is a high likelihood of multiple rain or dew events during the fruiting season.
External fruit color is a bright red, and internal color is carmine pink. The calyx is generally
medium in size and attractive. Fruit texture is firm (Table 3), and the flavor is usually sweet with
a pleasant aroma. The soluble solids content of 'Florida Elyana' fruit is as high as or higher than
that of 'Strawberry Festival' (Table 4), and its SSC/TA ratio is consistently higher than that of
'Strawberry Festival'.

Performance

'Florida Elyana' is as productive as 'Strawberry Festival' in December and January, but not as
productive later in the season (Tables 1 and 2). This could be due to the fact that 'Florida
Elyana' plants stay relatively small throughout the season, whereas 'Strawberry Festival' plants
are more vigorous in terms of producing new branch crowns. However, in a high tunnel trial at
the Gulf Coast Research and Education Center in the 2006-07 season, total season yield for
'Florida Elyana' was not significantly different from that of 'Strawberry Festival'. Growers may
be able to increase the productivity of 'Florida Elyana' on a per unit area basis by planting this
cultivar at a higher than standard density. 'Florida Elyana' is moderately resistant to the two
most serious disease problems on strawberry in Florida: Botrytis fruit rot (caused by Botrytis
cinerea [de Bary] Whetzel) and anthracnose fruit rot (caused by Colletotrichum acutatum
Simm.). In an unsprayed trial during the 2007-08 season, only 3% of the 'Florida Elyana' fruit
harvested from mid-February to mid-March showed symptoms of anthracnose fruit rot,
compared to 53% for 'Treasure', the susceptible control. 'Florida Elyana' also appears to have
resistance to wilts which are most likely caused by C. gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. and Sacc.
and Phytophthora spp. In summary, 'Florida Elyana' is recommended for winter and spring
production areas where strawberries are grown in tunnels or greenhouses.









Availability


Information on nurseries licensed to propagate 'Florida Elyana' can be obtained from the
Florida Foundation Seed Producers, Inc. (http://ffsp.net).


Fig. 1. Plants of 'Florida Elyana' strawberry in Spain. Photo by: Craig Chandler, GCREC.



Table 1. Performance of strawberry cultivars at Dover, Fla. during the 2004-05 season in
open-field culture.
Marketable fruit yield
Cultivars December January February March Total (g/
(g/fruit)
(g/plant)
Florida Elyana 76 ay 108 b 178 a 353 a 715 a 27.1 a
Strawberry Festival 37 b 144 a 155 b 592 a 928 b 20.6 b
ZMean fruit weight was determined by dividing total marketable fruit yield per plot by total
marketable fruit number per plot.
YMeans based on four replications of 10 plants each. Mean separation within columns by
Fisher's protected LSD test, P < 0.05.


T


. .7- 1.~ ~i









Table 2. Performance of strawberry cultivars at Dover, Fla. during the 2006-07 season in
high-tunnel culture.
Marketable fruit yield
Cultivars December January February March Total (g/
(g/fruit)
(g/plant)
Florida Elyana 46 ay 99 a 159 b 322 b 626 b 24.4 a
Strawberry Festival 65 a 94 a 218 a 459 a 836 a 17.3 b
zMean fruit weight was determined by dividing total marketable fruit yield per plot by total
marketable fruit number per plot.
YMeans based on four replications of 10 plants each. Mean separation within columns by
Fisher's protected LSD test, P < 0.05.


Table 3. Mean acceptance scores (9-point hedonic scale) for appearance, texture, and flavor
of 'Florida Elyana' and 'Strawberry Festival' strawberry evaluated over two harvest
seasons.
Feb. 06 Mar. 06 Jan. 07 Feb. 07 Mar. 07
Appearance
Florida Elyana 6.6 bz 7.5 a 5.9 a 6.4 b 6.0 a
Strawberry Festival 7.8 a 6.8 b 6.2 a 7.2 a 6.3 a
Texture
Florida Elyana 7.4 a 7.1 a 6.9 a 6.9 a 6.2 a
Strawberry Festival 7.5 a 6.6 a 6.4 a 6.8 a 6.2 a
Flavor
Florida Elyana 7.3 a 7.0 a 6.5 a 6.7 a 6.2 a
Strawberry Festival 7.3 a 6.2 b 5.9 b 6.9 a 5.1 b
zMean separation within columns by Fisher's protected LSD test, P < 0.05.



Table 4. Soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA) of 'Florida Elyana' and
'Strawberry Festival' strawberry evaluated over two harvest seasons.
Feb. 06 Mar. 06 Jan. 07 Feb. 07 Mar. 07
SSC (Brix)
Florida Elyana 10.2 az 8.2 a 7.7 a 9.6 a 7.3 a
Strawberry Festival 7.5 b 7.5 b 6.9 b 9.8 a 6.2 b
TA (%)
Florida Elyana 0.82 a 0.58 a 0.78 b 0.71 b 0.69 a
Strawberry Festival 0.75 b 0.63 a 0.91 a 0.87 a 0.73 a
zMean separation within columns by Fisher's protected LSD test, P < 0.05.































Fig. 2. Fruit of 'Florida Elyana' strawberry. Photo by: Bielinski Santos, GCREC.




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