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Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: August 1982
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00388
Source Institution: University of Florida
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES COOPERATIVE
FAS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


August, 1982

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


D.N. Maynard
Chairman
G.A. Marlowe
Professor

W.M. Stall
Associate Professor


S.P. Kovach
Assistant Professor
M. Sherman
Assistant Professor

J.M. Stephens
Associate Professor


A. McDonald
VEA-I Multi-County


TO:



FROM:


VEGETABLE AND HORTICULTURE AGENTS
AND COUNTY EXTF,'ION DIRECTORS


hens, Extension Vegetable Specialist

Vegetable Crops Department
1255 HS/PP Building
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Phone: 904/392-2134


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 82-8


IN THIS ISSUE:


I. NOTES OF INTEREST


A. New Publications

B. Vegetable Crops Calendar


II. PESTICIDE UPDATE




The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity -Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational Information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING










III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION


A. Diagnostic Characteristics of Salt Damage

B. Interim Guidelines Recommended for Reducing Cancer
Risks Through Diet

C. Fusarium Wilt Disease of Tomato-An Old Disease
Revisited


IV. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING


A. Know Your Minor Vegetables Guar

B. Results of the 1982 State 4-H Horticultural Demonstra-
tion and Judging Contest

C. Second Annual Advanced Master Gardener Training
















NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. When-
ever possible, please give credit to the authors.



The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the
purpose of providing information and does not necessarily constitute a
recommendation of the product.







-2-


I. NOTES OF INTEREST


A. New Publications


(1) "Know Your Minor Vegetables" you agents should be advised that
your office may receive several requests for this mimeographed
publication VCER 17-1982. The publication was "plugged" in a re-
cent newspaper article by a well-known food columnist.


I suggest that if you do not wish to duplicate this rather
thick publication to fill their requests, you might choose to
mimeograph copies of the index page to send them. Add a brief
note indicating that they should check the vegetables for which
they want more information. Then you need send them only a copy
of those particular pages.


The Vegetable Crops Department does not maintain a suffi-
cient supply of these publications to provide more than five
copies per county.


(2) Evaluation of Herbicides for Weed Control in Spring Transplanted
Tomato, Research Report BRA 82-11 by J. P. Gilreath.


(3) Postemergence Herbicide Screening Trial-1981, Research Report BRA
82-12 by J. P. Gilreath.


(4) Fusarium Wilt of Tomato, Research Report BRA-13 by J. P. Jones,
J. B. Jones and J. W. Scott. Items (2), (3), and (4) are all
available from the Bradenton AREC, 5007 60th Street, East,
Bradenton, Florida 33508.


(5) Fusarium Wilt of Tomato, Plant Pathology Circular #237, by J. P.
Jones, J. B. Jones and J. W. Miller is available from the Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of
Plant Industry, Bureau of Plant Pathology, P. 0. Box 1269,
Gainesville, Florida 32602. This publication contains colored
pictures of Fusarium symptoms.


(6) Sh2 Sweet Corn Cultivar Trial, Zellwood, Florida, Research Report
SAN 83-1 by J. M. White is available from the Sanford AREC, P. 0.
Box 909, Sanford, FL 32711.







-3-


(7) Costs and Returns from Vegetable Crops in Florida, Season 1980-81
with Comparisons, Economic Information Report 159, by T. G.
Taylor is available from the Food & Resource Economics Depart-
ment, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.


(8) Evaluation of Cauliflower Lines for White Curd, Research Report
SAN 83-2 by J. M. White is available from the Sanford AREC, P.
0. Box 909, Sanford, FL 32711.


(Stall, Maynard and Stephens)


B. Vegetable Crops Calendar


(1) August 25 27



(2) September 16


Master Gardener Agent In-Service Training,
Lake Yale Assembly, Eustis


21st Annual Tomato Institute, Marco Beach
Hotel, Marco Island, Florida 9:00-3:30


(Stall and McDonald)


III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION


A. Diagnostic Characteristics of Salt Damage


Salt injury to vegetable seedings is a common "emergency" during
peak planting periods in Florida. Salt injury is usually a seedling
stage problem in the field or seedling plant production house, but
older plants can be severely damaged, too.


The salt level of the soil solution can change from low (and in-
nocent) to high (and disastrous) in a very short time depending on the
level of moisture in the top few inches of the soil near the seedling.
A reading of 200-400 ppm salt in the soil solution can double or trip-
le in a few hours as hot, dry winds pass over soil near the young
seedling in a containerized tray or planting hole in the mulched bed.


Recognition of seedling salt injury is not always easy to distin-
guish from damage caused by fungi (such as Rhizoctonia or Pythium);







-4-


nematodes (such as sting or root knot); or physical abrasion due to
blown sand or mechanical pinching of the seedling.


Symptoms of salt damage are seldom "typical". One or more of the
following may be associated with salt damage of seedlings and older
plants.


A. Seedlings


1. Stem destruction: The soft tissue of the seedling at the soil
line may "pinch in" and the seedling may fall over if the damage is
severe enough. As soon as woody tissue develops, the fall-over symp-
toms decrease. The fungus Rhizoctonia causes a destruction down to
the more woody vascular tissue (the stele) and gives a wire-stem ap-
pearance, thus appears slightly different than salt damage. The
lesion of Rhizoctonia may be quite extensive, whereas, salt damage is
usually restricted to the immediate soil line zone of the seedling.
Phythium fungi cause a "wetter" rot than the Rhizoctonia do, and are
usually associated with rather wet soil or media conditions.


2. Root destruction: Salt damaged seedlings usually show varying de-
grees of root browning and die-back of the tips and these symptoms can
be easily confused with similar damage caused by sting or root knot
nematodes. In all three situations tissue may fall from the young
roots.


3. General: Other symptoms associated with excess salt damage of
seed or seedlings include poor germination, uneven growth, wilting,
yellowing of leaves smaller leaves, and marginal burn of leaves.


B. Older plants


1. Yellowing and stunting of plant. Salt damage resembles (and
really is) drought damage. The high salt level in the soil solution
causes the plant roots to "work harder" to get water from the soil and
the result is the same as growing the crop under moisture stress.


2. Marginal leaf scorch. Usually the stunted, yellow plant develops
a scorch or marginal leaf burn as salt damage or drought continues.


The browning of root tips can be an


3. Decreased root activity.







-5-


early symptom. If advanced, one notes wilting, smaller leaves, and
uneven growth. In mature plants, roots should be checked for nematode,
insect damage, fungi and bacterial diseases. A soil crust with brown-
ish cast often indicates salt build-up, and should be observed, too.


Identification of a salt problem, determination of the extent of
injury, and exclusion of other possible causes of agents which give
similar symptoms is necessary to a sound corrective program. Even
better and cheaper than correction is prevention.


(Marlowe)


B. Interim Guidelines Recommended for Reducing Cancer Risks Through
Diet


The nutritional virtues of vegetables have been extolled for cen-
turies without knowing specifically the role they play in body func-
tions. We recognize their importance in providing essential vitamins,
minerals and roughage in addition to their esthetic value of flavor,
texture, and appearance. The following information was just released
showing the beneficial association between vegetables and cancer pre-
vention in humans.


The National Research Council on Diet, Nutrition and Cancer Risks
has just released a report for the National Cancer Institute which
links diet with cancer. While the Committee recognizes that "It is
not now possible and may never be possible to specify a diet that pro-
tects all people against all forms of cancer", they do have evidence
which suggests that most common cancers are influenced by diet. Cur-
rent Committee recommendations are termed "interim guidelines" pending
additional scientific evidence of how certain substances in food may
initiate, promote, or protect against cancer at different sites in the
body.


Vegetables and fruits:


Studies of human populations suggest that frequent consumption of
foods containing vitamin A-producing carotenes or vitamin C, or of
vegetables in the cabbage or cruciferous family can reduce suscepti-
bility to cancer of the urinary bladder, large bowel, skin, lungs,
stomach, and esophagus. Vitamins A and C and some nonnutritive chemi-
cals in cruciferous vegetables have been shown to inhibit the forma-
tion of cancer-causing chemicals and to reduce cancer susceptibility
in laboratory animals.











Scientists are still not sure whether it is the vitamins them-
selves, the carotenes, or other nonnutritive compounds occurring
naturally in certain vegetables and fruits that help protect against
cancer in humans. Nutrients such as vitamin A and the mineral seleni-
um can be toxic in concentrations higher than needed for optimum nu-
trition, therefore, it is recommended that people eat citrus fruits,
carotent-rich (dark green and deep yellow) and cruciferous vegetables
daily, rather than take high-dose nutrient supplements.


There is controversy concerning the association between dietary
fiber and cancer. Strongest evidence so far is that specific compon-
ents of fiber, rather than fiber per se, may have protective effects.


Fats:


The Committee found the strongest evidence for a connection be-
tween consumption of fats and cancer of the breast, large bowel, and
prostate. It is suggested that the present 40% of calories from fat
in the average American diet be reduced to about 30% of daily calor-
ies. It was not clear how higher fat consumption results in greater
cancer susceptibility.


Salt-cured, salt-pickled, and smoked foods:


Higher incidence of esophageal and stomach cancer occur in parts
of China, Japan, and Iceland, where such foods are eaten frequently,
and therefore the Committee recommended that intake of such foods be
reduced. These foods may be contaminated by the polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons in smoke or by compounds such as nitrosamines. Both
types of compounds cause cancer in laboratory animals and are suspec-
ted of causing cancer in humans.


Alcohol:


Excessive alcohol drinking, especially in combination with cigar-
ette smoking, appears to increase the probability of cancer of the
mouth, larynx, esophagus, and respiratory tract, and may also be
linked with colon and rectal cancer.


Other diet components:


Among the other components studied were total calories consumed,








-7-


cholesterol, protein, carbohydrates, vitamin E, the B vitamins, and
essential trace minerals such as copper and zinc. Results were either
inconsistent or too incomplete to show definite links between these
components and cancer.


General conclusion & suggested dietary guidelines:


*Most common cancers are potentially preventable, for they appear
to be determined more by habit, diet, and custom than by genetic
differences.


*Eat fruits, vegetables, and whole grain cereal products daily.
Especially eat citrus fruits, carotene-rich (dark green and deep
yellow) vegetables, and vegetables in the cabbage family.


*Eat less foods high in saturated and unsaturated fats. Reduce
daily fat intake to 30% of calories.


*Drink alcohol only in moderation.


The report "Diet, Nutrition and Cancer" is available for $13.50
from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave., N. W.,
Washington, D. C. 20418.


(D. D. Gull, Associate Professor
Vegetable Crops Department)


C. Fusarium Wilt Disease of Tomato -- An Old Disease Revisited


Fusarium wilt of tomato, an old and familiar disease to tomato
growers in Florida, has a new importance in the Manatee-Ruskin produc-
tion area. Dr. John P. Jones, Plant Pathologist at AREC Bradenton,
has reported a new race of the Fusarium wilt causal fungus from a num-
ber of farms in Manatee and south Hillsborough Counties.


Disease symptoms on mature plants appear first as lower leaf yel-
lowing, often one sided on the plant or affecting leaflets on one side
of a petiole. Plants become increasingly more chlorotic until the
whole plant is affected. Plant wilt accompanies yellowing (starting







-8-


at mid-day) and progresses for longer periods each day until the plant
dies. Stems cut lengthwise characteristically exhibit a dark brown
discoloration of the vascular tissue. The internal discoloration ex-
tends high up the stem and is obvious in the petiole scars. Seedlings
infected with 'Race 3' may exhibit downward curve to the lower leaves,
vascular discoloration, plant stunting and wilting prior to death.


Existing fresh market tomato varieties grown in Florida are re-
sistant to the more common types of Fusarium wilt caused by Race I and
2 of Fusarium oxysporum f.s.p. lycopersici. The new race (a probable
Race 3) can be damaging on all existing Florida tomato varieties. The
causal fungus is soilborne and can survive for years in cropped or
fallow land. Acidic, sandy soils are more favorable to the causal
fungus rather than the alkaline soils of south Florida. The fungus is
more damaging in the 80-90F temperature range, thus affecting spring
crops more severely than fall crops. The use of ammoniacal nitrogen
rather than nitrate nitrogen will also favor disease severity in in-
fested fields.


The Fusarium pathogen, like most soilborne pathogens, can be
spread by physical movement of infested soil on stakes, tools, vehi-
cles or machinery. Run-off surface water and infected transplants may
also serve to introduce this fungus into clean fields. Seed transmis-
sion (at least for Race 1 and 2) has not been considered an important
means of spread in the past.


Present status:


Helicopter surveys by Division of Plant Industry personnel have
been conducted over several areas of the state. On May 20-21, 91
fields were surveyed in the Manatee-south Hillsborough area. There
were 25 fields (27%) positive for Fusarium wilt based upon symptom ex-
pression. Several fields sampled, were confirmed to be infested with
'Race 3' by isolation and varietal test results obtained by Dr. J. P.
Jones. Several infested fields sustained 50-80% plant loss from this
pathogen.


Surveys were also conducted for about 850 acres in Gadsden coun-
ty, 50 acres in Marion county, and 200 acres in Sumter county. Al-
though suspect Fusarium wilt samples were collected from the loca-
tions, identification tests were negative for the 'Race 3' type of
Fusarium oxysporum f.s.p. lycopersici. To date, 'Race 3' is restric-
ted to the Manatee-Hillsborough county area.








-9-


Control:


Although one source of resistance to 'Race 3' is known at pres-
ent, there are no presently available, resistant varieties. A number
of years will be needed for the successful breeding, increase and re-
lease of seed of an acceptable resistant variety to 'Race 3'. For the
present, the following controls are suggested:


1. Known infested fields should be rotated out of tomatoes (5-7
years) or fumigated with 3 chisels per bed with a broad spectrum
soil fumigant and planted to fall crops of tomatoes only.


2. Broad spectrum soil fumigants (3 chisels per bed) should be
used on fields in the infested area.


3. Avoid movement of machinery, vehicles, tools, and stakes out
of the infested area unless they are well washed and free of
soil, followed by steam-cleaning.


4. Do not flood infested land since this will spread the causal
fungus.


5. Avoid use of ditch or pond water for irrigation that may be
contaminated with this soil fungus.


6. Physically separate seedling production houses from produc-
tion fields.


7. Manipulate the soil pH to 6.5-7.5 (if feasible from a nutri-
tion standpoint), and choose nitrate nitrogen over ammoniacal ni-
trogen sources.


8. Scout all tomato production fields during the blossoming
through fruit maturation period. Check for plant symptoms des-
cribed above. If suspect plants are found, contact your nearest
County Extension Agent to forward appropriate root and stem sam-
ples to: Extension Plant Disease Clinic, HSPP Building 717, Hull
Road, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611.


Isolations of Fusarium spp. from these samples will be processed







-10-


for 'Race 3' verification. Responses will be directed to the grower
through the County Extension Office.


(G.W. Simone)
(Extension Plant Pathologist)


IV. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING


A. Know Your Minor Vegetables Guar


Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.), is also called "clus-
ter bean" due to the manner in which its pods are clustered together.
It was formerly referred to as Cyamopsis psoralioides.


Guar is a native plant from India where it is grown principally
for its green fodder and for the pods that are used for food and feed.
It has soil-building properties since it is a legume. Today, probably
the primary importance of guar is in the commercial value of its seed-
gum (galactomannan gum), according to the American Society of Agrono-
my. This gum has a wide variety of food and non-food uses.


Guar was introduced into the U.S. from India in 1903. Production
in the U. S. is centered around Texas, Oklahoma, and Arizona, but it
is also adapted to more tropical climates, such as in Florida and
Puerto Rico. Very little information is available on the use of this
crop in Florida.


Description:


Guar is a coarse, summer-annual, upright, bushy drought-resistant
plant, ranging from 2 to 9 feet in height. It has pointed, angular
toothed, trifoliate leaves, small purplish flowers borne in racimes
(along the axis of a spikelet), and hairy pods 3 to 4 inches long in
clusters. There are dwarf and tall cultivars.


Guar flowers are self-pollinating. A mature unopened bud starts
out as white, then changes to a light pink as petals begin to open.
Finally, the flower is deep blue.







-11-


Climatic adaptation:


Guar is sensitive to cold, so should be grown during the warm
season. Soil temperature of 21C is necessary for seed germination.
Guar has an indeterminate growth habit, growing both vegetatively and
setting pods from about 4 to 6 weeks following seedling emergence
until death of the plant (cold or annual decline). Guar is considered
to be a short-day plant, setting more dense clusters in winter (in
Puerto Rico) than summer. Good yields may be expected with 13 to 14
hours of sunlight.


Although the plant is reported to be fairly drought resistant, it
grows even better when irrigated. Drought during the prolonged
fruiting period seems to reduce yields.


Production as a vegetable:


The culture of guar is similar to that for soybean (spacing and
method of seeding). If grown in the garden, which seldom is the case,
it should be grown much like the cowpea (southern pea).


It is suggested that guar be only lightly fertiliized (800 Ibs
per acre 6-8-8 with 400 lbs applied at planting and the rest 3 4
weeks after emergence).


In south Florida, try planting guar during the period September
through February, so that the fruiting period coincides more or less
with the shorter day lengths of the year. Where there is danger from
killing frosts, as in central and more northern areas of the state,
plant a spring crop or a fall crop. Seeds weight 60 pounds per bush-
el. These cultural suggestions are for guar grown as a vegetable
plant and should not be considered for its production as an agronomic
crop.


Uses as a vegetable:


For use as a vegetable, pods must be picked when young before
they become hairy and woody. They are eaten most often as a French
bean or as a curry vegetable.


(Stephens)







-12-


B. Results of the 1982 State 4-H Horticultural Demonstration and
Judging Contest


Once again the University of Florida Campus was filled with over
500 4-H members, leaders, and agents during the State 4-H Congress,
July 26 30, 1982.


During the Congress, the State Horticulture Identification and
Judging Contest was held on July 27, with a total of 16 teams partici-
pating in this event. Marion County received first place honors with
Brevard and St. Johns County taking second and third, respectively.


Leigh Ann Cooksey and Susan Frawley, from St. Johns County re-
ceived first place awards in the Horticulture Demonstration event.
Leigh Ann and Susan, along with Dickie Bockoras, Todd Dailey, Mark
Pacheco and Heather Dailey (the Marion County team) will compete at
the National Junior Horticulture Association Convention, at Niagara
Falls, New York.


(McDonald)


C. 2nd Annual Advanced Master Gardener Training


Approximately 100 Florida Master Gardeners who volunteer their
time and skills working at their county extension office arrived in
Gainesville on August 4 to attend the Second Annual Advanced Florida
Master Gardener Course.


Representatives from the 13 participating counties, Brevard,
Broward, Dade, Hillsborough, Lake, Leon, Orange, Osceola, Palm Beach,
Pasco, Pinellas, Polk and Volusia, enjoyed the two-day program which
included hands-on insect identification, spray equipment demonstra-
tion, tour of both the Soils Lab and a look at the Plant Disease Clin-
ic. Also they made a trip to the IFAS Horticultural Unit, where turf
grass problems were discussed. The training session ended with Master
Gardeners attending either a session on vegetable identification, or a
program on landscape design.


The highlight of the event was the dinner. Dr. K.R. Tefertiller,
Vice President for Agricultural Affairs spoke on the importance of a
successful volunteer program and how the Florida Master Gardener




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