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Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: August 1976
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00400
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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I FAS


J. F. Kelly
Chairman


James Montelaro
Professor


J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor


R. K. Showalter
Professor


G. A. Marlowe, Jr.
Professor


TO: COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLES AND HORTICULTURE)
AND OTHERS INTERESTED IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA

FROM: James Montelaro, Extension Vegetable Specialist jLa.4 ./
/

VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 76-8


IN THIS ISSUE:

I. NOTES OF INTEREST


Vegetarian Newsletter Mailing List Update
Index for 1975-76 Vegetarian Newsletters
Florida State Horticultural Society Membership


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Fertilization and General Sequence of Operations Under Full-
Bed Plastic Mulch Culture*
B. Influence of Water pH on Effectiveness of Pesticides

III. VEGETABLE GARDENING


Timely Gardening Topics
Know Your Vegetables Snow Pea


NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever possible,
please give credit to the authors.

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS. STATE OF FLORIDA. IFAS, UNIVERSITY
OF FILOFRIDA. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS, COOPERATING


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

VEGETABLE CROPS DEPARTMENT

T kEGETIARIAi Newsletter



August 2, 1976







Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetarian Newsletter Mailing List Update

We are required by law to revise our mailing list annually. If you wish to
continue receiving the Vegetarian Newsletter, please fill out the enclosed form
(last page of this issue) and return it to us promptly. If we do not receive the
completed form from you by September 1, 1976, your name will be removed from our
mailing list. Please check to see if we have your correct mailing address.
(Montelaro)

B. Index for 1975-76 Vegetarian Newsletters

We consider our production season for vegetable crops in Florida to be from
July 1 to June 30. Annually, we prepare an index of our newsletter articles to cover
this period. It is enclosed as a separate report with this issue.

County Extension Agents wishing to maintain a reference file of Vegetarian
articles should bind issues for last season (July, 1975 through June, 1976) in a
folder together with this index. When needed, it is a simple matter to check each
annual folder for the articles desired. There are on file in our office indexes
for the 1971-72 through 1974-75, as well as a "catch-all" index for the more important
articles spanning from the early fifties to 1971. These are available upon request
from our office.
(Montelaro)

C. Florida State Horticultural Society Membership

Membership in the Florida State Horticultural Society is open to anyone involved
in horticulture. It is a non-profit association serving our vast horticulture in
many ways. It needs the support of all.

We urge you to join. The annual dues are minimal, but the benefits are many.
Send ten dollars ($10.00) to Florida State Horticultural Society, P. 0. Box 552, Lake
Alfred, Florida, 33850. Be sure to give your correct mailing address so that corres-
pondence and the annual proceedings may reach you promptly.

We, also, urge you to attend the annual meeting to be held November 2-5, 1976
in Miami Beach. There will be about 150 or more excellent papers presented on all
aspects of horticulture.
(Montelaro)

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Fertilization and General Sequence of Operations Under Full-Bed Plastic Mulch
Culture*

*This information is being published as Vegetable Crops Extension Report VC 9-
1976. A limited supply is available for distribution to the industry. Anyone wanting
a few copies may obtain them from our office.
Introduction
Full-bed plastic mulch culture is being used presently on about 40,000 acres
of strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, eggplant and other vegetable crops in Florida.
Under this system of culture, using conventional sub-surface or overhead irrigation,






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

the crop must be supplied with all of its soil requirements (lime, soil pesticides,
nutrients, etc.) before plastic mulch is applied. The reason for this is that it is
almost impossible to correct a soil problem after the plastic mulch is placed over
the bed. With drip (trickle) irrigation, certain modifications can be made in the
root environment not possible with sub-surface or overhead irrigation. These include
addition of fertilizer and other material after plastic mulch application. This
report presents a general sequence of operations which must be carried out properly
if the mulched crop is to succeed. Fertilization under full-bed mulch culture is
presented in this report since it is not covered adequately in other publications.
On the other hand, operations which are described elsewhere are given here, briefly,
only to stress the importance of sequence of operations.

Sequence of Operations

Following is a sequence of operations which may serve as a general guide to
growers using full-bed plastic mulch. Operations are grouped where it is felt that
growers may combine two or more to increase efficiency. Suggestions made here are
intended as guidelines to be modified as growers gain more experience.

A general sequence of operations for full-bed plastic mulch culture.

Step I
A. Land preparation
B. Development of drainage and irrigation systems
C. Liming soil (if needed)

Step II
A. Application of soil-incorporated fertilizer materials (if used)
B. Application of soil-incorporated insecticide (if used)

Step III
A. Preparation of rough beds
B. Application of soil-incorporated herbicide (if used)
C. Fumigation
D. Shaping and pressing of beds
E. Application of herbicide on bed surface (if one is to be used)
F. Application of mole cricket bait over bed surface
G. Application of remainder of fertilizer in a band or bands on bed
surface
H. Installation of drip irrigation system (if used)
I. Mulching

(Note--Operations "C' through "I" must be done in rapid sequence
to avoid loss of fumigant.)

Step IV
A. Maintenance of good soil moisture
B. Seeding or transplanting
C. Top water or overhead irrigation often in hot, dry weather to
reduce soluble salt injury

1. Micronutrients
On sandy soils planted for the first time, use 6 Ibs MaO, 4 lbs ZnO, 6 Ibs
Fe203, 4 Ibs CuO and 4 Ibs B203 per acre. Otherwise, use only one application annually






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

to maintain micronutrient supply in the soil. In limestone soils micronutrients
become unavailable rapidly. These soils require micronutrient application for each
crop. The micronutrients can be supplied from several forms including chelates,
fritted glass and inorganic salts and oxides.

2. Sources of N-P-K

A. Nitrogen At least 501 of total N should be in the nitrate form for soil
treated with multi-purpose fumigants. More ammonia-N and less nitrate-N may be used
where regular fumigants for control of nematodes are used. The remainder may be
obtained from ammonia-N and some urea and water-insoluble organic. The latter two
materials are not recommended generally under full-bed mulch because fumigated soils
retard nitrification.

Table I. Fertilizer Rates for 3 Irrigation Systems Under Full-Bed
Mulch Culture on Mineral Soils l)

Sandy Soils Limestone Soils(2)
Crop Total/lbs/A Total/Ibs/A
N-P205-K20 N-P205-K20

Tomato:
1. Ground crop 160-240-240 175-400-350
2. Trellised crop 240-240-360 ---
2-4 pick
3. Trellised crop 340-240-510 ---
5 or more picks
(Note--Where graywall and blotchy ripening are problems, increase
amount of K20 by one-third.)
Pepper:
1. Short-season crop 160-240-240 175-400-350
1 or 2 picks
2. Long-season crop 240-240-360 ---
3 or more picks
Eggplant:
1. Short-season crop 160-240-240 175-400-350
2 or 4 picks
2. Long-season crop 240-240-360 ---
5 or more picks
Cucumber and Squash 120-160-160 120-270-240
(1st crop)
Cantaloupe and 180-240-240
Watermelon
Lettuce and Endive 160-160-160 ---
Broccoli and Cauliflower 150-200-200 ---

Strawberry(3) 120-160-160 120-270-240

(1)The: rates suggested in this table are for soils low in residual
N-P205-K20. For soils with medium to high residual level of any
of these nutrients, the amount to be applied should be reduced
proportionately. For soils (excluding those under drip irrigation)
to be planted to a second crop on the same plastic mulched bed, rates
suggested in this table should be increased by 25% to insure adequate
nutrients for the second crop.






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

(2)On limestone soils, add 50 to 75 Ibs/acre of MgO for each crop.

(3)In areas where heavy overhead irrigation is used to start strawberry
plants, increase the amount suggested in this table by 20 to 25%.

B. Phosphorus Superphosphate and triple superphosphate are highly recom-
mended for a large part or all of the phosphorus needs under full-bed mulch culture.
Highly ammoniated superphosphate and di-ammonium phosphate can be used to supply
some of the phosphorus needs on sandy soils. Highly ammoniated superphosphate is
not recommended on the limestone soils.

C. Potassium All sources can be used. The chloride (muriate form) ion
contributes to soluble salt problems under full-bed mulch and for that reason should
be used sparingly, if at all, where soluble salt causes plant injury.

3. Liming, pH, Calcium and Magnesium

A. A pH level of 6.0 to 6.5 during the growing season is recommended for
vegetable crops. Fallow, unfertilized soils can drop as much as one pH unit after
fertilization. Compensate for this possible drop by liming properly. A KC1 pH test
should be used to more accurately anticipate pH drop.

B. Try to maintain a calcium:magnesium ratio of 5:1 to 8:1 in the sandy
soils.
C. Liming If pH is low and ratio of Ca:Mg is 5 (or less):1, use high
calcic lime. If pH is low and Ca:Mg ratio is 8 (or more):1, use dolomitic lime. If
pH is satisfactory and either Mg and/or Ca is low, they can be supplied in the
fertilizer mix from a number of sources.

D. There is no practical means of lowering pH in limestone soils.

4. Fertilizer Timing and Placement

A. Where sub-surface and overhead irrigation is used.

(1) Before bedding, broadcast and mix into soil the following:

(a) 400 to 500 lbs. of 4-8-8 or 5-10-10 (Note This amount
of fertilizer may be broadcast in a band 30 inches wide over the center of a false
bed and bedded over about 4 inches deep. It may also be broadcast over the finished
bed just prior to mulching.)
(b) All the micronutrients to be used.

(c) Remainder of P205.

(2) After bed is shaped and pressed, apply the remainder of nitrogen
and potash on the surface in a band or bands 8 or 9 inches from plants. Use 2 bands
on 1-row crops and 1 or 3 bands on 2-row crops.

B. Where drip irrigation is used.


(1) Broadcast and mix into soil before bedding the following:






THE \TECETARIAN NEWSI.LETER

(a) 50% of total N and K20 recommended
(b) All of P205 recommended
(c) All micronut rients recommended

(2) Apply remainder of total N and K20 recommended through the drip
system in incrienents daily to weekly as the crop develops. Increase amount applied
each time as crop develops need for more nutrients.

(3) Additional nutrients can be supplied through drip irrigation if
deficiencies occur.

Acknowledgments:

The author wishes to express his sincere appreciation to all faculty members
of IFAS who made this publication possible. Significant contributions were made by:

E. E. Albregts N. C. Hayslip
H. H. Brvan S. J. Locascio
G. W. Elmstrom P. G. North
P. H. Everett G. A. Marlowe
C. M. Geraldson W. 'M. Stall
(Montelaro)

B. Influence of Water pH on Effectiveness of Pesticides

During the past growing season, many vegetable growers felt that they were
not getting as good pest control from applied materials as they expected. One of the
first things one should check, of course, is the thoroLughness of the coverage. A
second and often over-looked factor is the stability of the pesticide (fungicide or
insecticide) in its relation to the pH of the water.

It is not uncommon for spray mixtures to stand overnight or even longer before
reagitation and use. During these hours of standing, many pesticides lose varying
degrees of effectiveness as a function of time, temperature, pH of solution, and
exposure to light and air.

This article is intended to point out that pesticides should be used as soon
as possible after mixing in the spray tank, and that the pH of the water used and
sensitivity of the pesticide should be known. Corrective procedures are available.

Some of the pH sensitivities of commonly used fungicides and insecticides in
Florida tomato production may be of interest. This information has been compiled
from the "Guide to Chemicals Used in Crop Protection," 5th Edition by E. Y. Spencer,
Publ. 1093, (anadian Department of Agriculture, and from Publ. 3005, "pH Effect on
Insecticides", Leffing.ell Chemical Company, 1976.

The pesticides in question were examined at various pH levels' for various
lengths of time and their effectiveness evaluated. From these studies half-life
determinations were made, similar to those stated for radio-isotopes. At a pH of 9.0,
carbaryl (Sevin) had a half-life hydrolyzedd 50%) in 24 hours; at pH 8.0 had a half-
life of 2-3 days; at pH 7.0 had a half-life of 24-30 days; and at pH 6.0 was still
5sn' effective at 100-150 days. Guthion had a half-life of 12 hours at a pH of 9.0,
whereas, half-life ratings of 10 days and 17 days were associated with pH conditions
of 7.0 and 5.0. Pesticides vary in their response to acid-base relationships,
therefore, it may be convenient to group them according to their relative sensitivity.




-7-


THE VEGETARIAN INEISLETTER

1. Sensitive to alkaline conditions

Benomyl (Benlate) Dimethoate (Cygon, De-Fend)
Dyrene Methomyl (Lannate, Nudrin)
Difolatan Carbaryl (Sevin)
Demeton (Systex) Naled (Dibrom)
Malathion

2. Sensitive to acidic conditions

Diazinon
Manbc-h (Manzate, Dithane M-22)

3. Most stable in neutral solutions

Mevinphos (Phosdrin)
Endosulfan (Thiodan)
Azinphosmethyl (Guthion)

(N(-TE: Adapted from publications referred to above.)

The decomposition is due to a reaction called hydrolysis in which the
pesticide is split by the water (in either acidic or alkaline conditions) and con-
verted to inactive forms.

Correction of pH in the spray tank should be considered if the spray water
is found to be questionable. This can be determined by a simple pH test using
commonly available kits. Materials like muriatic acid and phosphoric acid to lower
pH and household lye to raise pH, if needed, can be purchased locally. Only minute
quantities of these materials are needed to change pH. To determine the exact amount,
add the acid or base in small increments and test the water each time until the
desired pH (about 7.0) is reached.

Stability information is not always available on the pesticide label. Technical
information sheets on specific chemical and physical properties of pesticides can
be supplied by the manufacturers.
(Marlowe)

III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Timely Gardening Topics

These questions and answers are suggested for agents' use in developing
periodic (weekly) radio or newspaper briefs. They are based on letters of inquiry
from Florida gardeners.

(1) Timely Topic for Week of August 15-21

Question
Can I grow garlic down here in Florida?


Garlic is not well adapted to Florida's climatic conditions. As a cool-season
vegetable, it might be expected to do well here in the wintertime; however, the days
are too short in the winter for its best performance. Most cultivated garlic varieties






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

are "long-day" varieties. That is, they require 13 to 14 hours of daylight to form
the bulb. When grown in Florida during the time of year having these long days
(summer), it is too humid and warm. So, there is no good time for garlic this far
south. Early spring might be the best time for a trial planting since the days
are lengthening then without the severe heat and rainfall of the summer.

(2) Timely Topic for Week of August 22-28

Question

This past spring my onions were oversized and split. How can I avoid this
next year?



Try closer spacing. For best bulb size, space seedlings 2 inches apart in
the row. A 4-inch spacing often results in oversized bulbs that tend to split and
rot. Also, a slight reduction in your fertilizer application should further reduce
the size. Should a cooler spring occur next year than last, a further reduction in
size should result.

(3) Timely Topic for Week of August 29-September 4

Question

I'm not having much luck with celery in my garden. What might I be doing
wrong?

Reply

Keep in mind that celery is a cool-season crop requiring more soil moisture
than most vegetables. Seeds are sown shallow, very near the soil surface. Soil
moisture must be maintained at or very near the soil surface while the seeds are
sprouting. Furthermore, the seedlings must be shaded if grown before October in
Florida. Unless you are providing these conditions, chances are your efforts at
growing celery will meet with less than acceptable success.

(4) Timely Topic for Week of September 5-11

Question

Is lettuce a good crop for my Florida garden?

Reply

All four types of lettuce can be grown in all parts of the state with some
degree of success. The main types are crisphead, butterhead, leaf and romaine.
All are cool-season vegetables and grow best in the cooler months. Crisphead in
particular needs cool weather to produce a solid, firm head. Warm weather causes
toughness and bitterness, as well as the development of a seed stalk. The other
three types can tolerate warmer weather, such as would result with a spring planting.


(Stephens)






THE VEGERARIAN NBESLETTER


B. Know Your Vegetables Snow Pea

Snow Pea (Pisum sativum var. saccharatum) is also called edible podded pea,
sugar pea (U. S.), shi chia wan tou, also ta li wan tou (Mandarin), sic kap woon dou
(Cantonese), no laan tau (Hong Kong), Saya-endo (Japanese). Varieties of edible-
podded peas are snimlar to the garden pea in plant and growth characteristics, except
that the pods are flatter, broader, more fleshy and less fibrous than in garden peas.
The terminal leaflet is tipped with a tendril. The pods are tender at the immature
stage and not as fibrous as garden peas. The pods, including the immature seeds, are
eaten. They are harvested before the seeds start to accumulate much starch, and
are cooked much as snap beans. Its culture is similar to that for English peas. For
best results, sow seeds in cool season of year in Florida. However, the snow pea has
wider adaptation and does better under higher temperatur-es than the garden pea. For
example, it is commonly grown in the lowlands of the Philippines. Some is grown in
Mexico during the winter for export to the U. S. In California, snow pea is grown
all year in San Luis Obispo County. The major states in which it is grown are:
California--over 700 acres; New Jersey--small plantings; Hawaii--10 acres; Florida--
grown by a few producers of oriental vegetables and a few home gardeners.


(Stephens)




-10-


August, 1976


VEGETARIAN MAILING LIST UPDATE FORM


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Dr. James Montelaro
Professor (Extension Vegetable Specialist)
3026 McCarty Hall
Vegetable Crops Department
University of Florida, IFAS
Gainesville, Florida 32611


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