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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: March 1982
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Volume ID: VID00383
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j VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


March, 1982

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

D.N. Maynard
Chairman

G.A. Marlowe M. Sherman
Professor Assistant Professor

W.M. Stall J.M. Stephens
Associate Professor Associate Professor

A. McDonald
VEA-I Multi-County

TO: VEGETABLE AND HORTICULTURE AGENTS
AND COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS

FROM: M. Sherman, Extension Vegetable Specialis
Vegetable Crops Department
1255 HS/PP Building
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Phone: 904/392-2134

VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 82-3

IN THIS ISSUE:

I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. "Vegetarian" Mailing List Update
B. Broccoli and Cauliflower Production
C. Vegetable Crops Calendar

II. PESTICIDE UPDATE
A. Section 18 for Use of Permethrin on Sweet Corn

III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
A. Herbicides Labeled for Use on Vegetables in Florida
B. Observation on Variability and Uniformity of Tomato
Yields

IV. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. Know Your Minor Vegetables Burdock
B. Gardening by the Moon and Almanac
C. Master Gardener Training Update
D. Florida State Fair Identification and Judging Contest

The Institute of Food end Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, ex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA. IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING








-2-


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


I. NOTES OF INTEREST


A. "Vegetarian" Mailing List Update


Postal regulations require that we update the newsletter
mailing list annually. If you wish to continue receiving the
"Vegetarian", please complete the enclosed card and return by
April 15.


(Stephens)


B. Broccoli and Cauliflower Production


The USDA recently reported production statistics for 22
major fresh market vegetables. Broccoli and cauliflower were the
only crops that showed consistent increases in harvested acres,
production, value/cwt and total crop value between 1979 and 1981.


BROCCOLI CAULIFLOWER
YEAR HARVESTED ACRES
1979 70,900 42,800
1980 77,900 43,300
1981 81,100 44,100
% increase 1979-81 14 3
PRODUCTION (1,000 cwt.)
1979 6,301 4,117
1980 6,753 4,255
1981 7,470 4,902
% increase 1979-81 19 19
VALUE (dollars/cwt.)
1979 19.20 19.70
1980 21.40 22.50
1981 23.20 24.20
% increase 1979-81 21 23
CROP VALUE (dollars)
1979 120,913,000 81,121 ,000
1980 144,613,000 95,762,C00
1981 173,542,000 118,570,f00
% increase 1979-81 44 46

Adapted from Vegetable Outlook and Situation, USDA, ERS, TVS-223
(January 1982)








-3-


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


During this period the total crop value increased by 44% for
broccoli and by 46% for cauliflower. Most of these increases
were due to increased production per acre and to increased prices
rather than to increased harvested acreage.


There has been considerable interest in both crops among
Florida growers in recent years, and acreage appears to be in-
creasing. The foregoing data support the idea of the increasing
popularity of broccoli and cauliflower on a national scale.


(Maynard)


C. Vegetable Crops Calendar

Mark these dates on your calendar.


March 23-25:


April 20:

April 28:

April 29:


National Carrot Conference, Altamonte Springs
Inn and Racquet Club, Altamonte Springs.

Sanford AREC Open House Research Update.

Immokalee ARC Field Day.

Belle Glade AREC Vegetable Field Day.


(Sherman)


II. PESTICIDE UPDATE


A. Section 18 for Use of Permethrin on Sweet Corn


The Environmental Protection Agency has granted a Section 18
specific exemption to the Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services for the use of permethrin (Ambush, Pounce) to
control the sweet corn caterpillar complex on sweet corn. The
exemption is subject to 19 conditions. Among these are:


1. A maximum of 57,200 acres of sweet corn in Alachua,
Broward, Collier, Dade, Gadsden, Hendry, Lake, Lee,
Marion, Martin, Orange, Palm Beach, Sarasota and
Seminole Counties may be treated.







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VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


2. The application rate at a maximum of 0.25 lb. AI per
acre per application can be made with the total dosage
not to exceed 3.25 lb AI per acre per crop season.


3. A pre-harvest interval of one day will be observed.


For other conditions and restrictions consult the label.


(Stall)


III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION


A. Herbicides Labeled for Use on Vegetables in Florida


"Is this herbicide labeled for use on my crop?", is a ques-
tion heard more and more around the state recently. The Exten-
sion Weed Control Guide at the present time lists only suggested
herbicides for use, not all labeled materials.


The difference between what is labeled and what is recom-
mended for use in Florida is due to two factors: (1) at the pre-
sent we have not sufficiently tested the material, or (2) from
test results, either the efficiency of the product is questiona-
ble, or under certain Florida conditions crop vigor is reduced
from its use. There are also some cases where companies may have
removed crops from their product label even though there is a
Federal registration for the use of the material on that crop.
These factors, along with special local registrations cause a
good deal of confusion in the identification of herbicides
labeled for specific crops.


Judy Allen, Extension Biologist, Vegetable Crops Department,
has compiled the following list of herbicides that are labeled
for use in Florida. The primary sources were from the USDA Com-
pilation of Registered Uses of Herbicides and from specific her-
bicide labels. Inconsistencies were found. In those cases,
other reference sources were consulted. Because of the inconsis-
tencies encountered compiling the list, one or two herbicides may
have inadvertently been omitted. If anyone finds mistakes in the
list, please contact us and we will correct it.








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VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


ARITCHOKES
Simazine

ASPARAGUS
Chloramben
Dalapon

Diuron
Glyphosate
Metribuzin


LABELED HERBICIDES FOR VEGETABLES
BEANS-LIMA CELERY

Bentazon CDAA

CDAA Linuron
Chloramben Petroleum Solvents


Paraquat
Petroleum Solvents
2, 4-D
BEANS-DRY AND SNAP
Bentazon

CDAA (Snap Only)
Chloramben

CIPC

Dalapon

DCPA
Dinitramine (Dry Only)

DNBP
EPTC

Glyphosate
Petroleum Solvents

Profluralin

Trifluralin


CIPC

Dalapon
Dinitramine
DNBP

Glyphosate
Petroleum Solvents
Profluralin
Trifluralin

BEANS-MUNG
DCPA
Profluralin
Trifluralin

BEETS-TABLE

Cycloate
EPTC
Petroleum Solvents
Phenmedipham

Pyrazon
CARROTS
CIPC
Linuron

Petroleum Solvents

Trifluralin


Prometryn

Trifluralin
COLLARDS
DCPA

Trifluralin
CORN-SWEET

Alachlor
Ametryn

Atrazine
Bentazon
Butylate
Cyanazine

Dalapon
DNBP

EPTC
Eradicane
Glyphosate

Linuron
Paraquat
Petroleum Solvents
Propachlor
Simazine

2, 4-D







-6-


CRUCIFERS-BROCCOLI
BRUSSELS SPROUTS,
CABBAGE & CAULIFLOWER
Bensulide
CDAA
DCPA
Petroleum Solvents
Trifluralin
CUCUMBERS
Bensulide
Chloramben
DCPA
DNBP
Naptalam
Petroleum Solvents
DILL
Petroleum Solvents
EGGPLANT
DCPA
ENDIVE
Pronamide
GARLIC

DCPA
HORSERADISH

DCPA
KALE

DCPA

Trifluralin


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER



LENTILS
Barban
Diallate
IPC
Triallate
LETTUCE
Benefin
Bensulide
IPC

Paraquat
Petroleum Solvents
Pronamide

MELONS
Bensulide
Chloramben

DCPA
DNBP
Naptalam
Petroleum Solvents
MINT
Bentazon
DNBP
Petroleum Solvents
Terbacil
MUSTARD
Barban
DCPA

Trifluralin


OKRA
Diphenamid
Profluralin
Trifluralin
ONIONS
CDAA
CIPC
DCPA
Petroleum Solvents

PARSLEY
Petroleum Solvents
PARSNIPS
Linuron
Petroleum Solvents
PEAS
Barban
Bentazon
CDAA
CIPC
Dalapon
Diallate
Dinitramine
DNBP

Glyphosate
IPC
MCPA
MDPB
Petroleum Solvents
Triallate
Trifluralin
















PEAS-BLACK EYED
CIPC
DCPA
Profluralin
Trifluralin
PEPPERS
Bensulide
Chloramben
DCPA
Diphenamid
Napropamide
Paraquat
Trifluralin
POTATOES
Alachlor
Ametryn
CDAA
Chlorbromuron

Dalapon
DCPA
Diphenamid
Diquat
DNBP
Endothall
EPTC
Linuron
Metribuzin
Paraquat


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER



POTATOES (cont.)
Pendimethalin
Petroleum Solvents
Trifluralin
POTATOES-SWEET
Chloramben
DCPA
Diphenamid
EPTC
Vernolate
PUMPKINS
Chloramben
SPINACH
CIPC
IPC
Norea
SQUASH
Bensulide
Chloramben

DCPA
DNBP
STRAWBERRIES
DCPA
Diphenamid
Napropamide
Petroleum Solvents
Terbacil
2, 4-D


TOMATOES
Bensulide
Chloramben

CIPC
DCPA
Diphenamid
Metribuzin
Napropamide
Paraquat
Pebulate
Petroleum Solvents
Trifluralin
TURNIPS
DCPA
Trifluralin
WATERMELONS
Bensulide
DCPA
DNBP
Naptalam


(Stall and Allen)







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VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


B. Observation on Variability and Uniformity of Tomato Yields


Uniformity. Yield. Quality. These are the three well
known keys to profit in modern vegetable production. The uniform
emergence of seeds, seedling growth, and later uniform crop de-
velopment all help to improve the efficiency of crop protection,
the manipulation of the crop, and the harvest operation. How
much uniformity have we achieved in some of our major crops in
Florida vegetable production?


Tomatoes are provided fairly uniform production inputs in
Southwest Florida. Most growers use only carefully selected
seeds from adaptable, high yielding cultivars. Seedlings are
produced in disease-free media, in containers, under carefully
monitored conditions. The seedlings are usually set into fumiga-
ted, pH adjusted, raised beds covered with plastic. The crop is
protected from pests from the day of field setting until final
harvest. All operations are handled in as uniform a manner as
possible. One should expect uniformity of yield with this expen-
sive, demanding, and closely watched cropping pattern.


In Southwest Florida one of the current dominant hybrid to-
mato varieties is Duke. Eight farms were selected for a study of
uniformity in 1981. Careful yield records of seven individual
plants were made at each of the test farms for three harvest per-
iods. The plants were then cut off one inch above the ground,
stripped of all remaining fruit and the total plant weight deter-
mined and stem diameter measured. A preliminary look at the mar-
ketable yield of this variety grown under such an uniform system
indicated how much and how little uniformity is being achieved.


The size categories used by the Florida tomato industry are
approximately as follows: (nearest mm, 25.4 mm = 1 inch).

Small Medium Large Extra large
53-58 56-64 63-73 mm 71-88 mm

The following table shows the fruit size variability based
on averages between farms: (figures rounded)








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VEGETARIAN


NEWSLETTER


Farm
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Ave
St. dev.


Numbers of Fruit
Ex. Large Large
7.7 10.3
9.8 11.0
14.3 16.0
22.2 24.2
14.8 14.2
30.4 25.0
21.8 22.7
14.8 23.7
18.3 18.3
9.4 7.6


Per Plant Average
Medium Small
10.8 4.7
13.4 12.3
12.7 8.8
17.0 14.8
11.4 23.8
21.2 10.1
17.3 9.7
16.0 7.3
15.0 11.4
6.2 7.1


Total MKT.
33.5
46.6
51.8
78.2
64.4
86.8
71.6
71.8
63.1
18.9


The averages (or means) show that the variety is capable of
a rather high productive capacity and that 58% of the fruit were
in the two larger sizes. The standard deviation indicates that
there was a fairly high degree of variability between farms in
nearly all size categories. One standard deviation accounts for
about 68% of the population which means that 68% of the total
marketable fruit number ranges from 44-82 per plant. That is a
rather wide range.


One farm which had a very uniform appearing field resulted
in the following distribution:


Plant No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Ave
St. dev.


Ex. Large
45
32
45
15
34
16
26
30.4
12.3


Large
27
18
36
27
19
28
20
25.0
6.4


Medium
7
12
29
25
28
30
18
21.3
9.1


Small
5
9
8
12
12
10
15
10.1
3.2


Total MKT.
84
71
118
79
93
84
79
86.8
15.3


These figures show that farms observed do have quite a bit
of variability even with this fairly uniform method of culture.
Plant to plant variation is lost in averaging, of course; but
single high plant productivity records can be important for set-
ting goals in the future. Some of these high yielding tomato
varieties are setting an average of 98 fruit, only 63 of which
are now being sold in the market period. On a weight basis, the
average total marketable weight was 10.7 Kg per plant (63 fruit)
but the potential of 16.7 Kg per plant (98 fruit) exists. The


C







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VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


highest yielding farm averaged 126 fruit set per plant, 87 went
to market. The weight per plant averaged 15.3 Kg marketed and a
potential of 22.2 Kg per plant.


Uniformity, yield, and quality improvement are worthwhile
goals that the grower can do something about. The misfortune is
that price received can be influenced so little by the risk-
takers responsible for our daily food and fiber.


(Marlowe)


IV. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING


A. Know Your Minor Vegetables Burdock


Edible burdock (Arctium lappa L.) is a member of the Compos-
itae family. Some of the other common names by which it is known
are gobo (Japanes name), ngau pong (Chinese name), harlock, edi-
ble goberon, bourholm, eddick, flapper-bags, sticky buttons, beg-
gar' s buttons, clot, clod, cockly, or hurr-burrs. Also, the
burrs are known as cuckolds, cuckles, cuckold's buttons, cuckoldy
busses.


There are two botanical species of burdock, A. lappa and A.
minus. The one found growing wild throughout much of the U.S. is
A. minus and is only slightly comparable to the cultivated A.
Tappa. Gobo (burdock) is a choice Chinese vegetable, and many
eat it with delight in Oriental restaurants thinking it is some
rare, Chinese ingredient.


Although burdock grows wild and thrives throughout the U.S.,
it is not native here. It was introduced by the early settlers
and was quickly adopted by the American Indians for their own
gardens.


These coarse perennial plants are weeds in many temperate
areas. Tops die down in the winter. New sprouts arising from
roots in spring are peeled and eaten raw or after cooking. The
dried roots from the first year' s growth and the seed are used
medicinally.








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VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Cultivated gobo looks very much like the wild plant. It is
tall, growing up to 8 feet under ideal conditions.The flowers are
purple and numerous, but small and comparatively inconspicuous,
quickly turning into burrs if allowed to go to seed. The roots
can grow as long as 4 feet but are slender and carrot or parsnip
shaped. Most of the time they grow about 24 inches long. They
are brown with white flesh.


Culture--Burdock will grow in most soils, but it is favored
by a well drained soil rich in humus. The seeds germinate read-
ily and should be sown in rows 18 inches apart either late in
fall or early in the spring (all winter in South Florida). When
well up, the seedlings should be thinned to stand 6 inches apart
in the row. Soaking seeds in warm water overnight before plant-
ing seems to help. Prepare the soil deeply (down to 24 inches)
to accommodate the long roots.


Use the same fertilizer as for the other vegetables in the
garden (about 4 pounds of 6-6-6 at planting time). Spraying and
dusting probably are not necessary as there are no reported pests
of this plant. Keep the flowers picked off to prevent formation
of burrs.


Harvest--The leaves and young shoots should be gathered in
the spring. The young shoots with tiny roots attached may be
pulled and cooked together like baby beets and beet greens. The
mature roots are ready for harvest about 2 1/2 months after
planting. To harvest these mature roots, dig deeply with a spade
or fork until a gentle tug frees the loosened roots. Extra long
roots may require a trench next to them to facilitate their re-
moval.


Use--While the young leaves and stems are edible, prepared
like spinach and asparagus, the most desired part of the plant is
the long slender root. When very young, the root can be gathered,
peeled, and eaten out of hand like a radish (add a little salt).
The mature root should be peeled, scalded, and then cooked any
way desirable.


The flavor of burdock varies with conditions, but has been
described as tasting like Jerusalem artichokes, scorzonera, or
parsnips. It is sweetly pungent and agreeable. The texture is
crisp when raw. Wild American burdock is very bitter and must be
cooked in a way to remove the bitterness.







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VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Seeds--are available from certain seed supply houses such as
Gurney, Nichols, and Hudson.


(Stephens)


B. Gardening by the Moon and Almanac


Extension workers often feel on the spot when some gardener
wants to know the best phase of the moon to plant a particular
crop or when to harvest and "put-up" (preserve) according to the
Signs of the Zodiac. Clearly there is not sufficient scientific
evidence one way or the other on which to base a reply.


Years ago, rural folks lived far more by their almanacs and
the moon than most people do today. Not only was planting gar-
dens and farm crops regulated by these signs, but many other
areas of their everyday lives were affected. Even today, after
science has brushed aside many of the old beliefs as baseless
superstitions, it would be difficult to convince old-time believ-
ers that the moon and the signs didn' t somehow work to influence
the growth of their crops, the canning and preservation of foods,
the breeding of their animals, and the curing of their meats.


The new moon and the first quarter increasing toward the
full, were thought of as the "light of the moon"; while the full
and the last quarter decreasing were known as the "dark of the
moon." The general rule most often adhered to was to plant crops
that bore their fruit above the ground on the light of the moon
and the crops that bore their fruits below the ground on the dark
of the moon. Fruit here refers to "edible parts".


One of the leading sources of seeds for Florida gardeners
(mail-order-catalog), has compiled, without offering an opinion
on the probable degree of success, a list of vegetables to be
planted according to the moon phase. This categorization follows.


First Quarter (light of the moon)


From second day after the new moon until the day before the
first quarter, plant broccoli, cucumbers, and sweet corn. Avoid
first day of New Moon, also the day it changes to second quarter.








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VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Second Quarter (light of the moon)


During the second quarter, until day before the full moon,
plant beans, eggplant, muskmelon, peas, pepper, pumpkin, squash,
tomatoes and watermelons.


Third Quarter (dark of the moon)


Plant beets, Jerusalem artichokes, carrots, parsnips, pota-
toes, radish, rutabaga, and turnips.


Fourth Quarter (dark of the moon)


Plant nothing, but turn sod, pull weeds, and do other garden
work.


Signs of The Zodiac


Although the phases of the moon were held to be more impor-
tant than were the signs of the Zodiac, the careful observer of
the almanac studied it and calculated the nearest date of the
best sign to make the two (moon phase and the signs) concur as
closely as possible.


Few of the oldtimers knew and only a fractional part of to-
day' s population have taken the time and trouble to learn the
origin of the Signs of the Zodiac or how the chart was created.
In ancient times, astronomers watching the heavens at night with-
out telescopes, observed that a number of brilliant constella-
tions of stars were almost evenly placed among the annual path of
the sun, moon, and the principal planets. The imaginary belt was
about sixteen degrees wide and extended for eight degrees on
either side of the sun. The belt is divided into twelve parts,
called Signs. Each Sign has thirty degrees.


Each sign received its name from the constellation in that
portion of the heavens. Eventually the Signs became associated
with parts of the human body, and it was common usage to refer to
a Sign as "in the head", or "in the feet", etc. The twelve Signs,
their constellation, and their associated body parts are: Aries
(ram-head); Aquarius (waterman-legs); Cancer (crabfish-breast);







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VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Capricorn (goat-knees); Gemini (twins-arms); Leo (lion-heart);
Libra (balance-reins); Pisces (fishes-feet); Sagittarius (bowman-
thighs); Scorpio (scorpion-loins); Taurus (bull-neck); Virgo
(virgin-bowels).


The idea was to coincide the proper moon phase with the
right sign. For example, corn was to be planted for best results
on the new moon and under the Sign of Aries, which is a fire sign
and governed by the sun. The growth then would be thought to be
rapid and vigorous. If planted on the dark of the moon, it would
bear very slender, non-productive ears. The inconsistency is
that Aries is also a "barren" sign, resulting in poor yields.
When potatoes were planted on the dark of the moon and a fruit-
ful, earthen sign (Taurus) with a watch-out to avoid bug days
(unsure what these were), the vines would be low and the potatoes
large and plentiful. But planting them on the light of the moon
would produce tall, weak vines with small potatoes. The tender
young potato plants would be destroyed by bugs if planted on "bug
days", regardless of the best signs otherwise.


The proper time, say the almanac and moon enthusiasts, for
turning the sod and destroying weeds is during the last quarter
of the moon, and in the barren signs of Gemini, Leo, Aquarius, or
Virgo. Planting was thought to give best results if performed in
the fruitful signs of Scorpio, Pisces, Taurus, or Cancer and
never under the barren signs.


Does it work?


Facts and evidence one way or the other are hard to come
by. The obvious affects of the moon on such things as tides,
fish activity, and human behavior tend to lend credence to these
long held beliefs about effects on plants. What is generally not
known or taken into account by almanac advocates is the fact
that, as centuries passed, the Signs moved slowly backward, re-
sulting in a realignment of the signs by as much as thirty de-
grees.


Although belief that astrology can determine the best time
for planting, weeding, harvesting and "putting-up" may be a fal-
lacy, the superstition still persists.


(Stephens)








-15-


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


C. Master Gardener Training Update


Master Gardener Training will finish up the first week of
March for Broward, Palm Beach, Pasco, Polk and Pinellas Counties.
Approximately 70 new Master Gardeners will become certified.
Persons coordinating the program in these counties are: Robert
Haehle, Broward; Jerry Swan, Palm Beach; Bob Stieger, Pasco; Joe
Freeman, Polk; Nancy Doubrava, Pinellas.


Leon County will begin a training session on March 9, with
about 25 persons interested in being Master Gardeners. David
Marshall and George Henry are the agents in charge of the Leon
County training.


Programs are being planned for the summer which will involve
training for agents who wish to begin a Master Gardener Program
and some advanced training for the Master Gardeners. More infor-
mation will be available on these at a later date. If you are
interested in beginning a program for Master Gardeners and have
not been contacted by your District Director, let him know you
are interested.


(McDonald)


D. Florida State Fair Identification and Judging Contest


One hundred and eighty 4-H and FFA members from throughout
the State participated in the Florida State Fair Ornamental Hort-
iculture Identification and Judging Contest on February 13th in
Tampa. The contest consisted of 40 ornamental plants and 40
flower or foliage plants to identify along with two classes of
ornamentals to judge.


Winning teams in the 4-H division with a possible 3000
points were:


Brevard 2,767 points
Manatee 2,694 points
Hillsborough 1,927 points







-16-


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Top five individuals in this division with a possible 1000
points were:


Susan Makela Brevard 950
Janet Kurina Manatee 933
Chad Stokes Brevard 930
Teki Hinton Hillsborough 890
Amy Jones Brevard 887


In the FFA division with a possible 3000 points the top
teams were:


Plant City Senior 2,752
Orlando Colonial 2,669
Plant City, J. G. Smith 2,640


Top five FFA members with a possible 1000 points are:


Penny Brown
Melissa Clark
Mary Jo Cotler
Leslie Purvis
John Poppell


- Wildwood 948
Orlando Colonial 947
Dade City Senior 935
-Plant City Senior 935
-Plant City Senior 920


Plans are for this event to become an annual event for 4-H
members and expand the plant material to include vegetables.


FFA members are preparing for their State Vegetable Judging
Contest which will be held in Gainesville on April 30. 4-H mem-
bers have begun work on their horticulture demonstration and
identification contests for district and state events.


If any one wishes assistance with these projects, I will be
more than happy to help.


(McDonald)


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...... I II




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