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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: March 2000
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Volume ID: VID00425
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Vegetarian Newsletter

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Cooperative Extension Service
c,


Vegetarian 00-03

March 2000

Adobe Acrobat .pdf

(Back to Index Page)


VEGETABLE CROPS CALENDAR

COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES


Southwest Florida Pest and Disease Hotline
* Improving Soil Enzyme Activity with Organic Amendments
Fall 1999 Tomato Variety Evaluation


........................................








SDow Showcases New Telone Application Riq


VEGETABLE GARDENING

Kinds and Varieties of Southern Pea, Vigna unguiculata

Note:





Vegetable Crops Calendar

Small Farm Conference & Trade Show 2000, Free and Open to the Public,
April 1, 2000, 8:30am 3:30pm at the Volusia County Fairgrounds, Deland,
Florida. Contact Richard Tyson at 407-665-5554 for more information.

Master Composter Program, March 28-May 3, ELC Wabasso/Indian River
County. Contact Doug Kutz 407-633-1702 in Brevard County or Dan Culbert 561-
770-5030 in Indian River County for more information.

Vegetable Agents 2000 In-Service Training, April 24-26, Indian River
Research & Education Center. Contact Betsy Lamb at SunCom 240-3922 for
more information.


Commercial Vegetables


Southwest Florida Pest and Disease Hotline
ATT sponsors the National Association of County Agriculture Agents
Communications Awards program. Agriculture agents are asked to submit
samples of their work to be shared with other across the nation. I was recently
privileged to review one of the entries in this year's competition that will be of
interest to vegetable growers in Florida. Hendry County Extension Agent Gene
McAvoy produces a newsletter for growers and makes it available via e-mail and
the Internet. Readers can view current and past issues on Gene's website
Published bi-weekly by the Hendry County Extension Office since 1998, 27
issues have been produced to date. The concerns of the SW Florida Vegetable
Advisory Committee showed a need for a timely updates on pest and disease
problems. This newsletter provides growers and other industry personnel with
dependable and timely information on the occurrence, incidence, trends, and
severity of various vegetable pests and diseases occurring in SW Florida. It is a









collaborative effort from some 20-30 growers and scouts, the UF/IFAS SWFREC
Diagnostic Clinic in Immokalee, IFAS and industry vegetable specialists, and
Gene's personal field observations. Included are pertinent weather information,
IPM tips and information, updates on pest control products and regulatory issues.
A typical edition varies between 6 and 8 pages.

The SW Florida Pest and Disease Hotline has been well received by the industry
and local growers. It is currently sent to 697 individuals by e-mail (190), fax (129),
and surface mail (378). The majority of the subscribers are located in SW Florida
but it also goes to research and industry subscribers through out the south east
and mid Atlantic states. There are even a handful of subscribers in places as far
as Canada, Jamaica, California and Hawaii.

The Hotline received support from contributions from 22 vegetable industry
sponsors in 1999. It has been critically acclaimed by area growers and others in
the vegetable industry. Comments from readers include:

"Accurate and current information is the best defense against
insects and disease."

"I read it and have all our supervisors read it."

"Something like this has been needed for a long time."

"It gets passed around to everyone in the office the day it comes
in."

"The hotline helps me see the big picture and not just what's
happening in my fields."

It has also made it on UF/IFAS Florida Pest Alert, the USDA IPM Newsletters
website and has also been cited in the Illinois Fruit and Vegetable News as a
useful reference and is regularly quoted in local and regional trade journals.
Great job Gene and good luck with the NACAA competition!

(Dan Culbert, Indian River County Ext. Dir., Vegetarian 00-03)


Improving Soil Enzyme Activity with Organic
Amendments
Soil enzyme activity is considered to be an integral index of soil quality or 'health'
in terms of sustainable land management and crop production. Soil enzyme
activities are generally stimulated in land applications of organic soil
amendments. For example, land application of municipal solid waste, animal
manures and crop residues significantly increased the activity of a wide range of
soil enzymes. Although these organic amendments contain enzymes, the










increase in activity in soils amended with organic residues likely is due to
the stimulation of microbial activity rather than to the direct addition of
enzymes from the organic sources.


Soil hydrolases, which include dehydrogenase, urease, phosphatase, and
glucosidase are the most important soil enzymes from the standard point of
evaluating soil quality and crop production. Dehydrogenase catalyzes
dehydrogenation or oxidation of soil organic matter and its activity is considered
to be an important microbial indicator of soil quality. Urease hydrolyzes organic
nitrogen compounds and produce ammonia. Phosphatases catalyze the
hydrolysis of organic phosphorus compounds to phosphate which can be taken
up by plants. Glucosidases or glycoside hydrolases are enzymes that catalyze
the hydrolysis of different glycosides. The hydrolysis products of 3-glucosidase
are believed to be important energy sources for microorganisms in soils.


In order to examine effects of soil amendments on soil enzyme activities and
their seasonal variation, recently, we conducted a field experiment and laboratory
evaluation. Three organic amendments used in this experiment were: Co-
compost (CCM), clean organic waste compost (COW), and composted biosolids
(BBS). We measured soil hydrolase activities dehydrogenasee, urease,
pyrophohphatase, 3-glucosidase). Results showed that the four enzyme activities
were positively affected by addition of these three composts to soils (See figures
1, 2, 3, & 4 below). The CCM treatment significantly increased all enzyme
activities except pyrophosphatase. The four enzyme activities amended with
BBS and COW were stimulated to modest levels, and these decayed slowly
during the 110 d period. In plots treated with inorganic fertilizer the lowest soil
enzyme activities except that of pyrophosphatase were stimulated. The levels of
most of the stimulated enzyme activities resulting from addition of organic
residues began to decline about one month after soil amendment. However, 3-
glucosidase in CCM amended soil remained 5-7 times higher over the entire
110d experimental period than in other treatments.

Figure 1




120
....-.... CCM
100 T -- BBS
-A- COW
S8' --- INF (control)
Ss80 -



t2 0 -
%I-
:g 60 ...........
) tLL
o 402 ...



0 -


0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Days after application














Figure 2


0 20 40 60 80 100
Days after application


Figure 3


I I I I I I
0 20 40 60 80 100
Days after application


-,*, CCM
--- BBS
-A- COW
-v- INF (control)


*. --- CCM
-m- BBS
-A- COW
-V- INF (control)


I










Figure 4


4 -



3 IN..(con


-cu 2





0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Days after application



(Li, Vegetarian 03-00)


Fall 1999 Tomato Variety Evaluation

Twenty-eight fresh market tomato varieties or advanced experimental hybrids
were evaluated in a replicated yield trial at the Gulf Coast Research and
Education Center-Bradenton in west-central Florida in the fall 1999 season.

Production Practices

Seeds were sown on 12-14 July into planter flats (1.5 x 1.5 x 2.5-inch cells)
containing a commercial mix of vermiculite, Canadian sphagnum peat and poly
beads and then covered with a layer of coarse vermiculite and germinated in a
greenhouse. Plants were conditioned before transplanting by limiting water and
nutrients in the final phase of production.

The EauGallie fine sand was prepared in early August. Beds were formed and
fumigated with methylbromide:chloropicrin, 67:33 at 2.3 lb/100 Ibf. Banded
fertilizer was applied in shallow grooves on the bed shoulders at 2.34-0-3.25 Ib
N-P205-K20/100 Ibf after the beds were pressed and before the white on black
polyethylene mulch was applied. The total fertilizer applied was equivalent to









203-0-283 Ib N-P205-K20/A. The final beds were 32 in. wide and 8 in. high, and
were spaced on 5 ft centers with six beds between seepage irrigation/drainage
ditches which were on 41 ft centers.

Transplants were set in the field on 23 August and spaced 24 in. apart in single
rows down the center of each bed. Transplants were immediately drenched with
water containing the recommended rate of imidacloprid for silverleaf whitefly
control. Four replications of 10 plants per entry were arranged in a randomized
complete block design. Plants were lightly pruned, staked and tied.

Plants were scouted for pests throughout the season. Lepidopterous larvae,
leafminers and silverleaf whitefly were the primary insects found. Bacillus
thuringiensis, methomyl, spinosad, buprofezin, endosulfan, and pyriproxyfen
were used according to label instructions to control insect pest populations during
the season. A preventative spray program using maneb, copper hydroxide, and
chlorothalonil was followed for control of plant pathogens. Tomato yellow leaf curl
virus affected plants were removed and disposed of early in the season, but were
allowed to remain after the second tie.

Fruit were harvested at or beyond the mature-green stage on 17 and 30
November and 14 December. Tomatoes were graded as cull or marketable by
U.S. Standards for Grades of Fresh Tomatoes and marketable fruit were sized by
machine. Both cull and marketable fruit were counted and weighed.

Results

Seasonal yields from three harvests ranged from 1294 cartons/acre for SBT
5011 to 2648 cartons/acre for Fla. 7885 (Table 1). Nine other entries had similar
yields to those of Fla. 7885. All entries produced yields exceeding the 1106
cartons/acre state average yield for fall 1997-98 and exceeded yields obtained at
this location in recent fall seasons.

Yields of extra large fruit varied from 629 cartons/acre for SBT 5011 to 1835
cartons/acre for Fla. 7816. Eight other entries had extra large fruit yields similar
to those of Fla. 7816. Large fruit yields of fresh market types ranged from 405
cartons/acre for 'BHN 190' to 872 cartons/acre for HA-3048. Average fruit
weight for fresh market types varied from 5.4 oz for HA-3017 A to 6.9 oz for Fla.
7816. Cull fruit by weight ranged from a low of 12% for Fla. 7816 to 32% for HA-
3044. The incidence of plants infected with tomato yellow leaf curl virus varied
from 0 for HA-3017 B, HA-3048, 'Sanibel,' HA-3017 A, and HA-3044 to 40% for
SBT 6682.

Overall, total marketable yields surpassed those obtained at this location in
recent fall seasons. In fall 1999, yields ranged from about 1300 cartons/acre to
more than 2600 cartons/acre. The proportion of extra-large fruit varied from less
than 50% to over 75% for the entire season.









The University of Florida experimental hybrids Fla. 7885, Fla. 7921, Fla. 7816;
and 'BHN 273,' and HA 3017 B were outstanding performers in the fall 1999
replicated trial.

Those readers needing more information can request a detailed report from the
author at DNMA()qnv.ifas.ufl.edu.











Table 1. Total marketable yields, average marketable fruit weight, and cull percentages for fresh market tomato
entries in spring 1999. (Harvest Dates: 17 and 30 November, 14 December, 1999).

Total Harvest

Culls Avg Fruit TYLCVx
Entry Source Total X-Large Large Medium
(%)Y Wt (oz) (%)
------------- ---------(cartons/A)z----

Fla 7885 GCREC 2648 a" 1661 a-c 789 ab 198 b-e 6.2 d-f 17 e-i 5 ab
Fla 7921 GCREC 2445 ab 1704ab 596 b-f 144 b-g 6.3 de 17 e-i 3b

BHN 273 RBHN 2422 a-c 1567 a-e 631 b-e 224 ab 6.3 c-e 17 e-i 15 ab
Research
Fla 7816 GCREC 2419 a-c 1835 a 481 c-f 103 fg 6.9 a 12 i 5 ab
HA-3017B Hazera 2390 a-d 1498 a-e 698 a-c 195 b-f 6.3 c-e 18 d-l 0 b
Equinox Agrisales 2338 a-c 1617 a-d 593 b-f 128 c-g 6.4 c-e 14 g-i 15 ab
Solar Set Asgrow 2308 a-d 1708 ab 480 c-f 119 c-g 6.6 a-c 14 hi 3b
HA-3048 Hazera 2190 a-e 1029f-j 872 a 289 a 5.4 j 22 b-h 0 b
Sanibel Petoseed 2164 a-f 1479 a-e 577 c-f 108 e-g 6.4 d-e 16 f-i 0 b
Florida 47 Asgrow 2161 a-g 1537 a-e 526 c-f 98 g 6.5 c-d 14 g-i 13 ab










Sun
asen Petoseed 2072 b-h 1228 d-h 640 b-e 203 b-d 5.8 g-j 18d-i 25 ab
Chaser
BHN
BHN 190 Re h 2052 b-h 1541 a-e 405 f 105 fg 6.8 ab 20 c-i 5 ab
Research
Agriset 761 Agrisales 1992 b-i 1292 c-g 567 c-f 133 c-g 6.1 d-g 19 d-i 3 b
Florida 91 Asgrow 1977 b-i 1349 b-f 451 d-f 132 c-g 6.5 b-d 19 d-i 13ab
RFT6153 Novartis 1936 b-i 1211 e-i 598 b-f 128 c-g 6.1 d-g 17 e-i 3 b
Sunbeam Asgrow 1934 b-i 1393 b-f 429 ef 112 d-g 6.5 b-d 20 c-i 23 ab

BHN 329 RBHN 1906 c-i 1289 c-g 494 c-f 123 c-g 6.3 c-e 19 c-i 23 ab
Research

BHN 153 BHN 1883 d-j 1255 d-h 521 c-f 107 e-g 6.1 d-g 23 b-g 10 b
Research
HA-3017A Hazera 1763 e-k 887 h-k 666 b-d 210 a-c 5.4 j 26 a-d 15 ab
RFT 8332 Novartis 1744 e-k 1070f-j 541 c-f 132 c-g 6.0 e-g 23 b-g 0 b

Hybrid 882 Petoseed 1654f-k 2.81 29 ab 23 ab
ASX 9100 Agrisales 1644 g-k 978 g-k 514 c-f 153 b-g 5.8 f-j 24 a-f 30 ab
Solimar Asgrow 1634 h-k 968 g-k 503 c-f 163 b-g 6.0 e-h 20 c-1 15 ab
SBT6682 Sunseeds 1505 i-k 847 i-k 511 c-f 146 b-g 5.8 f-i 16 f-i 40 ab
HA-3044 Hazera 1492 i-k 835 i-k 474 d-f 184 b-g 5.6 ij 32 a 0 b











SBT 5659 Sunseeds 1383jk 729jk 445 d-f 209 a-c 5.6 h-j 28 a-c 23 ab

Flavor
Harris
More 223 a 1368k 3.2k 31 ab 28 ab
Moran 3.2
2222223

SBT 5011 Sunseeds 1294 k 629 k 473 d-f 193 b-f 5.5 ij 26 a-e 30 b

z Carton = 25 Ibs. Acre = 8712 Ibf. Grading belt hole sizes: X-Large = no belt, greater than 2.75": Large = 2.75"; Medium = 2.5"; and Cull = 2.25".
Y By weight.
xTomato yellow leaf curl virus.
WMean separation in columns by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.
(Maynard, Vegetarian 00-03)









Dow Showcases New Telone Application Rig

Dow Chemical Company recently unveiled a new application rig for broadcasting
Telone with demonstrations in Gainesville, Palmetto, and Immokalee. The rig
itself is the brainchild of John Mirusso, who fabricated specially designed colters
to place the Telone a full 12 inches below the ground (Fig. la and 1b). This depth
actually places the fumigant where no fumigant has gone before! Additionally,
this depth of placement so adequately seals the Telone and chloropicrin in, that it
cannot be detected by the human nose.

The new rig uses a series of 30-inch vertical colters placed one foot apart to
knife-in the Telone C-35 while simultaneously broadcasting Tillam. The
equipment offers several advantages, including:

The fumigant is knifed-in to a depth of 12 inches and stays on
target, minimizing potential exposure and maximizing effectiveness.
The broadcast nature of the application is helpful in several ways.
First, as a one-person operation, it eliminates many of the worker
protection concerns by utilizing a single tractor operator for
application. Bedding and other associated operations are done
after the REI has elapsed, alleviating the need for multiple people in
the field and greatly reducing potential exposure to pesticides.

The full broadcast application, including ditches and drive middles,
can all but eliminate mid-season intrusion of diseases and
nematodes, since these source areas will have been treated too.
Most growers in attendance felt the broadcast application would be
too expensive. However, Dow AgroSciences claims the cost is in
line with the current price of methyl bromide applied in the bed.

The use of colters enables the rig to cut through string and plastic
that often impede operations.

The rig can be constructed in any width required depending on
grower preference. The components are constructed in one-foot
increments at a cost of approximately $1,150 per foot.

Lastly, fumigation can be done well in advance of planting,
eliminating potential bottlenecks in the field from multiple tasks.

Although the rig is designed for a once-over application including the Telone and
Tillam, the consensus among the growers was that the Tillam might best be
applied toward the end of the Telone re-entry period to help aerate the soil and
provide the longest-lasting weed control. It was also believed that a light disc
would provide for a better incorporation of the Tillam than the S-tines on the rig









(Fig. 2). Tillam is best used in conjunction with mechanical transplanting
equipment. If plants are to be set by hand, workers must be provided with
waterproof, chemical-resistant gloves (Category A). The REI on Tillam is 12
hours. However, according to Zeneca's Tillam label, tomatoes should not be
transplanted before 21 days.

Telone C 35 has surfaced as the best, readily available alternative to methyl
bromide at the present time. The 35% chloropicrin is included in the mixture for
additional disease control. Methyl bromide users are no strangers to chloropicrin.
It should be noted, however, that 35% chloropicrin will require more time
(approximately 21 days) to vacate the soil than growers remember with the 2%
product found in the old methyl bromide.

The rig impressed those in attendance and persuaded many attendees to think
more seriously about the coming loss of methyl bromide. Although projections
are for a total phase out of methyl bromide by 2005, most growers feel it will be
almost impossible to obtain by fall 2001. For more information on Telone, contact
Jerry Nance, Telone Specialist, Dow AgroSciences (863-293-4224); for
specification on the application rig, contact John Mirusso (561-251-5187).

Figure la. Telone/Tillam application rig, featuring 30" colters.

S --
1HP


Figure lb. Telone/Tillam application rig, featuring 30" colters.








Figure 2. S-tines for Tillam incorporation.


(McAvoy, Hendry County Extension, and Vavrina, Vegetarian 00-03)


Vegetable Gardening


Kinds and Varieties of Southern Pea, Vigna
unguiculata

There is a lot of confusion surrounding the classification of types of southern
peas. Even the name of the crop has several synonyms. The preferred name is
southern pea. Other common names are: cowpea, edible cowpea, field pea,
black-eye, and table pea.

There are kinds and types of southern pea, and within them, numerous named
varieties (cultivars) as well as an un-known number of named and unnamed
strains. People save their own seeds, then rename them, and pass them on to
others as something new. The true varietal identity soon becomes lost within a
maze of new local nomenclature.

Several years ago, horticulturists attempted to classify some fifty or so of the
most common varieties and strains of the day. Each one was shown to be a little
different from the others in horticultural characteristics, and not merely in name.
Since that time, many new varieties have been added, primarily through the
efforts of plant breeders, particularly in the south.

Groups. The following groupings are suggested as a way to classify these
various kinds and varieties of southern pea. Gardeners should be able to fit their
own seed-stock of question into one of these groups.









With the exception of the Purple Hull Group, classification is based primarily on
a) seed and seed-eye coloring; b) the spacing of seed within the pod; and c)
plant growth habit. Our groupings are based on a) and b), but not c).
Varieties with seeds that are so closely spaced that the seed ends are pressed
against each other are referred to as Crowders.

Seed color varies, but is either concentrated around the seed-eye hilumm) or is
general all over the seed coat. Any amount of seed color causes darkening of the
"pot liquor" and the cooked seeds. Those varieties having no seed color are
called cream peas. Most of the creams are loosely spaced, but some new cream
crowder varieties are now available.

The Purple Hull group includes those with any amount of purple on the pods,
although they might fit into other groups as well.

Obviously, some of these names are synonymous with names in other groups.

1. Blackeye group. Seeds that are usually not crowded in the pods are white
with dark black eyes. Examples: Bettergro Blackeye, Blackeye Pea, Blackeye
California, California Blackeye No.5, Early Blackeye, Ramshorn Blackeye, Royal
Blackeye, and Queen Anne.

2. Blackeye Crowder group. Similar to regular blackeye except seeds are
crowded in the pods. Examples: Alacrowder, Blackeye Crowder, and Blackeye
White Crowder.

3. Colored-eye group. Non-cream type with seed-eyes that have coloring other
than black, usually, brown, tan, or pink. Pods usually not crowded. Examples: Big
Boy, Alabunch, Alalong (Longhorn), Todd and Six-week Browneye.

4. Colored-eye Crowder group. Same as 3, except seeds are crowded.
Examples: Pinkeye Crowder, Browneye Crowder, White Pinkeye, Calico
(Hereford), Tennessee White Crowder, and Alabrowneye.

5. Black Crowder group. The seeds are solid black and crowded. Examples:
Black Crowder and Bisbee Black.

6. Brown Crowder group. Most crowders will fit into this group, and most all
brown seeded types fit here. Some seeds are tan colored. Examples: Brown
Crowder, Sugar Crowder, Silverskin Crowder, Alabama Crowder ( not the same
as Alacrowder), Mississippi Silverskin, Jackson 21, Dixie Lee, Producer, Calhoun
Crowder, and Colossus.

7. Speckled Crowder group. Speckled and mottled, often blue, seeds are
moderately crowded in pods. The group has the largest seeds of the southern










peas. Examples: Blue Goose (Gray Goose, Taylor), Whittle, Speckled Java, Gray
Crowder, Mayo Colima, and Calico Crowder (Hereford peas and Polecat peas).

8. Cream (Conch) group. Seeds are light green or white. Cooking water comes
bright and clear. Since most creams are uncrowded, most fit here. Examples:
Floricream, Sadandy, Cabbage (Bush White Acre), Running Acre (Running
Conch), Topset, Snapea, Climax, Bush Conch, White Acre, Terrace, Gentleman,
Texas Creams, Mississippi Cream, Mississippi Silver, and Elite.

9. Cream Crowder group. Similar to (8) above, but seeds crowded in the pods.
Examples: Zipper, Zipper Cream, Lady, Lady Cream, and Lady Finger (Rice or
Catjang).

10. Purple Hull group. Seed pods show some purple coloring, either entire or at
tip. Seeds may be crowded or not. Usually white seeds with buff, brown, or pink
eyes. Examples: Pinkeye Purple Hull, Purple Hull, Knuckle Purple Hull, Clemson
Purple, Herbken, Jackson Purple Hull, Dixie Queen, and Purple Tip Crowder.

11. Red-seeded group. Examples: Bisbee Red, Chinese Red Bean, and
Corrientes.

12. Field and forage group. These are grown primarily for forage cropping and
soil improvement, but are sometimes eaten as a table legume. Examples: Iron,
Clay, Whipporwill, Groit, Brabham, Victor, Arlington, Red Ripper, Columbia, and
Michigan Favorite.

(Stephens, Vegetarian 00-02)

Extension Veqetable Crops Specialists


Daniel J. Cantliffe
Professor and Chairman, Horticultural Sciences Department

Timothy E. Crocker

Professor, deciduous fruits and nuts, strawberry
John Duvall
Assistant Professor, strawberry
Betsy M. Lamb
Assistant Professor, production
Yuncong Li
Assistant Professor, soils
Donald N. Maynard
Professor, varieties
Stephen M. Olson
Professor, small farms


Mark A. Ritenour

Assistant Professor, postharvest

Ronald W. Rice
Assistant Professor, nutrition

Steven A. Sargent
Professor, postharvest
William M. Stall
Professor, weed control
James M. Stephens
Professor and Editor, vegetable gardening
Charles S. Vavrina
Associate Professor, transplants
James M. White
Associate Professor, organic farming











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