Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00411
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: May 1964
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00411
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
STATE OF FLORIDA
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SEnVIcE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA. AND Vegetable Crop Specialists COUNTY AGENT AND
UNITED STATE DEPARTMENT OF HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
AGRICULTURE. COOPERATING V T A R GAINESVILLE, FLORA



May, 1964

TO: COUNTY AGENTS, ASSOCIATES AND ASSISTANTS

NO: 64

IN THIS ISSUE

1. Classification of Vegetables
2. Carbamate Combinations for Disease Control
3. Potato Top Killing
4. Fertilizer and Salt Burn on Vegetables
5. Notes of Interest

Trade names used in this publication are not intended to be exclusive
and no discrimination or endorsement is implied.

1. Botanical Classification of Vegetables

(See sheet)

2. Carbamate Combinations for Disease Control

Recently several combinations of the carbamate fungicides have been marketed.
Some of these are purely physical mixtures of two or more of the commonly used
carbamates such as zineb, maneb combination or these two plus Ferbam or maneb and
zinc ion. The other combination is a chemically reacted combination forming an
entirely different end product. Any of these products may be as good as, or
superior to, the individual compounds applied separately. The mixtures may be
used on any crop for which all the individual ingredients have a label. The
chemically reacted products must have a specific label before use on a crop.
Examples: The products sold under the trade names of Dithane-M-22 Special or
Manzate D may be used on any crop where zineb or maneb has a label.

The product sold as Dithane M-45 which is a chemically reacted product
may not be used on crops other than those that have a specific label.
At this time, potatoes is the only vegetable crop on which it can be used.

3. Potato Top Killing

Each year we have inquiries about top killing of potatoes.

A. Methods
(1) Mechanical mowing or rotary beating is used to some extent.
Advantages are that no chemical residues remain and it removes
tall weeds and heavy growth. Disadvantages are the chain type beater
which does the best job but is slow and wear is excessive plants
tend to regrow and not die down. This perpetuates weed, insect and
disease problems. If the bed is too clean washing down and sunburn
becomes a problem.
(2) Flame
The use of oil and gas burners of several types have been used
with varied success. No chemical residues remain and with a second








burning all dead tops can be completely eliminated along with insects
and disease. Disadvantages are cost and improper equipment not giving
complete top kill once over. Too clean removal increases danger of beds
washing down and sunburn.

(3) Chemical
Several chemicals are used successfully for potato top killing;
however, because of problems with potential applicator hazard, chemical
residues on tubers and residues persisting in the soil with some chemi-
cals, the only one we recommend is DNBP or DNBP -+ DNAP mixture. The
most readily available formulation is the mixture sold as a 3 lb. per
gallon material under the trade name of Premerge or Sinox PE.
Spray at least 10 days before harvest with 2 to 3 quarts of 3 lb.
per gallon material per acre prepared as follows: Mix one pint of a
nonionic emulsifier in 5 gallons of fuel oil and emulsify in 35 gallons
of water then add the 2 to 3 quarts of DNBP with vigorous agitation and
spray at moderate pressure. Apply during warm sunny weather. Complete
coverage is essential.

4. Fertilizer and Salt Burn on Vegetables

In recent years more frequent and widespread instances of fertilizer burn
or salt injury either from fertilizer or from salty wells has occurred in
Florida. Many factors are involved including higher applications of fertilizer,
use of plastic mulch which reduces leaching, dry weather and salty water used
for irrigation.

The following are some questions and answers on salt tolerance as found in
U.S.D.A., ARS Information Bulletin No.205.

A. What is salt tolerance?
The degree to which a crop can produce a satisfactory yield under salty
conditions.

B. How does salt affect the growth of vegetables?
Primarily by decreasing the availability of water. In some cases nutri-
tional effects are involved. The saltier the soil, the less available is
water and more stunted the plants. These soluble salts that are usually
present include not only sodium and chloride, but calcium, magnesium,
potassium sulfate, bicarbonate, nitrate, and other ions. Other interference
involved are excess sulfate reducing calcium uptake by plants. Excess
calcium may reduce potassium uptake. Sodium causes poor physical condition,
such as reduced infiltration and aeration and severe crusting.
High salts speed up maturation of crops such as potatoes and delays
flowering in some such as sweet corn.

C. How much salt can vegetables tolerate?
Some can tolerate only 2 millimhos; others up to 8 millimhos (electrical
conductivity of the saturation extract of the soil)







SALT TOLERANCE OF VEGETABLES


Tolerant
8 millimhosl
Beets
Kale
Asparagus
Spinach











5 millimhos


Moderately Tolerant
5 millimhos


SLevels at which a definite


Tomato
Broccoli
Cabbage
Cauliflower
Lettuce
Sweet Corn
Potatoes
Sweet Potatoes
Pepper
Carrot
Onion
Peas
Squash
Cucumber
3 millimhos
but small reduction in yields


Climate as well
degree of tolerance


as variety and stage of development all enter in the
a crop may bear.


D. How can the salt hazard be minimized?
Use fertilizer in adequate but not excessive amounts. Place it where
it will not concentrate near or under plants.
Use tolerant varieties if available, use overhead irrigation particularly
on young crops.
Test wells and water source periodically for salt level.

5. Notes of Interest

You have probably heard that new processing methods plus resistant tobacco
varieties used today eliminate tobacco mosaic virus. Don't believe it. Dr.
M. K. Ccrbett, virologist at the University of Florida, bought tobacco products
at a local store and recovered infectious TMV from all types including snuff,
chewing, pipe and cigarette tobacco.

The new bacterial spot disease on watermelon has been found again this year
in Central Florida by Dr. Norman Schenck.

Remember the DARE Vegetable Conference at the University of Florida in
McCarty Hall on the 19th of May, starting at 1:15 p.m. and continuing through
the 20th. Contact your key vegetable people and send some and bring the rest.

Sincerely,


Mason E. Marvel j >-
Associate Vegetable CropsGJames Mo-nt
Specialist James Montelaro
Associate Vegetable Crops
Specialist


F. S. Jamison, Head
Vegetable Crops Department


MEM: et
Enclosure


- -


5 millimhos


Sensitive
3 millimhos
Radish
Celery
Beans
Strawberries











2 millimhos
may be expected.


!




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