Title: Vegetarian
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 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: October 2000
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00432
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Vegetarian Newsletter

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication
University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Cooperative Extension Service
Vegetarian 00-10
October 2000

"Index Page


-Adobe Acrobat

VEGETABLE CROPS CALENDAR

COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

Hydroponics and Organic Herb Production

Soil Extraction Procedures for Florida Organic Soils: A Brief History

Considerations for Weed Management in Florida

74 VEGETABLE GARDENING

Scoring Table for a Largest-Vegetable Contest

List of Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

(Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever possible, please
give credit to the authors. The purpose of trade names in this publication is solely for the
purpose of providing information and does not necessarily constitute a recommendation of
the product.)



.II ,,' ... IIii ,



Leadership in Vegetables (LIV) South Florida (southern region FL 107) -
November 2, 10:00 AM 4:00 PM, Immokalee, FL. Contact Charlie Vavrina at


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941-658-3400.


U N iVTRSTITY (.'f

FLORIDA


Ililll. ll- :I F:: f iillt Ai I':uilljial S.-i'-h:-':
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The II: ils Fl: nia T-:Ia..:1i aid Ej.1 il: ii Center Suwannee Valley will celebrate its 50" Anniversay o:
Octol-t 1--4 -I :1::1 1 at ur-I J t- t h ru tie Research Center faculty and staff in this celebration of "O :ial
of agricultural research and extension work serving the Suwannee Valley Area. The Center currently ha
several active programs to meet the commercial agricultural needs of the region. In addition to serving;
commercial producers in the region, the Center has popular ei'n-l:s-ul c-:iasnm- to support count
faculty in the areas of tl la.-i -lardener training, Family & Consumer programs, 4-H and youth tours an
education. There is something for everyone at the North Fl:aii r:-l:1i: and Education Center
Suwannee Valley 50" Anniversary Celebration.
S/ Agenda
C: 1:11:1 a iii -1 1I) pm: School Tours

S'::' F III -41'11: pm: Grower Tours
_: "" "- ;4 -l:I Fi _':I pmr: Official Ceremony
".::I F '-' -:i: pm: BBQ Dinner &
-.- ... i .. ._.- a tL F in I .- Activities


Gio'wei Tomus
1. Fid Vegetabe & Fuit Crop T' ads
Specialty crops, paper mulches, collard
varieties, strawberry early season production,
nitrate management and -'Vtii qualit,-
update, fruit crops for North Florida.
2. Gt vi. i.:c- OutdoorHydroponie Production
Production inside greenhouses, under
shade structures, and open air, bag
:iil' :1a1II :1 .l-t11: vertical production
of herbs and other specialty crops, cut
flowers, tomato varieties, cucumbers
and peppers.
3. FoistryProduction 6 Profit
Discussion of forestry research trials at
NFREC-SV, pine species, marketing
timber, pine straw management, weed
C : lil l li -lI L l,," II -. 'L'. lh -Ill ill


Evening Family Events
1. Family & Consuewr Prcgrnns
:F : i li- FI-Il t : Ii- Tible Food Preparation
-'i -iLc tlu.IIL r..4r" forHerbs", "Th Graft
Pu mpkin", "Br hte.nUp Your Mals with
Colofid Peypss".
2. YouthActieitis
Pumpkin Decorating Contest Face Painting,
Maneuvering the Corn Maze, Pumpkin Pickin'
Hayt lu 1: lii, FlI-I
3. Famy Horticdtui
Tours of the Center's Program for the Family,
"Do it '.-:.-t1L"T Home Hydroponics
Demonstrations, Floating Gardens.


-f- '<4 ';'?*--'*^


Cal (90q) 362-1725 to PFSVP il. COLLober 20, 2nor
: i 1ii-rii -A- ill it i hl-: requiring special accommodations, please call(904)362-1725 by
October 20, 2000 so that proper consideration may e given to the request F I I-Ei IL. 1 l II- -.iu or
speech impairment, use the TDD FloridaRelay Service at 1-800-55-771.



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Hydroponics and Organic Herb Production


The term hydroponics is generally used to describe any of several methods of growing
plants without soil. A number of packaged hydroponic systems are available for use in
commercial production or by hobbyists. These systems are variously referred to as
water culture, gravel or sand culture, soilless culture, bag culture, solution or liquid
culture, nutri-culture, the nutrient film technique (NFT), and float systems.

Today hydroponic systems are widely used throughout the world by gardeners,
researchers, and commercial producers. In fact, we have about 850 acres of
hydroponic vegetables produced in the US today, mostly in greenhouses. Florida has
about 75-80 acres of vegetables being produced in greenhouse hydroponic systems.
Primary crops in Florida include: colored bell pepper, tomato, European cucumber, and
lettuce. Other specialty crops are also produced including: strawberry, herbs, specialty
greens, and edible flowers.

The primary production system used by growers in Florida is lay-flat bag culture with
perlite or rockwool as the soilless media. This system is popular for tomato, cucumber,
and pepper. Nutrient film technique and floating systems are popular for bibb lettuce
and herbs.

Vertical hydroponic systems such as Verti-Gro, Verzontal, or vertical bag culture
may also be quite useful to increase plant populations in limited and valuable
greenhouse space.

Trials have also been conducted at the NFREC-Suwannee Valley near Live Oak, FL to
develop a hydroponic system that utilizes organic nutrient programs. This organic
project has been successful in the vertical culture of hers and leafy green vegetables.

(Robert Hochmuth, Multi Co. Agt. NFREC-Suwannee Valley, Vegetarian 00-10)


Soil Extraction Procedures for Florida Organic Soils:
A Brief History


The Everglades Soil Testing Laboratory (ESTL) is located at the Everglades Research
and Education Center in Belle Glade, FL. The ESTL is one of two University of Florida
soil testing laboratories, and represents an important historic interface between the
University of Florida/IFAS and the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) grower
community. The primary mission of the ESTL is to quantify soil-test nutrients and
provide growers crop-specific fertilizer recommendations based on crop response field
research. Historically, the ESTL has offered calibrated soil-test P and K
recommendations based on in-house developed extraction procedures for a variety of
crops including sugarcane, leafy vegetables, celery, radish, and sweet corn.

Current P fertilizer recommendations for vegetables (Hochmuth et al., 1994, 1996) and
sugarcane (Gascho and Kidder, 1979; Sanchez, 1990) are based on water extractable
soil-test P levels. This P w protocol was originally developed for vegetable crop
commodities and has been in use since the mid-1940s. The procedure is detailed in
Thomas (1965), who attributes the water extraction procedure to earlier soil chemistry
work by Forsee (1945a). During the early 1940s, Forsee conducted studies that
focused on the merits of three extractants, including carbonic acid, 0.5N acetic acid,
and distilled water. Based on the assessment of the correlation between soil-test P


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levels with celery tissue P concentrations, acetic acid extractions were found
unreliable, particularly across soils of varying pH. Conclusions favored the use of either
carbonic acid or water since resulting soil-test P values correlated best with P uptake
during celery growth (Forsee, 1945b). Ultimately, the Pw was adopted since extractions
with water were cheaper to conduct than with carbonic acid (Forsee and Erwin, 1947).

In theory, water extraction provides a good estimate of quickly solubilized soil P
(intensity factor; readily available for plant growth over the short term), which suggests
that the Pw protocol is appropriate for assessing P requirements for short-season
vegetable crops. Measuring only the intensity factor appears less appropriate for
projecting nutrient needs for longer-term agronomic crops such as sugarcane. This
issue has stimulated an interest in alternative soil extraction procedures. Sanchez and
Burdine (1987) stressed the need to investigate new extractants that were less
sensitive to soil pH and P-buffering capacities while providing improved estimates of
soil Fe-, Al-, and Ca-P fractions (labile or quantity factor; readily available for plant
growth over the longer term).

Using lettuce as a test crop, Sanchez and Hanlon (1990) evaluated six extractants
including water (Pw), sodium bicarbonate, Mehlich-1 (M-1), Mehlich-3 (M-3), and two
organic agents, ethylene-diamine-tetraaceticacid (EDTA) and ammonium
bicarbonate-diethylene-triamine-pentaaceticacid (AB-DTPA). In fact, none produced
superior correlations to lettuce responses relative to the water extraction. The M-1
extractant has been used by the University of Florida Analytical Research Laboratory
(Gainesville) since the late-1970s (Hanlon et al., 1990). However, the M-1 did not
perform well on EAA organic soils with a wide pH range (Sanchez and Hanlon, 1990).
An important factor to consider is that the underlying limestone bedrock in the EAA
contributes carbonates into the soil profile which are moved to the soil surface through
subsurface irrigation practices. Acids that comprise the M-1 extractant (HCI and
H2SO4) can be partially neutralized by soil carbonates, which may reduce the chemical
effectiveness of the extractant. On acidic (pH=5) Florida organic soils, the M-1
accurately predicted lettuce responses (Diaz et al., 1988).

Although the sodium bicarbonate, EDTA, and AB-DTPA extractants generally correlate
well with crop responses on calcareous soils in the western USA, they appeared
unsuitable for EAA organic soils, despite the presence of carbonates (Sanchez and
Hanlon, 1990). However, the authors suggested that procedural difficulties encountered
during their study may have undermined the effectiveness of the organic extractants.
The M-3 showed promise as an alternative extractant and additional research was
recommended for all crops produced on Florida organic soils. The M-3 has several
advantages over water. First, the M-3 is a "universal" extractant (routinely used to
determine soil-test P, K, Ca, Mg, and micronutrient levels), and second, the M-3
generates a wider soil-test P range than that produced by water.

The soil-testing laboratory at the U.S. Sugar Corporation (Clewiston, FL) adopted the
Bray extraction in 1958 to assess soil P levels for sugarcane grown in the EAA
(Andreis and McCray, 1998). The Bray was selected over a water-based extraction
since Bray soil-test P levels reflected a higher percentage of the acid-soluble and
adsorbed P fractions present in the soil. The reasonable assumption is that over time,
these P species will become available to the long-season sugarcane crop. Korndorfer
et al. (1995) investigated several extractants for sugarcane, including M-1, acetic acid,
and water. Soil-test P levels produced from acetic acid (P a) and M-1 were 7.2 and 4.3
times greater than soil-test P levels. Another way to interpret this is that the P w range
(0-8 mg P/L) was compressed relative to the M-1 (1-24 mg P/L) and Pa (6-39 mg P/L)
ranges. The authors favored continued investigations with the Pa extractant since its
extraction behavior may be less affected by the presence of free carbonates and high
organic soil pH buffering capacities than for P and M-1 extractants.


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Based on a collective assessment of sugarcane fertility research from 1968 through
1990, the Pa extractant was more correlated to biomass and sugar yields than were P
and M-1 (Korndorfer et al., 1995). Because acetic acid is a more aggressive extractant
than water, resulting Pa soil-test levels should reflect an estimate of the quickly
solubilized soil P (intensity factor) as well as an estimate of labile P that would
presumably become available over time.

This brief history may help put the current situation into perspective. Since the early
1940s, the ESTL has used water to assess soil-test P levels in organic soils. It's
pretty safe to claim that very few soil-testing laboratories across the USA routinely
employ water as an extractant. Currently, all P fertilizer recommendations for
sugarcane and vegetable crops grown on organic soils are based on the Pw extraction.
In response to grower interest in more aggressive soil P extractions, the ESTL began
offering an acetic acid (Pa) extraction in the late 1980s. Although significant efforts
have been undertaken to calibrate the Pa for sugarcane, the current status of this work
is uncertain. None-the-less, many growers continue to request Pa and likely use it to
some degree to determine P fertilizer application rates.

In recent years, the importance of the ESTL mission has increased markedly due to
the EAA Regulatory Program which requires growers (by 1995) to adopt comprehensive
soil testing as a BMP for determining P fertilizer application rates. The current situation
finds growers compelled to provide regulators documented evidence of soil testing
conducted prior to fertilizer application. Combined with today's deadline-driven
agricultural marketplace, a premium is now placed on rapid turnaround time for soil-test
results. Slow sample turnaround time has been a limitation for the ESTL. The in-house
developed Pw and Pa procedures include a 20-hour overnight soaking step followed by
a 50-minute end-over-end tumbling event on a home-made spinning device. Clearly,
efficient extraction procedures (M-1, M-3, or Bray) requiring a simple 5-minute shaking
event are viewed favorably by growers needing quick results.

The current situation finds growers submitting soil samples with increasing frequency
to private soil-testing labs. Consequently, many growers are receiving soil-test values
produced by a variety of extraction procedures, the most popular including the M-1,
M-3, Bray, and sodium bicarbonate (which uses a 30-minute shaking event).
Additionally, the habit of splitting soil samples across different soil-testing labs
(including the ESTL) as a "cross-reference" strategy can raise more questions than
answers since soil-test P levels differ according to the extraction method and different
labs typically return different P fertilizer recommendations. A philosophical problem is
also raised in that private labs do not necessarily offer calibrated soil-test fertilizer
recommendations based on rigorous crop response studies conducted on EAA organic
soils.

To what extent soil-test P levels produced by different extraction procedures correlate
with one another is not clear, particularly for the high-pH organic soils of the EAA. An
investigation is currently underway to compare and contrast soil-test P values
produced by 9 different extraction procedures (Pw, Pa, modified Pa, M-1, M-3, Bray,
calcium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and AB-DTPA). This work is being conducted on
13 soils collected from different geographic regions of the EAA. These representative
soil samples are also being used in a second study which seeks to quantify the effect
that shorter soaking and/or tumbling times have on soil-test P w, Pa, and K levels.
Results of these comparative studies will be reported in future Vegetarian articles.

References

Andreis, H.J., and J.M. McCray. 1998. Phosphorus soil test calibration for sugarcane


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grown on Everglades Histosols. Comm. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 29:741-754.

Diaz, O.A., E.A. Hanlon, G.J. Hochmuth, and J.M. White. 1988. Phosphorus and
potassium nutrition of lettuce on a Florida muck. Proc. Soil Crop Sci. Soc. Fla.
47:36-41.

Forsee, W.T., Jr. 1945a. Application of rapid methods of laboratory analysis to
Everglades soils. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. Fla. 7:75-81.

Forsee, W.T., Jr. 1945b. Soil investigations. Fla. Agric. Exp. Sta. Annual Report,
1945. 199-202.

Forsee, W.T., Jr. 1950. The place of soil and tissue testing in evaluating fertility levels
under Everglades conditions. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. 15:297-299.

Forsee, W.T., Jr. and T.C. Erwin. 1947. Soil investigations. Fla. Agric. Exp. Sta.
Annual Report, 1947. 183-184.

Gascho, G.J., and G. Kidder. 1979. Responses to phosphorus and potassium and
recommendations for sugarcane in south Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 809.

Hanlon, E.A., G. Kidder, and B.L. McNeal. 1990. Soil-test interpretations and
recommendations. Fla. Coop. Ext. Serv. No. 817.

Hochmuth, G., E. Hanlon, R. Nagata, G. Snyder, and T. Schueneman. 1994.
Fertilization recommendations for crisphead lettuce grown on organic soils in Florida.
Univ. of Fla. Coop. Exp. Sta. Bull. SP-153.

Hochmuth, G., E. Hanlon, G. Snyder, R. Nagata, and T. Schueneman. 1996.
Fertilization of sweet corn, celery, romaine, escarole, endive, and radish on organic
soils in Florida. Univ. of Fla. Coop. Exp. Sta. Bull. 313.

Korndorfer, G.H., D.L. Anderson, K.M. Portier, and E.A. Hanlon. 1995. Phosphorus soil
test correlation to sugarcane grown on Histosols in the Everglades. Soil Sci. Soc. Am.
J. 59:1655-1661.

Sanchez, C.A. 1990. Soil testing and fertilization recommendations from crop
production on organic soils in Florida. University of Florida Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 876.

Sanchez, C.A., and H.W. Burdine. 1987. Relationship between soil-test P and K levels
and lettuce yield on Everglades Histosols. Proc. Soil Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 47:52-56.

Sanchez, C.A., and E.A. Hanlon. 1990. Evaluation of selected phosphorus soil tests
for lettuce on Histosols. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 21:1199-1215.

Thomas, F.H. 1965. Sampling and methods used for analysis of soil in the Soil Testing
Laboratory of the Everglades Experiment Stations. Everglades Station Mimeo Report
EES 65-18.

(Rice, Vegetarian 00-10)


Considerations for Weed Management in Florida


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Methyl bromide has been used for soil fumigation under polyethylene mulch in Florida
since the early 1970s. Other than weed control in mulched middles, there has not been
a need nor an interest in screening nor labeling herbicides for annual strawberry
production as found in Florida and California for over 20 years.

The announcement of the phase out of methyl bromide did generate activity in both
Florida and California in looking for potential herbicides for use in a methyl bromide
alternative situation. Pre-transplant herbicide screens were carried out several years
(Stall, et.al., Proc. Fla. State Hort Soc., 1995) and several candidate herbicides were
sent to IR-4 from Florida and California for tolerance establishment. Unfortunately,
most of these were dropped from consideration due to lack of support by the
manufacturers.

The lack of manufacturer support in establishing or labeling herbicides for strawberry
production is due to the high monetary liability from a very small acreage where sales
would be minimal and to the history of grower litigation. There are herbicides labeled in
other states, but not in Florida due to these factors.

Consideration 1. For herbicides to be labeled for use on Florida strawberries, the
industry should formally mobilize to establish third-party registrations.

The Florida Strawberry Grower's Association could obtain these labels, but TPR Inc.
with the Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association already is established and has
obtained third-party registrations of pesticides on other vegetable crops. To do this,
they will need backing and support from the strawberry industry as a whole.

Pretransplant herbicides
At the present time, there are no herbicides labeled for application under the mulch,
pre-emergent to the weeds and pretransplant to the strawberries. Devrinol is labeled,
but at the present time, the label states it must be applied postransplant. United
Phosphorus, who now holds the label, is in the process of changing the labeling.

Dupont is also considering changing the labeling of Sinbar from matted-row
strawberries to include annual production practices that include application under
mulch.

The major weed competition to strawberries will come from weeds emerging through
the plant hole. PRE herbicides will be leached away from the plant hole due to the plant
establishment overhead irrigation practices now used. The use of PRE herbicides is
useless unless these practices change.

Consideration 2. Begin implementing low volume irrigation methodology for
transplant establishment.

Postemergent herbicides
There are now no postemergent herbicides labeled in Florida. Due to the long growing
season, hard seeded winter annuals are likely to emerge and grow through the plant
holes after the preemergent herbicides lose their effectiveness mid-to-late season.
Screening tests for POST herbicides are continuing at the University of Florida. A large
number of potential herbicides have been eliminated due to unacceptable phytotoxicity
to the strawberry foliage and blooms. Unfortunately, we haven't found one singular
material that will control all of the winter annuals that may be a problem. Several of the
candidate herbicides tested are designated "reduced risk" by EPA. The rates will be
very low, such as 0.25 oz/A. The tolerances between where the weeds are controlled
and where strawberries will be damaged is not large either.

Consideration 3. Proper calibration and application will be extremely important.


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The timing between application and harvest for potential fruit residue will have to be
examined. Unfortunately, residue testing is very expensive. A number of candidate
herbicides will have to be tested if one is to be labeled.

OFF Season Control
A factor that can help reduce pest problems in the crop is the use of several
techniques to control or reduce the pests during the off season. This can be
accomplished several ways, including fallowing, using proper cover crops, etc.

With the use of alternative fumigants, a waiting period from application to transplanting
must be accomplished to allow the fumigant(s) to dissipate from the soil. There is a
Goal + Roundup label for stale seed-bed application. The label states application of
this treatment must be 30 days before transplanting. At the present time, this is
probably too long to be useful, but possibly the pre-transplant period can be reduced.

These are but a few of the considerations that must be faced when methyl bromide is
no longer available. Unfortunately, time is running out.

Those of us at the University of Florida are actively working to identify not only
herbicides, but all other pest control methods and materials that can be used in
strawberries. Unfortunately, we can only do so much.

Consideration 4. Obtaining and keeping pest control materials for use in
strawberry production in Florida is a condition of grower control and function.

(Stall, Vegetarian 00-10)



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Scoring Table for a Largest-Vegetable Contest


Many Extension workers and others may someday want to hold a contest for gardeners
who think they have grown the biggest vegetable. Agricultural fairs are the usual places
to conduct such events. The most popular event held annually in Florida is the South
Florida Fair Contest in West Palm Beach.

Please do not confuse these contests with the record-keeping I do on the state's
largest vegetables ever grown. There is no competition in the latter just a way of
recording achievements (see Table 2).

To conduct a contest, you will need a good set of scales. Most specimens brought in
will weigh between 1 and 50 pounds, although occasionally, someone will bring in a
larger pumpkin or watermelon. You can cut these into parts and weigh the parts, or find
a larger scale.

First, make sure the specimen is trimmed according to the rules in Table 1. If not
trimmed properly, you may have to trim it yourself.


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Second, weigh the specimen, and convert to ounces.

Third, using Table 1, multiply the weight in ounces by the number of points given per
ounce. Table 1 is calibrated so that different kinds may be compared, i.e. a tomato
versus a pumpkin.

For example, a person brings in a tomato that weighs 2 pounds (32 ounces) while
someone else has a 32 ounce summer radish. Which one wins? Just follow Table 1.
The tomato wins because it generates 2.1 points per ounce (for a score of 67.2) as
compared with the radish's 1.7 points per ounce (for a score of 54.4).


Table 1. Revised Scoring
Florida.


Vegetable


Supersize
(Ibs)


Beet 8.0

Boniata 12.0

Broccoli 5.0

Cabbage 20.0

Calabaza 30

Carrot 3.0

Cassava 10.0

Cauliflower 15.0


Corn, sweet 3.0


Cucumber 4.0

Celery 4.0

Eggplant 4.5

Garlic 2.0

Gourds 30

Jicama 20

Kohlrabi 20

Lettuce 3.5

Malanga 30


Table for Big Vegetable Contests in


Pont Per


Points Per
Ounce

0.8

.5

1.3

0.3

0.2

2.0

0.6

0.4


2.0


1.6

1.6

1.4

3.1

0.2

0.3

0.3

1.8

0.2


Trimming


Trim stems and tap root to 1"

No multiple roots

Trim stalk to 1"

Trim stalk to 1"

Trim stalk to 2"

Trim leaves to 1"

No multiple roots

Trim stalk to 1"

Un-shucked and trim stalk to
1"

No stem

Trim stalk to 1"

Trim stem to 1"

Trim roots and top to 1"

Trim stem to 1"

Trim stem to 2"

Trim root and leaf stems to 1"

Trim base to 1"

Trim base even-no leaves


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20


luth/vegetarian.htm

0.3

0.6

12..5

1.8

6.3

2.1


Muskmelon


Squash, winter 60 0.1 Trim stem to 1"

Squash, Zucchini 12 0.5 Trim stem to 1"

Tomato 3 2.1 Trim stem to 1"

Turnip 15 0.4 Trim leaves and tap root to 1"

Watermelon 60 0.1 Trim stem to 1"

Winter melon 60 0.1 Trim stem to 1"

Yam, true 12 0.5 One continuous tuber


(Note: For any vegetable achieving a score of 100 +, check to see if it is a state
record.) For contests, weigh vegetable, convert to ounces, and multiply by
points/ounce. High score wins!



Table 2. Florida Record-size Vegetables (through 10-00).


Vegetable


Variety


91/2
Bean, Lima Pole


Beet Detroit Red 8 lb. 1
oz.


Boniata


12 Ib. 10
oz.

Page 10


County


St. Lucie


Duval


Seminole


Grower


Walter


Lewis


Phillips


Date


04\12\95


05\30\98


03\05\91


Phone


407-335-


904-725-


904-297-


Mustard 10

Okra 0.5

Onion 3.5

Pepper 1.0

Potato, Irish 3.0


Potato, sweet 30


Pumpkin 300

Radish, summer 3.5

Radish, winter 20

Rutabaga 20

Squash, summer 6


Trim stem to 1"

Trim stalk to 1"

Trim stem to 1"

Trim top and roots to 1"

Trim stem to 1"

No multiple tubers

No multiple roots (boniatas
separate)

Trim stem to 2"

Trim stems and tap root to 1"

Trim stems and tap root to 1"

Trim leaves and tap root to 1"

Trim stem to 1"








http://peaches/hochmuth/vegetarian.htm


5 lb. 4
Broccoli 5b.4
oz.


Cabbage Early Round 20 lb. 9
Cabbage Dutch oz.


29 Ib. 8
Cantaloupe Colossal
oz.

3 Ib. 1
Carrot Chantenay 3 lb 1
oz.


Cassava unknown 11 b. 6
oz.

15 lb. 6
Cauliflower 15 lb6
oz.


1 Ib. 3
Chicory Magdeburg l
oz.

13ft. 3
Collard Georgia t.


Corn, sweet Skyscraper 3 Ibs

Cucumber ur4 lb. 7
(wt) Burpless .
(wt) oz.

Cucumber
(leng) Burpless 27 in.


Armenian Japanese 30in.


4 Ib. 8
Eggplant Black Beauty 4 8
oz.

1 Ib. 8
Garlic Elephant 1 lb
oz.

Field's
Gourd' 55 Ibs.
Common


Gourd, 61.5"
cucuzzi


11 Ibs. 2
Honeydew Tam-dew s
oz.


21 lb. 8
Jicama
oz.


Kohlrabi 9 lb. 8
oz.

Grand 58 oz.
Lettuce 58 oz.
Rapids
II II I


Suwannee



St. Johns



Levy



Pinellas



Palm Beach



Alachua



Alachua



Leon


Suwannee


Suwannee



Suwannee



Escambia



Palm Beach



St. Johns



Suwannee



Hernando



Escambia



Palm Beach



Duval


Graham



Worley



Bumgardner



Nehls



Carta



Severino



Lazin



Kelso


Graham


Graham



Graham



Harrison



Laluppa


Hester



Graham



Pizzino



Harrison



Oppe


Faustini


Suwannee Graham


II II


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Page 11








http://peaches/hochmuth/vegetarian.htm


Malanga


unknown


29 Ib. 15
oz.


Melon, 80 Ibs.
winter 13 oz.


Mustard Fadla
Broadleaf 15 oz.

Okra, pod 8 oz.
(wt)

Okra, pod 22 1/4 in
(length)


Okra, stalk a Green 19' 10%"
Velvet


Onion Granob. 11
oz.


Pepper Experimental 1 lb. 1
Hy. oz.

2 Ib. 13
Potato, irish Frito #92
oz.


Potato, 30 Ib. 3
sweet oz.


Pumpkin Dill's Atlantic
Pumpkin Giant 517 Giant


Radish, S. Red 3 lb. 12
Summer oz.


Radish, W. -25 Ib.

23 Ib. 5
Radish, W. Daikon
oz.


Rutabaga 22 Ibs.

Squash, LaPrima 36 Ibs. 8
calabaza oz.

Squash, 131lb.
hub. 12 oz.

Squash, 47 Ib.
banana

Squash, 23 Ib. 12
butternut oz.

Squash, 3 Ib. 12
scal. oz.

Squash, 47 Ib. 9
spaghetti oz.


Palm Beach



Palm Beach


Palm Beach



Suwannee


Suwannee



Flagler


Manatee



Palm Beach


St. Johns



Seminole


Manatee



Palm Beach


Hillsborough


Alachua


Lake


Seminole



Santa Rosa


Putnam



Santa Rosa


Nassau



Duval


Ozaki



Yee



Sedgwick


Graham


Graham



Mikulka


Geraldson



Amestoy


Kight


Williams


Canniff



Vanderlaan


Breslow


Neilson


Salter


Chitty



Bynum


Bryant



Bynum


Home



Beck


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10\27\94


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02\02\90


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07\15\00



01\31\90


1977


03\28\92


11\19\93


08\16\91



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Page 12







http://peaches/hochmuth/vegetarian.htm


Squash,
zucchini


Park's Black


14 Ib. 10
oz.


Squash, YSN 6 lb. 2
summer oz.

Taro 8 oz.

Tomato Delicious 3 Ib.

18 Ib. 4
Turnip Just Right 18 lb
oz.


Watermelon arolina 205 b.
Cross


Yam (True) 12 lb. 15
oz.

Yardlong 52
Bean inches


Nassau


Lynch


Escambia Harrison


Palm Beach Oppe


Marion


Union


Levy


Spangler


Clyatt


Bumgardner


Palm Beach Oppe


Orange


Yoganand


(Stephens, Vegetarian, 00-10)


Extension Veaetable Crons Snecialists


Daniel J. Cantliffe
Professor and Chairman, Horticultural
Sciences Department
Timothy E. Crocker
Professor, deciduous fruits and nuts,
strawberry
John Duval
Assistant Professor, strawberry
Chad Hutchinson
Assistant Professor, vegetable production
Elizabeth M. Lamb
Assistant Professor, production

Yuncong Li
Assistant Professor, soils

Donald N. Maynard
Professor, varieties

Stephen M. Olson
Professor, small farms


Mark A. Ritenour
Assistant Professor, postharvest


Ronald W. Rice
Assistant Professor, nutrition

Steven A. Sargent
Professor, postharvest
Eric Simonne
Assistant Professor, vegetable nutrition
William M. Stall
Professor, weed control
James M. Stephens
Professor and editor, vegetable
gardening
Charles S. Vavrina
Associate Professor, transplants
James M. White
Associate Professor, organic farming


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