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Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: May 1976
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00397
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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May 6, 1976







Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


J. F. Kelly
Chairman

S. R. Kostewicz
Assistant Professor


James Montelaro
Professor

R. K. Showalter
Professor


J. M. Stephens
Associate Professor

G. A. Marlowe, Jr.
Professor


TO: COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS AND AGENTS (VEGETABLES AND HORTICULTURE) AND
OTHERS INTERESTED IN VEGETABLE CROPS IN FLORIDA

FROM: James M. Stephens, Extension Vegetable Specialist n.^/(.


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 76-5


IN THIS ISSUE:

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops-Rural Development Publication Available
B. Miscellaneous Publications Available

II. COWMIRCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION


On-Farm Testing by Vegetable Growers
Some Ripening Characteristics of the 'Morgan' Melon


III. VEGETABLE GARDENING


Timely Gardening Topics
Know Your Vegetables Asparagus Bean


NOTE: Anyone
please


is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever
give credit to the authors.


possible,


t~i )PERATIVE E TINS'ION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS. UNIVERSITY
tf. FLORIDA U. G. IlPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS, COOPERATING


I L_%. I\ IL./f S-'. d .I L_ I k I I V L_-. L. I E
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

VEGETABLE CROPS DEPARTMENT

SC VEGETARIAN Newsletter






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops-Rural Development Publication Available

The first in a series of department reports summarizing research results from
our rural development efforts to date is available. The publication is: Seasonal
Response of Vegetable Crops for Selected Cultivars in North Florida. I. Legumes,
Vegetable Crops Research Report 1-1976, L. H. Halsey and S. R. Kostewicz. Agents
desiring copies of this report can write the authors in care of the Vegetable Crops
Department.
(Kostewicz)

B. Miscellaneous Publications Available

The Vegetable Crops Department has a limited supply of relatively old USDA
circulars. Although not suitable as handouts to the public due to out-of-date recom-
mendations, these circulars contain much useful reference material, information and
photographs. Those agents desiring a copy, please contact this office. Following
is a list of those on hand. Supply limited.

(1) Aphids on Leafy Vegetables--How to Control Them (Farmer's Bull. No. 2148)
(2) Growing Table Beets (Leaflet No. 360)
(3) Carrot Production in the United States (Ag. Handbook No. 375)
(4) An Illustrated Guide to the Identification of Some Market Disorders of
Head Lettuce (Marketing Research Report No. 950)
(5) Potato Packinghouses--Guidelines for Plant Layout (Marketing Research
Report No. 975)
(6) Growing Pumpkins and Squashes (Farmer's Bull. No. 2086)
(7) Strawberry Culture (Farmer's Bull. No. 1028)
(8) Strawberry Diseases (Farmer's Bull. No. 2140)
(9) Conmercial Growing of Sweet Corn (Farmer's Bull. No. 2042)
(10) Insects Affecting Sweetpotatoes (Ag. Handbook No. 329)
(11) Commercial Production of Tomatoes (Farmer's Bull. No. 2045)
(12) Production of Seedless Watermelons (Technical Bull. No. 1425)
(Kostewicz)

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. On-Farm Testing by Vegetable Growers

Many vegetable growers in Florida conduct various types of trials on their
farms each season. These trials may include simple practices like testing new
varieties, soil fumigants, fertilization rates or placements, etc. They need not be
overly time-consuming or expensive to yield valuable information to growers. The
purpose of this article is to give a few pointers to growers which might help them
get the most out of on-farm trials with minimal effort and cost.

The first and most important piece of advice is not to abandon a successful
practice without first testing the newer practice on limited basis for at least one
season or preferably more. Limited basis, as used here, means exactly what it says.
One or two rows of a new variety in the middle of a field may be adequate. There is
no need to use the test practice on large acreages. The cost on a limited trial basis
can be negligible as compared with large plots. Additionally, small tests can be
repeated several times or at several locations to insure greater accuracy in observations





THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

There are several other minor suggestions which, if followed, might avoid
partial or complete failure of on-farm tests. Label the test plots with marker stakes,
briefly describing treatment, date, etc. Make a map of the test area and record it
safely in case markers are lost. The test plots should be treated, as nearly as
possible, just like the regular planting to which it is being compared.

Last but not least, plan to obtain all the information possible from the trial.
This includes not only final yields and quality, but growth and development character-
istics which might prove to be very valuable at a later date.

Grower trials can be of considerable benefit if properly conducted. More
growers should conduct on-farm trials to gain experience and knowledge which can be
of great benefit for the improvement of farming practices. Growers who are already
carrying out trials on their farms might make them more efficient by simply following
advice given in this article.
(Montelaro)

B. Some Ripening Characteristics of the 'Morgan' Melon

'Morgan', a new honeydew type melon, was released by the Institute of Food &
Agricultural Sciences this past March (Florida Ag. Exp. Station Circ. S-241). This
high sugar, green fleshed, creamy-white skinned, non-netted melon could play a very
important part in the commercial vegetable industry of Florida in the future.

In many ways, 'Morgan' resembles and tastes like the true honeydew (Cucumis
melo var. inodorus), but some differences in ripening characteristics deserve careful
consideration. In the early stages of growth, both types grow rapidly in length, are
uniformly light green in color, and are very hard and hairy. As they reach maturity,
both begin to slow in lengthwise growth and increase in diameter.

In the hard ripe stage, normal fruit size has usually been reached, but there
is very little aroma present which characterizes ripe fruit, the flesh is hard, and
the skin color fades from a dull greenish white to a creamy white. Fruit picked in
this stage usually do not ripen adequately without ethylene treatment. At this stage
of maturity, often referred to as shipping maturity, a soluble solids level of 10%
(mostly sugars) may be expected if a good vine cover is present. Loss of leaves due
to disease, insects, poor nutrition, or inadequate soil moisture may seriously alter
the production of sugars, flavor, and aroma components.

For both types of melons, grown in a "normal" spring season, flowering may be
expected about 6-7 weeks after planting, and first harvest 7-8 weeks after flowering
starts. Fruit harvested "younger" than 6 weeks old will usually not ripen properly
even with ethylene treatment.

As the two varieties reach true "horticultural maturity" (the most desirable
stage for eating), a rich aroma becomes evident, a waxy coating may be felt on the
creamy white surface, and a slight softening of the blossom end may be noted. As
"botanical maturity" develops, the creamy white color becomes yellow, the flesh
becomes watery soft, the surface waxiness becomes greasy and the aroma becomes very
strong.

Some differences between 'Morgan' and other honeydews appear in the period
between hard ripe and horticultural maturity. In the common muskmelon (Cucumis melo
var. reticulatus), the fruit separates naturally from the vine as botanical maturity
approaches, a process called slipping. Approximately 3-10% of the honeydew type
slip naturally. In a Fall, 1975, maturity study with 'Morgan', 100 melons were






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

examined at four harvests for seven external ripening characteristics, taste and
soluble solids content. Only 24% of the melons tested exhibited any slip evidence.
Expressed in five categories (1, no slip to 5, full slip), there was no statistical
difference in sugar content among groups:

Slip 1 2 3 4 5
Average &
soluble solids 12.3 12.4 12.1 12.6 11.9

A waxy covering, characteristic of honeydew ripening, is not a very reliable
test of maturity in 'Morgan'. Of the seven external characteristics measured, only
surface reticulation (mild to heavy skin cracking) correlated with high sugar develop-
ment (1% level). Yellowing of the surface correlated with cracking, slipping and
blossom end softening (1% level), but did not seem to be related to high sugar develop-
ment.

A search for more reliable and earlier external indicators of high sugars
will be continued. For melons to be treated with ethylene, the hard ripe stage
should be used.

In preliminary ethylene treatment studies, it was found that only early hard
ripe to late hard ripe melons were enhanced by treatment. For local market use, the
appearance of an early, slight reticulation of the surface seems to be a good index
that high sugars, full flavor and rich aroma will be present. The average sugar level
for the entire group in this category ranged from 12.10 to 16.00%, a pretty sure bet
that a consumer would be happy with this new addition to the Florida vegetable family!
(Marlowe)

III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Timely Gardening Topics

These questions and answers are suggested for agents' use in developing periodic
(weekly) radio or newspaper briefs. They are based on letters of inquiry from Florida
gardeners.

(1) Timely Topic for Week of May 16-22

Question

I would like to build a storage structure (cistern) large enough to provide
all the water my garden will need. How large should it be?

Reply

Certainly it will depend on several factors, the greatest of which are size of
your plot, rainfall pattern, and your method of application.
Most vegetables irrigated by sprinkling require an average of one inch of water
per week. This amounts to 27,000 gallons each time a one-acre garden is sprinkled.

Since the average size garden is about 1,000 square feet, you will need 1/43
of this amount each week, or roughly 600 gallons per week. Sprinkling this amount
from storage would require a pump rather than a gravity-feed system. At least two
other techniques utilize less water and could operate through simple gravity flow.
These are trickle irrigation and hand watering.




-5-

THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Since good growth of vegetables is possible with only 1/3 the water utilized
by sprinkling, the trickle concept should be investigated where water is stored in
containers for irrigation. Thus, only 200 gallons per week need to be provided
for a trickle system on a 1,000 square feet garden.

(2) Timely Topic for Week of May 23-29

Question

What causes my lettuce to grow tall instead of short and compact?

Reply

The lengthening of the plant usually is due to the formation of a seed stalk,
a condition commonly referred to as "bolting". It occurs on plants that have been
growing for several days at very warm temperatures. Generally, lettuce requires cool
nights (500F) and mild days (750F) for best plant growth and desired shape. Therefore,
it is important to plant lettuce in Florida during the winter or early spring.

Sane kinds and varieties of lettuce are affected to a greater degree by warm
weather than others. Crisphead lettuce is particularly prone to "bolt" and becomes
puffy during warm weather. Several varieties of lettuce have been observed to be
resistant to bolting under conditions that allow other less tolerant varieties to
produce seed stalks. For example, some of these more resistant varieties are:
'Summer Bibb' (butterhead type), 'Green Boston' (butterhead), 'Improved Bibb' (butter-
head), 'Vanguard' (crisphead), 'Bellaverde' (crisphead), 'Climax' (crisphead), and
'Parris Island Cos' (roaaine type).

While these are not the only varieties having some degree of tolerance to bolting,
gardeners who are trying to extend the planting season into April and May may want to
include these on a trial basis.

(3) Timely Topic for Week of May 30-June 5

Question

I have a considerable number of small onion-like plants growing wild around my
garden (see example enclosed). Would you please identify and tell me if it is edible.

Reply

The specimen you sent looks more like a leek than an onion. Yet, the botanists
say it is the Wild Onion, Allium canadense. It is quite common in Florida. The
swollen bulb portion of the plant closely resembles the ordinary bunching onion. It
is bright white, rounded on the swollen lower end, with short, whitish roots. The
tops are quite different from the regular onion, more closely resembling leek than
onion. The leaves are blade-like, flattened, pointed, light yellowish-green in color.
A central seed-stalk produces a seed pod similar to a "king's crown", one-half inch
or so in diameter. The bulbs are strongly scented with the onion pungency. The plants
can cause difficultyfor dairymen or milk-cow owners. When the plants are eaten by
cattle, the odor comes through the milk. The wild onion is non-poisonous and may be
used as green bunching onions.






THE VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER

(4) Timely Topic for Week of June 6-12

Question

I have grown a huge radish, weighing about 25 pounds, and believe it may be
some sort of record. Who could tell me if it is a record and if so, record it
officially?

Reply

Record sizes of vegetables and other farm products are not kept officially in
the State of Florida. I am not sure if any other state maintains a record system
for such products. Such private firms as the Guinness Book of Records may be
interested in your large radish.

It is not unusual for the Chinese and Japanese radishes to grow to 25 pounds.
The large, many-leaved plants produce immense roots two feet across and weighing
40 to 50 pounds. Of course, 25 pounds may be a record for Florida growing conditions,
but we have no official documentation procedure to rely on for verification.
(Stephens)

B. Know Your Vegetables Asparagus Bean

Asparagus bean [Vigna unguiculata var. sesquipedalis) is also known as Yard
Long Bean, Peru Bean and Snake Bean. It is closely related to southern peas or cowpeas.
As the names imply, the pods are quite long, often reaching 36 inches long. These
long immature pods are often used as snap beans due to their fleshy brittleness. The
annual climbing plant resembles the southern pea, but is much more trailing and climb-
ing, often reaching 9 to 12 feet in height. The plant is quite ornamental due to the
large violet-blue flowers.

Asparagus bean is seldom grown in Florida even in home gardens. When seeds are
planted in late March in the Gainesville area, the plants produce pods quite well.
The cultural requirements and problems are much like those for southern peas. However,
due to the long trailing nature of the plant, a six foot trellis support should be
provided. Space plants 8-12 inches in the row and 3 to 4 feet between rows.

The pods should be picked before the seeds mature. In this tender stage, they
can be snapped and cooked in various ways. Some suggestions are: (a) stewed with
tomato sauce, or (b) after boiling and draining, seasoned with lemon juice and oil,
and (c) simmered in butter with oil and garlic.


(Stephens)




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