COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
STATE OF FLORIDA
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, AND COUNTY AGENT AND
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT Vegetable Crop Specialist HOE DEMONSTRATION WORK
OF AGRICULTURE, COOPERATING V E G E T A R IA N GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
No. 1 AUG 13 1952
MR. COUNTY AGENT:
The season's on us again! I'm telling you? One nice side to this Florida vege-
table game, you never have to wait for things o happen. Someone, somewhere, can
always be going full swing.
For many of you it's in order to call growers attention to the importance of
early soil preparation, selection of adapted varieties, insurance from seed treat-
ment, advantages of fertilizer placement.....
Others could best spend time on reminders of likely disease and insect problems,
advance notices on recommended controls, pesticide precautions....
Still others could combine hind-sight and foresight to point out values of ad-
vance marketing plans, harvesting equipment, containers, pH adjustment for spring
You might have to reverse your field, but in general if you keep your head up,
the field's wide open.
OUTLOOK FOR VEGETABLES, 1952-53:
Think you'd do well to watch for and use the report of the Florida Agricultural
Outlook Committee, July 1952, now on it's ay out. Part of it goes about like this:
"Continued high consumer purchasing power should result in a high national con-
sumption of quality Florida vegetables. In view of individual crop factors such as
competition from improved processed packs, increased production costs, availability
of labor, and rice fluctuations, the sub-committee reminds Florida vegetable growers
to market quality vegetables, to avoid excessive plantings, to be alert to current
marketing conditions, and to give attention to better distribution of plantings be-
tween fall, winter and spring.
"A reduction in the over-all acreage of about 8 percent is suggested. Adjust-
ments can best be made, not on an over-all basis, but with individual crops for each
season. Reductions of as much as 20 percent have been suggested or watermelons,
lima beans, and escarole, and reductions of 10 percent or less for tomatoes, snap
beans, sweet corn, celery, and cabbage. An increased production of more than 20
percent is suggested for cantaloupes and cauliflower and increases ranging from-2
to 10 percent are suggested for eggplant, cucumbers, strawberries, peppers, IrisE
potatoes, and squash."
PRODUCTION GUIDES: Extension Circulars 96-104
At the rate the first group went out of print some of you boys must be finding
a use for them! Anyway, as a progress report of a sort, the revisions on Sweet Pot-
ato and Watermelon were submitted for publication this week...also a new one cover-
ing Eggplant. O. K. so we've a long way to go, but we're pitching Asked for color
We know they're not perfect, so how's about getting in YOUR suggestions? You'll
probably be asked sooner or later, anyway.
AREA MEETINGS: that time again, too'
At your request we've started in on the area vegetable meetings circuit. Shoving-
off with-he Webster area's 3rd Annual on August 28th, 9:30 A.M. Start thinking about
your's. Put 'em on paper.
- 2 -
RESEARCH REVIEW: Central Florida Station, Sanford
It's our opinion that you'd profit from a review of the vegetable research
conducted from July 1, 1951 to June 30, 1952 in the various Experiment Stations
over the state...without waiting for the annual report to be published. O.K.,
the finger's on us so we'll take a swing at it.
We may as well be straight on one thing...if you're going to read the follow-
ing be certain you understand that these are notes based on the annual report
manuscript, they are generally only single tests at best, and are not intended to
be the complete picture or recommended practice.
The Central Florida Station staff is headed by Dr. R. W. Ruprecht, Vice-Dir-
ector in Charge, with Entomologist J. W. Wilson, Plant Pathologist George Swank,
Horticulturists P. J. Westgate and Ben F. Whitner, and Nematologists (USDA) J. R.
Christie and Vernon Perry.
Most of you understand the hours of work that go into these fine projects.
If we have not done justice to specific points, the researchers ILU let us know,
and we'll pass the information on to you.
Water Levels: A medium water leave o 16" below the soil surface outyielded
the high (T5 and low (26") levels in both fall and spring crops of Pascal celery.
Blackheart was present in the spring but not in the fall crop.
Broccoli Spacing: To avoid the high cost of harvesting broccoli side shoots,
the effect of plant spacing in the row was studied. The greatest number of heads
were obtained from 4" spacing, but individual heads were too small. The 12" spac-
ing produced heads about equal in size to 18" and 24" spacings, but the total
weight of broccoli harvested at 12" was in excess of the wider distances.
Varieties and Breding
Cantaloupe: Georgia 47 was superior in disease resistance, quality and yield.
Sanford No. 9 was second, but is still segregating. In observationals, Rio Sweet
and Louisiana 7-1 were best, producing well-netted melons of good flavor.
Some cross pollination was attempted with this crop in the hope of developing
a well-netted variety resistant to downy mildew and having a good taste.
Broccoli and Cauliflower: No variety outstanding.
Celery: On muck at Zellwood, Golden No. 14 was best, while on the sand Gold-
en No. 15 was best. In the Pascal varieties, Summer Pascal (FM) was best on muck,
while Summer Pascal P W (K) was best on the sand.
Cooperative work with Cornell to develop a blight resistant celery was continu-
ed. Emerson Pascal did not exhibit the tendency to go to seed as it did last year;
very little cold weather probably accounted for the low amount of bolting. Two
Golden varieties were found highly resistant to blight. One Pascal was considered
even better than Emerson Pascal.
Sweet Corn: Greatest differences were in earworm resistance. Gold Bond and
Hybri 3 produced ears too close to the ground. The variety showing the least
worm injury, N. K., was latest to mature and most ears were poorly filled. Golden
Security Red Tassel was among the best named varieties, having only light worm in-
Cucumber: Severe wind injury. V. Hybrid produced the highest yield of market-
able fruit. Palmetto produced the lowest yield.
Irish Potato: Red Warba produced the highest yield of No. 1 and total market-
able tberSs. Most of the varieties tested produced higher yields than Sebago.
English Pea: Dark Skinned Perfection produced highest yields.
Tomato: "More weather troubles. Fall crop destroyed and spring yields and siz(
cut. In spring, Big Boy produced the highest marketable yield and largest sized
fruit in both staked and unstaked plots. Stokesdale yielded second highest in
staked and third highest in unstaked. Both varieties outyielded Rutgers.
Fertilizers and Soils
Soil Conditioners: Krilium, asyntetic resin soil conditioner, did not in-
crease the yield of radishes nor the germination, growth or yield of beans on Leon
Yields: A maximum yield of marketable celery was obtained at 4 tons per acre
of a 5-85-fertilizer. Blackheart was limited to higher fertilizer levels.
In another celery experiment the all-mineral mixtures outyielded the regular
mixed fertilizer in the majority of cases. Ammonia nitrate, versus all nitrate
source, gave more favorable results than last year due to climatic conditions more
favorable for nitrification.
Copper Toxicity, Iron Chlorosis: Preliminary indications are that copper resi-
dues from years of boreaux sprays on celery and other crops have accumulated in toxic
amounts, especially in the surface layer of old celery fields in the Sanford area.
Iron chlorosis, stunting, and stubby roots are symptoms of copper toxicity. Celery
is more tolerant of copper in the soil than corn. Beans, squash, cabbage, cauliflo-
wer, beets, and undoubtedly other crops, are adversely affected by excessive amounts
of copper in the soil. Control measures are being investigated.
Iron chlorosis of numerous plants, one of the symptoms of copper toxicity,
may be overcome by spraying the leaves with a dilute solution of ferrous sulfate, or
by adding sequestrene NaFe to the soil. Ferric or ferrous sulfate added to the soil
around the roots of such chlorotic plants have not corrected the chlorosis.
Magnesium Deficiency: Magnesium deficiency of celery, characterized by inter-
veinal chlorosis of the older leaves, was corrected by addition of magnesium in the
fertilizer or by dolomitic limestone.
Celery showed less injury by nematodes than usual this past season while sweet
corn showed more. The lower incidence in celery may be due to more general use of
soil fumigation. Cooperative studies in the use of chemicals for nematode, fungi,
and weed control, have shown that methyl bromide is the most effective of any chemi-
cal treatment tried to date.
Studies on the build-up of nematodes in the soil showed that the stubby root
nematode increased in numbers rapidly, while the build-up of the sting and awl ne-
matodes was relatively slow.
Systemics: Two systemic insecticides were tested for the control of the cabbage
aphid, applied at three dosage levels in the transplant water and as foliage appli-
cations. Samples of the treated cabbage were submitted for residue analysis. Fur-
ther study is required before definite statements can be made concerning the practi-
cal use of these materials.
Red Spider Mite: A study of host plants, life history, habits and control mea-
sures of the red spder mite were conducted by John Patton, graduate assistant. Re-
sults are to be published elsewhere,
Corn Earworm: In the statewide cooperative project, mechanical problems of the
application of liquid insecticides for the control of the corn earworm were studied
at Sanford again this year. The highest percentage of worm-free ears was obtained
where 2 pounds of technical DDT' prepared as a 25% emulsifiable concentrate and 2.5
gallons of a 90 horticultural oil were applied per acre with one wide angle nozzle
on each side of the row. Where the same amount of DDT and oil were applied in 65,
100 and 125 gallons of spray per acre, differences were not significant.
Dilan and Compound 269 formulated as wettable pwders and emulsifiable concen-
trates, parathion and malathon as emulsifiable concentrates, were combined with fer-
bam, ziram, tribasic copper, sineb, mandate and SR-406 in a compatability test. The
SR-O06 used was difficult to get into suspension. The emulsifiable concentrate of
dilan did not mix satisfactorily with mandate. The emulsifiable concentrates of
Compound 269 and parathion did not mix satisfactorily with manzate and SR-406. The
omulsifiable concentrate of malathon mixed satisfactorily wdth all the fungicides ex-
No indication of plant injury was observed after five applications at seven-day
intervals of any of the mixtures. The addition of the insecticides did not appear to
interfere with the effectiveness of the fungicides.
Damp-off and Red Root: On mixing fungicides with the soil, the materials in
order of control were arasan SF, robertson cooper, spergon and mathieson 290. Dren-
ches of the soil with spergon, Z.a.c* and tersan gave no reduction in red root. Fumi-
gants rated in order of control of damp-off and red root were: methyl bromide, OS-1199,
chloropicrin, dichloropropene. CBP, applied in the row at seeding by the drip method
with dosages of .05, .1 and .2 ml per linear foot, inhibited germination of seed of
several crops in sandy soil but was only slightly phytotoxic to seed sown in acid
Methyl bromide was suggested for use on celery seedbeds in Central Florida at a
dosage level of 1 pound per 50 square feet.
Early Blight: Best control of early blight was generally in favor of the dithio-
carbamates containing zinc, iron or manganese salts, or a combination of a carbamate
and copper alternated weekly.
A combination of ziram and ferbam plus polyethylene polysulfide, and tri-
basic copper plus p.e.p.s., applied at 1, 2, and 3 week intervals, indicated a possi-
bility of lengthening the interval between spray applications for diseases.
There was no significant difference in blight control when three and five
nozsles per row were used. Fungicides applied with one nozzle per row did not control
Downy Mildew: The top five materials for spraying for control of downy mildew on
heading cabage included mandate, nabam, SR-406, Phygon XL and nabam. Of the dust
formulations used a 5% spergon and a 6% zineb dust at 30 pounds per acre gave best
For the control of downy mildew of cucumbers the best spray materials in-
cluded mandate, zineb, nabam and SR-406. Of the treatments for controlling downy mil-
dew of cantaloupes the outstanding one was a combination of nabam and tribasic copper;
mandate, nabam and zineb were also effective.
Pink Rot: Data indicated that plots sprayed with nabam, zineb, mandate, phygon
XL anRinab-aiialternated with tribasic copper had a significantly higher number of
diseased stalks than plots sprayed with coppers, siram, or ferbam.
Helminthosporium: Fungicides used in the statewide cooperative spray trials for
the control of H. turoicu did not effectively control the sweet corn disease. Adher-
ence to a definite spray schedule was thought to account for such a failure. Little
fungicidal residue remained on the foliage at times due to wash-off by rains. Since
no repeated attempt was made to provide a protective fungicidal cover the disease con-
tinued to advance. Two definite periods of infection were observed to be closely cor-
related with the rainfall.
There was no significant difference in yield or unfilled tips.
The addition of powdered milk (casein) to zineb-DDT emulsion mixture in-
creased the physical compatibility of the two materials.
I'd like your opinions if similar 'research reviews' on other Stations would be
useful. If not...well, like I said to begin with, the field's wide open.
So long again,