Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00408
 Material Information
Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: October 1970
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00408
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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FLORID-- COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
." UNI\ER, OF FLORIDA
.-'- : INSTITUTE: OF POOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

V .._;,, :,.(' Crops Department






George A. Iarlowe, Jr. James Montelaro
Chairman Vegetable Crops Specialist

James M. Stephens
Assistant Vegetable Crops Specialist


October 28, 1970


TO; COUIPTY EXTE'SIOIT r.IThECTO.S AND VEGETABLE AGEIrTS

VEGETARIAN (90)

IN THIS ISSUE:

I. Red Spider lite Control on Eggplants
II. Looper Control in Vegetable Crops
III. Solution Testing for Hydroponics
IV. Bromine Injury on Potatoes
V. Market Potential for Additional Vegetable Crops in Florida

I. Red Spider Ilite Control on Eggplants

Tie have observed severe infestations of red spider mites on
eggplants in several locations in Florida this summer and fall. However,
many plantings were found to be almost completely free of red spider
mites. Apparently, success or failure in prevention of mite damage on
eggplant or any other crop is associated with methods employed by the
grower to control this pest.

It should be pointed out that spider mites multiply rapidly at
higher temperatures. Infestations appear to be most critical during
periods of hot, dry weather. Good red spider mite control is dependent
upon early detection and prevention of buildup of large populations.
By early detection, spider mites can be attacked when they are most
vumerable from the standpoint of age population numbers and amount of
webbing. Uith time populations build up rapidly and webbing becomes
so heavy that penetration with a good insecticide is almost impossible.
The recommended insecticides listed on page 17 of Extension Circular
193G should be applied in a large volume of water (100 to 200 gallons/A)
by a good, boom sprayer with adequate nozzles to get complete coverage
on both surfaces of the leaf.

II. Looper Control in Vegetable Crops

Cabbage looper is still one of the most serious problems in all
pest control facing the vegetable growers of Florida today. Many growers


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report only poor to fair control with the use of parathion + toxaphene
mixtures. More recently, the bacillus preparations (Bacillus
thuringiensis) have shown some degree of promise. In some cases, control
has been improved by using a mixture of parathionz-toxaphene + the
bacterial preparation (trade ncmes Biotral and Thuricide). Even this
has not solved the problems to the growers' general satisfaction.

Two developments in recent months might tend to help solve the
problem of looper control. One is the approval of a new insecticide,
methomyl (trade name Lannate), for use on a number of vegetable crops.
These include broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, sweet
corn, lettuce and tomatoes. Growers are advised to check the label
carefully.

The other development is the release of "Dipel," a Bacillus
preparation reportedly more effective than strains used previously.
From limited research work, which is available in Florida on this new
strain of Bacillus, indications are that it is very promising. Dipel
is manufactured by Abbott Laboratories and is to be marketed by a supply
dealer in Florida.

Manufacturers of the old strains of Bacillus are reportedly
working on improvement with their Bacillus preparations. They, too,
are expected to introduce new and better preparations.

III. Solution Testing for Hydroponics

Some of the techniques used in the Intensity and Balance
(I & B) method of soil testing have been applied to hydroponics with
good success. Until recently, determination of the amount and sources
of fertilizers for hydroponics has been on a hit and miss basis. This
is no longer true with the use of I and B.

It is a simple procedure to determine total soluble salts in a
hydroponic solution with a Solu-bridge. This gives a measure of the
total amount of fertilizer salts in the solution. He have found that
concentration can be stepped up to a higher level than was thought
necessary in the past. An average concentration of 2,000 ppm is con-
sidered to be a safe mid-point for vegetable crops. The more salt
tolerant crops like tomatoes can be raised to 2,500 ppm but for
susceptible crops such as the strawberry, the solution should be maintained
at about 1,500 ppm.

The solution can, also, be analyzed for determination of
balance" among some of the more important plant nutrients. This analysis
can be used to correct deficiencies or toxicities very simply by adding
or withholding the nutrients in question.

IV. Bromine Injury on Potatoes

Growers planning to fumigate for nematode control before plant-
ing potatoes should be cautioned to avoid fumigants containing bromine
such as EDB. Reportedly, EDB has been used at Homestead on the marl soil
without any injury resulting to the potato crop.






--3-


At Hastings, however, injury was observed in several potato
fields last season and in one field the previous year. EDB fumigated
plots were slow in emergence and yields were reduced significantly.
EDB is labelled for potatoes and can be used legally. It is possible
that potatoes in other areas of the state growing under different
climatic and soil conditions may not be injured. Nevertheless, we feel
growers should be warned of the potential dangers involved.

Materials that are approved for nematode control of potatoes
and shown to be safe are D--D, Vidden D, Telone and Vorlex.

V. Market Potential for Additional Vegetable Crops in Florida

On too many occasions, new vegetable growers attempt to establish
themselves in the business by producing the more common vegetables that
are presently grown in abundant supply in Florida. This market is
often glutted and competition for outlets is always keen.

"e have often advised that growers look at other crops that
might be produced and marketed at a profit. Those crops that are not
produced in sufficient supply to meet the needs of Florida fall in this
category. Examples of such crops are sweet potatoes, onions, broccoli,
cauliflower, etc. Some of these were quite important crops in Florida
in the past. Others have been tested adequately to assure us that they
can be grown economically.

A second category is the "speciality crops." These are the
many minor crops that are consumed by certain types of restaurants,
processors, ethnic groups, etc. Some examples of the speciality crops
are prepackaged, shelled table legumes and certain types and varieties
of vegetables used by Chinese, Italian, Cuban and other ethnic groups.
The marketing of these crops entails a search for the market outlet before
production is undertaken. This is, also, true for the first category
of groups discussed above. Growers should check market outlets to
determine what is needed, when it is needed most and how it should be
prepared for market.



Sincerely,




ames Montelaro
Professor (Vegetable Crops Specialist)




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