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Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00389
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: September 1982
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00389
Source Institution: University of Florida
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September, 1982

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

D.N. Maynard
G.A. Marlowe

W.M. Stall
Associate Professor

S.P. Kovach
Assistant Professor
M. Sherman
Assistant Professor

J.M. Stephens
Associate Professor



A. McDonald
VEA-I Multi-County


J. M. S phens Extension Vegetable Specialist

Vegeta le Crops Department
1255 HS/PP Building
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Phone: 904/392-2134




A. New Publications


A. Oryzalin (Surflan) Labeled
Transplanted Sweet Potatoes

for Weed Control in

B. Lexone Registered on Tomatoes

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.


A. Planning In Weed Control Practices

B. Cost of Protecting Vegetables


A. Know Your Minor Vegetables Zucchini

NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. When-
ever possible, please give credit to the authors.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the
purpose of providing information and does not necessarily constitute a
recommendation of the product.



A. New Publications

(1) Cucurbit Variety Evaluation, Spring 1982, Research Report LBG
82-2 by G. W. Elmstrom is available from Leesburg ARC, P. 0. Box
388, Leesburg, FL 32748.


(2) Okra In Florida, A Small Farm Production Guide, Circular 492 has
been released and sent to county extension offices. There are
only approximately 300 copies remaining. Those counties that did
not order this publication originally, may order single copies
from me.


(3) Commercial Vegetable Varieties for Florida by G. A. Marlowe, Jr.
is available from IFAS Publications, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611.



A. Oryzalin (Surflan) Labeled for Weed Control in Transplanted Sweet

Surflan A.S. and 75W has been labeled for use as an over-the-top
spray to control certain annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in sweet

It may be applied anytime after transplanting the sweet potatoes
to crop emergence.

For a listing of weeds controlled and rates plus other precau-
tions, consult the label.



B. Lexone Registered on Tomatoes

Lexone formulations (metribuzin) are now registered for post-
emergence weed control in established tomatoes. Direct-seeded or
transplant tomatoes must be in the 5 to 6 leaf stage or older and
transplants recovered from transplant shock before treatment.

For rates and special precautions, consult the label.



A. Planning In Weed Control Practices

Planning for cropping sequences in vegetable production is now
started. Growers are taking into account the past history of fields
for diseases and insects, relative environment, such as wet or dry,
warm or cold pockets, pH and other factors. All too often herbicide
history and weed types and density are overlooked.

The prevalence of certain weed species is one of the biggest pro-
blems in incomplete planning.

A case in point:

A grower in north Florida was selecting fields for the production
of beans and cauliflower. The fields were similar in every aspect ex-
cept one had a high population of nutsedge. The grower decided he
couldn't control nutsedge anyway and that cauliflower was a higher
value crop, therefore, he could afford to cultivate more often. He
planted cauliflower on the nutsedge infested field. The grower de-
cided wrong.

In preparing the field the grower put up raised beds a week be-
fore transplanting. The nutsedge had emerged so thick that he had to
remake the beds before he could transplant.

The grower also did not consider the herbicides available for
both crops. With cauliflower, he was stuck, for there is no herbicide
labeled that will give adequate control of nutsedge. For beans, a
different story emerges.


EPTC (Eptam) can give fair to good control of both yellow and
purple nutsedge preplant. Metolachlor (Dual), which is now labeled,
will also control yellow nutsedge. Bentazon (Basagran), now labeled
on snap beans, will give postemergence yellow nutsedge control. Cau-
tion should be taken, however, that in some cases Basagran causes leaf

A little better planning could have saved a lot of time and mon-

Nutsedge is not the only weed that can cause problems. Grasses
as well as broadleaf weeds are differentially controlled by many her-
bicides. To get a clearer picture of weed control consult VC-17, Con-
trol of Florida Weed Species.

A plan should also consider time of year of planting. Weed spe-
cies problems shift due to the time of year. Cooler season plantings
have different weed problems than warm weather plantings, even on the
same field. In planning planting sequences the weed history of the
field should be taken into account and planting should be planned when
weeds can best be controlled by available herbicides.


B. Cost of Protecting Vegetables

Consumers, with few exceptions, demand blemish free, fresh vege-
tables with pleasing eye appeal. The exceptions are those who feel
that a few blemishes and spots do not harm (and may enhance) food
value. Somewhere between the "perfectionists" and the "natural food
folks" lies truth; but the modern vegetable grower must try to meet
the major market demands which are based on eye appeal.

Vegetable growers spend a great deal of time and money protecting
their crops to insure this eye appeal. Consumers probably assume that
firm, blemish free, colorful tomatoes, peppers and eggplant grow that
way naturally. Most seldom consider the extensive protective program
required to achieve that number one grade and condition, unless some
poorly informed scare statements appear in the newspaper or on tele-


We need to emphasize that American vegetables are among the most
closely monitored, safest food bargains in the world. The pesticides
used are all carefully restrained by law as to how much is safe to
use, time limits between application and safe harvest, and even what
other materials may be used with the pesticide in question.

Recent cost studies of Florida grown vegetables show that vege-
table growers spend between 3.8 to 8.5% of their total production and
marketing expenditures on pesticides. This does not include the cost
of the application, labor used or machinery inventory costs. It is
estimated that true costs of protection range between 12 and 15% of
the total capital required to grow and market a crop.

We have been interested in pesticide use on tomatoes in Manatee-
Hillsborough counties where integrated pest management has become an
accepted practice. The following two tables show pesticide use by the
more progressive farmers. Some growers use less, some more; but in
all cases the emphasis is on best protection with least materials and

The tomato seasons range between 100 to 120 days in this area.
Plant protection begins soon after the seedlings are placed into the
field and continues up to harvest at which time a very modified pro-
gram continues. It may be noted that growers apply fungicides most
often and usually in a 5 to 6 day interval.


Pesticide Use Survey 1980 82: Spring Fresh Market Toma-
toes, 11 Commerical Farms, Manatee-Hillsborough Counties,
(IPM Records, Grower Conferences, Pesticide Salespersons)

Pesticide Group Average Applications By Month
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Total
Insecticides 1 2 3 5 4 1 16
Bactericides 1 4 3 3 3 14
Fungicides 1 4 5 5 4 1 20
Herbicides 1 1 1 3
Fumigants* 1 1
Nutr. Sprays** 1 2 2 3 8

*Not used on newly cleared land

**Not pesticide



Pesticide Use Survey 1980 82: Fall Fresh Market Tomatoes,
11 Commercial Farms, Manatee-Hillsborough Counties, (IPM
Records, Growers Conferences, Pesticide Salespersons)

Pesticide Group Average Applications By Month
Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total
Insecticides 2 3 4 4 1 14
Bactericides 3 4 5 4 1 17
Fungicides 4 5 5 4 1 19
Herbicides 1 1 1 3
Fumigants* 1 1
Nutr. Sprays** 1 4 4 2 11

*Not used on newly cleared land

**Not pesticide

Table 1 and 2 show the heavy emphasis on protection from bacteri-
al and fungal diseases (bacterial leaf spot, blight, etc.) coinciding
with the rainy months of each season. Nutrient sprays were included
in the study although they are not pesticides. Growers feel that nu-
tritional sprays are part of the total insurance program. Growers
using the IPM program have reduced their insecticidal inputs 25 to
37%. The fungicide and bactericide materials use seems to be fairly

Pesticide use has become a finely tuned part of modern vegetable
production. This protection is an expensive but necessary, highly
regulated, carefully monitored practice with a definite goal of pro-
ducing high quality vegetables for the American consumer, hopefully at
a profit to the growers.




A. Know Your Minor Vegetables Zucchini

Zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) has taken gigantic strides in
recent years to overtake other types of summer squash in popularity as
a fresh and cooked vegetable. It is found in almost every garden
throughout Florida, and on salad bars everywhere as a sliced fresh
delicacy. In Windsor, a small community in North Central Florida, an
annual Zucchini festival someday may be the towns main claim to fame.

Zucchini is a type of squash, and is represented by several named
varieties (cultivars). Fruits of this member of the Italian marrow
squashes come most commonly in cylindrical shapes, but also in round
and intermediate shapes. Fruit color varies from a green so dark as
to be called black, to lighter shades of green both with and without
stripes, all the way to tones of yellow. Many are highlighted with
various degrees of speckling.

Cylindrical fruits range in average size from the 5 to 6 inch
'Caserta' to be the longer varieties such as 'Cocozella' which reaches
14-16 inches in length. Most varieties average 3 to 4 inches in diam-

Gardeners like to see just how big their zucchinis will grow if
left on the plant, and many have felt they must surely have a world's
record with specimens in excess of 20 inches in length and 10 pounds
in weight. Leaves of zucchini are quite large, with characteristically
more notched (segmented) leaves than crookneck and straight neck
squash. Zucchini leaves also are characterized by having light
greenish-gray splotches and streaks on the leaf surface. These light
markings are sometimes mistaken for a mildew problem.

Like other members of the summer squash group, the zucchini plant
has the bush habit rather than the vining habit of the winter
squashes. However, within the bush habit, there is a fairly wide
range of variations in general plant character, primarily in density
and arrangement of leaves.

Varieties may be classified as to bush habit, with a rating of
(1) given to the open habit, where the leaves are more sprawling and
less cluttered, and a rating of (5) for the most dense habit of up-
right, crowded leaves (closed). Five varieties rated in one test


were: 'Burpee Hybrid' (1.0), 'Blackini' (2.0), 'Hyzelle' (4.0),
'Hyzini' (4.5), and 'Black Zucchini' (5.0). Other varieties of the
more open habit are 'Ambassador', 'Blackjack', 'El Dorado', 'Grey',
'Ball's Zucchini', and 'Caserta' (semi-open).

Those most characteristic of the closed bush type are: 'Seneca
Gourmet', 'Black Eagle', 'Blackee', 'Burpee Fordhook', 'Long White
Vegetable Marrow', and 'Mexican Globe'.

Varietal Descriptions

Of the many seed-company offerings for home gardeners, many
zucchini varieties are hybrids (controlled crosses), and many are open
pollinated. They may be grouped best for descriptive purposes accord-
ing to fruit color.

Very Dark (green-black)
'Black Angus'
'Black Beauty'
'Black Eagle'
'Black Magic'
'Black Satin'
'Black Zucchini'
'Burpee's Fordhook'

'Castle Verde'

Dark (dark-green)

'Ball's zucchini'

'Dark Green Zucchini'


Descriptive Comments
poor Florida yields
poor to fair yields in Florida
7 inch, white flesh
only fair yields in Florida
3 1/2 x 8 inches, open bush
high yields in Florida, open bush
fair Florida yields
dark, no flecking
6-8" straight fruit, closed bush
slightly curved, fair yields in
good yielder in Florida

open bush, 7-8" long, good Florida
AA winner, only fair in Florida
open bush
fair yielder in Florida, (AA winner)
lighter flecks
6-7 inches
7-8 inches
medium green, well-flecked
flecked with light green, early, high
Florida yielder
highly speckled
fair yielding in Florida
closed bush habit, good yielder in


'Market King'




'Seneca Zucchini'

'Seneca Gourmet'

Dark-green stripes
'Gourmet Globe'
'Green Cocozella'
'Green Cocozella Striato'

'Burpee Hybrid'
'Storr's Green'


'Gray Green'

'Long White Vegetable Marrow'
'Mexican Globe'

very dark green, 8", good Florida
dark green with some speckling, high
good Florida yielder
fair yielding in Florida
flat, scallop shaped, (AA winner)
excellent Florida yields
early, fair yielder, good PM
dark green with flecks of lighter
closed bush, early
flecked with light green
long, 2 3/4" diameter

(Cocozella type)
light green with darker green stripes
open bush 6-8 inches
round, almost globe shaped, open bush
long, to 1/6 inches at times
light green and dark green striped
closed bush type

compact bush, early
open bush, good yielding in Florida
7 inch, light-green, female flowering
good yielder in Florida
7 inch, speckled light-green

gray, slightly tapered
gray, good Florida yielder
light green, very high yielder in
good Florida yields
open bush
gray, good yielder in Florida good
resistance to PM
white, English type
globe shaped


'El Dorado' smooth, slightly tapered, open bush,
fair yielder
'Goldzini' straight, good yielder in Florida
'Golden Zucchini' yields low in Florida trials
'Gold rush' yields low in Florida, open bush, AA

Growing Tips

Zucchini is easy to grow throughout the state. It is a warm
season vegetable, readily injured by frost and freezes. Plant in fall
and spring in all areas of Florida, also in the winter in south
Florida frost-unlikely areas.

Plant from seeds, but transplants may be used if in containers
and roots are not disturbed. Space plants 24 inches apart (or closer
if space is limited) on 36-48 inch wide beds. Four to six plants will
feed an average size family at any one time. Hill planting is feas-

Fertilize as for other garden vegetables, using about 4 pounds of
6-8-8 fertilizer per 100 sq. feet of row (30 linear feet).


Plants have both male and female flowers, a situation which re-
quires insect (bees primarily) pollination. Poor bee activity results
in female flowers dropping. Mid-summer growing conditions usually re-
sult in lower yields in Florida.

Insects attacking zucchini in some Florida gardens (not all) are
leaf miners, aphids, cut worms, squash vine borers, squash bug, cucum-
ber beetles, mole crickets, and fruit worms.

Diseases are downy mildew, powdery mildew, mosaic, and fruit
rots. Main nematode injury comes from the root knot.

Crossing with other nearby varieties of squash happens readily.
No harm is done, however, unless the seeds are saved and planted.
Crossing will occur with straight neck, crook necks, vegetable spa-
ghetti, pumpkins, and others.



Most fruits are ready about 40 to 50 days after seeding, depend-
ing on variety.


Use zucchini when young and tender, usually when 6 to 8 inches
long and about 2 to 3 inches round. Some varieties may be edible even
at the larger sizes. Keep them removed from the plant to encourage
other fruits to form. Zucchini has a stronger, zangier taste than the
milder summer crooks and straights. However, many like the taste of
the cooked vegetable. Others who do not attempt to ameliorate the
taste by mixing with other ingredients in the form of casseroles. A
favorite form is as a fresh, raw product, either in a salad or as a
party dip.

Its principle nutritional contributions are Vitamins A and C.
Certainly zucchini is low in fats and calories.


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