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Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: July 1982
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00387
Source Institution: University of Florida
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES COOPERATIVE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA EXTENSION SERVICE
I FAEl

VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


July, 1982

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


D.N. Maynard
Chairman
G.A. Marlowe
Professor

W.M. Stall
Associate Professor


S.P. Kovach
Assistant Professor
M. Sherman
Assistant Professor

J.M. Stephens
Associate Professor


A. McDonald
VEA-I Multi-County


TO:


VEGETABLE AND HORTICULTURE AGENTS
AND COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS


FROM: W. M. Stall, Extension Vegetable Specialist k-6M c

Vegetable Crops Department
1255 HS/PP Building
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Phone: 904/392-2134


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 82-7


IN THIS ISSUE:


I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Membership in the American Society for Horticultural
Sci ence

B. New Publications

C. New Vegetable Crops Faculty

D. Vegetable Crops Calendar


II. PESTICIDE UPDATE

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING










III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

A. Seeing and Looking at a Modern Tomato Crop

B. Consumption and Production Trends for Broccoli and
Cauliflower in Florida

C. Twenty-First Annual Florida Tomato Institute


IV. HARVESTING AND HANDLING

A. Harvesting Practices for Roadside Markets


V. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Know Your Minor Vegetables Scorzonera

B. Results from the 1982 State FFA Vegetable Judging and
Identification Contest
















NOTE: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. When-
ever possible, please give credit to the authors.



The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the
purpose of providing information and does not necessarily constitute a
recommendation of the product.







-2-


I. NOTES OF INTEREST


A. Membership in the American Society for Horticultural Science.


Any person, organization, or business firm interested in promot-
ing horticultural research and education within the United States and
throughout the world is eligible for membership in the American Soci-
ety for Horticultural Science (ASHS). ASHS has eight membership cate-
gories designed to meet the needs of all those with an interest in
horticulture from undergraduates to business organizations. The fol-
lowing is a partial list of the benefits of ASHS membership: publica-
tions (the Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science,
HortScience, and special publications), national and regional meet-
ings, collegiate branch activities, recognition activities, placement
service, and visual aids service. For more information about member-
ship in the American Society for Horticultural Science write to me for
a free brochure which includes a complete description of membership
categories, prices, and tangible benefits.


(Sherman)


B. New Publications


(1) Florida Strawberry Production and Marketing Facts, Economic In-
formation Report 158, by T. G. Taylor and J. J. VanSickle is
available from the Food & Resource Economic Department, Univer-
sity of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.


(2) Vegetable Variety Trial Results in Florida for 1978-80, Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station Circular S-289, edited by J. M.
White is available from IFAS Publications Bldg., 440, University
of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.


(3) 50th Anniversary, 1931-1981, WG 82-1 is available from the Lees-
burg Agricultural Research Center, P. 0. Box 388, Leesburg, FL
32748.


(4) Cabbage Cultivar Trial, Research Report SAN 82-3 by J. M. White
and J. 0. Strandberg is available from the Sanford Agricultural
Research & Education Center, P. 0. Box 909, Sanford, FL 32771.


(Maynard)







-3-


C. New Vegetable Crops Faculty


(1) Ruben B. Beverly was appointed Assistant Professor, Vegetable
Crops Nutrition at the Belle Glade AREC. Dr. Beverly is a native of
Georgia and received his B.S.A. and M.S. at the University of Georgia.
He recently completed the Ph.D. at the University of California,
Riverside. He will conduct vegetable nutrition research on muck and
sand in the Everglades Agricultural Area.


(2) Steven P. Kovach was appointed Assistant Professor and Extension
Vegetable Specialist. He will be located at the Bradenton AREC and
will have state-wide responsibilities for water management of vege-
table crops and ornamental and agronomic responsibilities in southwest
Florida. Dr. Kovach is a native of Indiana and received his B.A. from
Purdue University. He completed the M.S. at Arizonia State University
and the Ph.D. at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
He has been employed by the Research Division of Standard Fruit Co. in
Hawaii and Honduras.


We welcome these outstanding individuals to the Florida Vegetable
Crops Team.


(D. N. Maynard, Chairman)


D. Vegetable Crops Calendar


August 25-27: Master Gardener Program In-Service Training,
Gainesville

September 16: Tomato Institute, Marco Island


(Stall)


III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION


A. Seeing and Looking at a Modern Tomato Crop


Most of the State's tomato crop is grown on a mulched bed system
and about three-fourths are grown on a stake and support system.










The "average" tomato plant grown on the mulched bed and stake
system reaches a height of about 4 feet with a foliage spread of ap-
proximately two foot radius in the contained row. The average plant
produces 170 leaves on its 5 stem, 11 branch frame. The average mod-
ern tomato plant weighs about 9.9 lbs green weight without the load of
fruit.


Of the 170 leaves, approximately 47% are large, with a surface
area averaging 118 sq in., 30% medium with a 76 sq in. average surface
area and 23% are young developing leaves with about 52 sq in. The
surface area of these leaves from an acre of plants, if laid out flat,
would cover approximately 4 acres (164,874 sq ft)! The food manufac-
turing portion of the plant includes the flat portion of the leaf, the
mid-rib of the leaf, the green stem and branches. The average stem
diameter at the soil line is 0.8 in. and is a strong woody support for
the foliage and fruit load which at first picking may weigh as much as
40 Ibs (30 Ibs fruit and the 10 lb mass of leaves and stem).


The pay-off of all of this elaborate green factory is, of course,
the fruit. The average modern tomato variety develops 51 flower clus-
ters each containing about 2.7 fruit per cluster. The average number
of fruit actually harvested per plant is well over 100, with some cul-
tivars averaging 125-140. Tomato breeders have been very successful
in producing cultivars which have a concentration of fruit in the lar-
ger sizes. A typical distribution may be 40 or more fruit in the ex-
tra large category; 32 in large; 21 in medium; and 7 in the small
size.


As tomatoes are sold by weight, the average fruit weight is very
important. An extra large tomato weighs about 7.0 oz, large 5.3 oz,
medium 3.6 oz and small 2.9 oz. Plant population in the Manatee-
Hillsborough area in which we conducted this plant characterization
study average about 1500-1800 plants to the row acre. The very wide
spacing results in the larger fruit count and weight per plant.


The next step in our analysis of yield potential of tomatoes is
devoted to this question: What is the difference in crop management
between the average and top grower?


(Marlowe)










B. Consumption and Production Trends for Broccoli and Cauliflower in
Florida


Broccoli and cauliflower have been receiving considerable atten-
tion in Florida as potential major crops. Although these crops have
only been produced in small quantities in the past, recent interest
indicates that Florida producers may well increase production in the
coming years.


The Florida consumption and production trends for broccoli and
cauliflower have been identified in a recent study. Estimates of
Florida's average monthly consumption from 1970 to 1980 and the esti-
mated monthly consumption in 1980 are shown in Table 1. In addition,
the average and total Florida cauliflower shipments both within Flori-
da and interstate are listed in Table 1. Table 2 lists the estimates
of the total annual consumption of broccoli and cauliflower in Florida
for the years 1970 to 1980, along with the total annual Florida cauli-
flower shipments both within Florida and interstate.


The results in Table 1 show the consumption pattern for the two
commodities throughout the year. December is the highest consumption
month for broccoli while October is the highest consumption month for
cauliflower. Florida had no recorded production of broccoli in the
sample period, but did register cauliflower shipments in the produc-
tion period from November to April.


Table 2 shows the annual consumption pattern that has taken place
from 1970 to 1980. Florida broccoli consumption has increased from
5760 thousand pounds in 1970 to 28294 thousand pounds in 1980. Flori-
da cauliflower consumption increased from 8554 thousand pounds in 1970
to 22843 thousand pounds in 1980. These shipments of Florida cauli-
flower increased within Florida from 1540 thousand pounds in 1970 to
9135 thousand pounds in 1980. Florida did not have recorded inter-
state shipments of cauliflower until 1978 and these interstate ship-
ments have increased to where they about equaled within Florida ship-
ments in 1980.

The results indicate that Florida growers who are contemplating
the production of broccoli and/or cauliflower should consider the im-
plication of such production. The results indicated a potential for
Florida growers to produce broccoli with a definite locational advan-
tage to Florida consumers over other suppliers. The producers should
determine their cost of production and determine whether their loca-
tional advantage allows their savings in transportion costs to offset
any disadvantage they may have in production costs. Since most broc-
coli comes from California, a potential advantage for Florida broccoli
growers does exist.







-6-


Those Florida growers who are contemplating producing cauliflower
have a different set of problems. The analysis performed here indi-
cates that Florida growers produced enough cauliflower in 1980 to
satisfy the Florida consumption need from January to March. In fact,
Florida is shipping cauliflower interstate during this and other peri-
ods, meaning that Florida growers must compete in the interstate mar-
ket with other U.S. producers. Since most cauliflower is produced in
California and the southwest, it appears Florida still has some loca-
tional advantage to eastern markets over those areas. This locational
advantage is the most probable reason Florida's interstate shipments
have expanded in recent years.


Table 1. Estimated Monthly Florida Consumption and Shipments of
Broccoli and Cauliflower (1000 Ibs).
Broccoli Cauliflower Cauliflower Shipments


Consumption
1970-80
Ave 1980
1333 2470
1084 2015
1491 2200
1263 2447
1400 2586
1115 2301
886 1922
856 1853
1129 2385
1399 2517
1410 2362
1528 3235


Consumption
1970-80
Ave 1980
1178 2770
830 1593
1065 1226
1006 1691
1062 1634
880 1748
790 1536
752 1291
915 1487
1622 2941
1500 2100
1244 2827


Within Florida Interstate
1970-80 1970-80
Ave 1980 Ave 1980
638 2770 318 2900
395 1593 409 2300
430 1226 355 2200
222 846 137 500
78 817 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
12 0 37 100
241 1885 181 600


Table 2. Estimated Florida Annual Consumption and Shipments of Broc-
coli and Cauliflower (1000 Ibs).
Broccoli Cauliflower Cauliflower Shipments
Year Consumption Consumption Within Florida Interstate
1970 5760 8554 1540 0
1971 8248 7814 1481 0
1972 9711 9609 825 0
1973 10072 9250 572 0
1974 11159 10737 780 0
1975 13960 12289 1274 0
1976 14155 12574 1009 0
1977 17636 14845 892 0
1978 20118 13750 1487 1000
1979 24735 19027 3182 6200
1980 28294 22843 9135 8600

(VanSickle)


Month
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec


--


---







-7-


C. Twenty-First Annual Florida Tomato Institute


The 21st Annual Florida Tomato Institute will be held on Thurs-
day, September 16, 1982, at the Marco Beach Hotel and Villas, Marco
Island, Florida. The Institute will proceed the Florida Tomato Com-
mittee/Exchange meetings at the same location on September 17 and 18.


The Planning Committee has selected topics that are of interest
to the total tomato industry. A preliminary program is included. The
final program will be printed and mailed in August.


The Florida Tomato Committee/Exchange has established special
rates with the Marco Hotel for the Institute and combined Committee-
Exchange meetings. If you wish to stay at the Marco Beach Hotel and
Villas, fill out the form below and mail it by August 16, to the:

Florida Tomato Committee/
Florida Tomato Exchange
P. 0. Box 20635
Orlando, Florida 32814

(Stall)


FLORIDA TOMATO COMMITTEE/FLORIDA TOMATO EXCHANGE


PLEASE RESERVE: European Plan

Single Occupancy
(Rate $55.00 single and/or
One bedroom suite
One bedroom lanai
(Rate $120.00 daily)


ARRIVAL DATE:


Double Occupancy
double)
Two bedroom suite
Two bedroom lanai
(Rate $185.00 daily)


TIME:


DEPARTURE DATE:


NAMESS:

SPOUSE'S NAME(S):

STREET:


ZIP CODE:


CITY:


STATE:







-8-

Preliminary Program
Florida Tomato Institute
September 16, 1982
9:30 a.m. 3:30 p.m.
Marco Beach Hotel & Villas
Marco Island, Florida

9:00 a.m. Registration and Coffee*
(*courtesy of E. I. Du Pont De Nemours & Company)

Introductory Remarks
D. N. Maynard, Chairman, Vegetable Crops Dept., Gainesville, FL

The 1981-82 Tomato Season
Wayne Hawkins, Florida Tomato Committee/Exchange, Orlando, FL

Caribbean Basin Initiative
John Himmelberg, Barnett & Alagia, Washington, D. C.

Production and Market Forecasting for Florida Tomatoes
John Van Sickle, Food & Resource Economics Dept., Gainesville,

The State Wide IFAS Tomato Variety Trials
P. J. Stofella, ARC, Ft. Pierce, FL

Tomato Quality Characteristics and Evaluation
D. D. Gull, Vegetable Crops Dept., Gainesville, FL

Irrigation Water Application in South and Southwest Florida
G. A. Marlowe, Jr., Vegetable Crops Dept., Gainesville, FL

Fertilizing for Double Crop Tomatoes
P. H. Everett, ARC, Immokalee, FL

MUM Containers
M. Sherman, Vegetable Crops Dept., Gainesville, FL

Update on Insecticidal Control of Tomato Pests
Van Waddill, AREC, Homestead, FL
D. J. Schuster, AREC, Bradenton, FL

Pseudomonas corrugata
Ecology of Bacterial Leafspot on Tomatoes
J. B. Jones, AREC, Bradenton, FL

Control of Bacterial Leafspot by Copper plus EBDC
R. E. Stall, Plant Pathology Dept., Gainesville, FL

Fusarium Wilt Race III
Corynespora (Target Spot)
R. B. Volin, AREC, Homestead, FL

Fusarium Wilt-The Florida Situation
J. P. Jones, AREC, Bradenton, FL










IV. HARVESTING AND HANDLING


A. Harvesting practices for roadside markets.


Customers repeatedly report that one of the major reasons why
they shop at roadside markets and other direct-sales outlets is for
fresh, high quality products. Harvesting practices can have a drama-
tic effect on product quality. County agents can assist their road-
side market managers by making them aware of the following general
harvest principles which help guarantee high quality products.


1. Harvest at optimum maturity for best eating quality. Both imma-
turity and overmaturity cause quality problems. Immaturity in-
creases water loss and shrivel. When harvested too immature,
some fruits such as strawberries and tomatoes may never ripen
satisfactorily; others such as watermelons and sweet corn may be
low in sugars. When harvested overmature, most products such as
beans, corn, and celery become tough. Overmature sweet corn will
be low in sugars and starchy. Both immature and overmature pro-
duce are more susceptible to decay.


2. Harvest frequently. When fields are adjacent to the market, har-
vesting throughout the day to replace produce that has been sold
will prevent quality deterioration between the harvest and sale.
Fewer pickers are required to harvest continuously throughout the
day.


3. When fields are not adjacent to the market, harvest during the
coolest part of the day. This practice is most important for
highly perishable produce, because high temperatures lead to
rapid deterioration. To minimize the spread of certain diseases,
harvest should not begin before the foliage has dried.


4. Keep harvested products in the shade. This simple practice will
minimize wilting, sunburn damage, and prevent unnecessary heating
of the produce. On a sunny, hot day, tomato fruit held in the
sun for an hour can be as much as 25F (14C) hotter than fruit
held in the shade.


5. Wash harvest containers daily. Use a chlorine solution made by
mixing one teaspoon of household bleach with one gallon of water
to thoroughly clean containers. This serves two purposes. First,
chlorine kills decay-causing organisms on the container surface.







-10-


Secondly, washing removes sand and other trash that may puncture
or injure the produce. Plastic containers' smooth surfaces are
easier to keep clean than wooden containers.


6. Handle all produce gently. Many fruits and vegetables have a
natural protective surface. Careful handling helps maintain this
surface and results in more attractive, better quality produce.
Watermelons that have been handled roughly may appear undamaged
but internal bruising may have occurred. Bruises, punctures, and
other wounds increase susceptibility to decay and water loss.


7. Avoid rough roads when transporting produce from the field to the
market. Many operators forget that vibration during transit can
cause considerable damage to produce. Tie or wedge the load
securely to help reduce damage. Grading of field roads may be
worthwhile.


For more information on these and other factors which affect pro-
duct quality refer to the new Vegetable Crops Fact Sheet, VC-33, Pro-
duce Handling for Roadside Markets. County extension programs can
help improve produce quality in roadside markets.


(Sherman)


V. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Know Your Minor Vegetables Scorzonera

Scorzonera (Scorzonera hispanica L.) is also known as black sal-
sify, black vegetable-oyster plant, serpent root, and viper's grass.
It has a long fleshy tap-root similar to salsify, but which is black
in color, with white flesh.


While scorzonera is not at all popular in the U.S., it has been
grown throughout Europe for many years where it is a native of Spain.
The name derives from the Spanish escorza nera, meaning black bark.
The reference to snakes in its common names serpent root and viper's
grass comes from the Spanish word for viper-scurzo.


The scorzonera plant reaches 2 feet in height, with entire leaves
similar to but wider than ordinary grass. If left to grow for the
second year, it bears dandelion-like yellow flowers on stems 2 to 3
feet high. Seeds are white, smooth, very long, blunt at one end and
somewhat pointed at the other.







-11-


Scorzonera is a perennial, but is grown as an annual with culture
suggested about the same as for parsnips, carrots, and, of course,
regular salsify.


Start the plants by sowing seeds 1/2 inch deep in the fall, win-
ter or early spring. Space plants 2-4 inches apart in the row, and if
more than one row is desired, space them 18-24 inches apart. Seeds
usually germinate well for at least 2 years.


This cool season vegetable requires an optimum monthly average of
55-750 F, with a monthly maximum average of 850 F and a monthly mini-
mum average of 450 F.


The roots will have reached edible size about 6 months after sow-
ing of the seeds. However, if left in the soil longer than this even
through the second year, they are reported to keep their culinary qua-
lity.


Boiling of the roots is necessary to remove a bitter taste, after
which they may be eaten in a similar manner and with the similar
oyster-like taste of salsify. Roots are used in soups, and mashed.
Also, the leaves are occasionally eaten in salads.

(Stephens)


B. Results from the
Identification Contest


1982 State FFA Vegetable


Forty-six FFA Chapters from throughout Florida entered teams in
the 1982 State Vegetable Judging & Identification Contest held April
30, in Gainesville. The total number of points for a team was 2715.
The top ten teams were:


CHAPTER
Santa Fe Sr.
Plant City Sr.
Bronson
Crescent City Sr.
Clermont
Newberry Sr.
Santa Fe Jr.
Groveland Sr.
J. G. Smith
Auburndale Sr.


POINTS
2467
2465
2448
2443
2405
2402
2380
2376
2355
2350


Judging


and


PLACING
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10







-12-


High individuals (905 possible points) for the event were:


1. Scot Weeks
2. Ginger Deas
3. Troy Deines
4. Robert Denton


850
844
835
833


The 1983 Contest will again be held here in Gainesville on April
22, 1983. Make plans to attend now.


(McDonald)



























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