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Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: February 1982
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00382
Source Institution: University of Florida
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES COOPERATIVE
IAS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA EXTENSION SERVICE


17 VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


February, 1982

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

D.N. Maynard
Chairman


G.A. Marlowe
Professor

W.M. Stall
Associate Professor


M. Sherman
Assistant Professor

J.M. Stephens
Associate Professor


A. McDonald
VEA-I Multi-County


TO:


VEGETABLE AND HORTICULTURE AGENTS


AND COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS

FROM: M. Sherman, Extension Vegetable Specialis~ ,.

Vegetable Crops Department 'l
1255 HS/PP Building
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Phone: 904/392-2134

VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 82-2

IN THIS ISSUE:

I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. New Publications
B. Vegetable Crops Calendar

II. PESTICIDE UPDATE
A. Crisis Exemption for Use of Benomyl on Lettuce

III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
A. The Problem of Attendance
B. 1982 Watermelon Planting Intentions

IV. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. Know Your Minor Vegetables Truffles
B. Starting Potatoes from True Seed
C. Master Gardener Program
D. 4-H and Other Youth


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING








-2-


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


I. NOTES OF INTEREST


A. New Publications


Available from the Belle Glade AREC, P. 0. Drawer A,
Belle Glade, FL 33430.


1. Performance of Lettuce Lines and Cultivars in Sandy Soils
of South Florida in Preliminary Trials, Research Report
EV-1981-2, by V. L. Guzman.

2. Performance of Short Day Onion Cultivars in South
Florida, Research Report EV-1981-5, by R. E. Lucas and
V. L. Guzman.

Available from the Bradenton AREC, 5007 60th St. East,
Bradenton, FL 33508.


1. The Potential of Winged Bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolo-
bus) (L.) D.C.) as a Precrop for Spring Vegetables in
West Central Florida, Research Report GC 1981-10, by
A. A. Csizinsky.

2. Response of Four Tomato Cultivars to Fertilizer Levels
and In-Row Spacing, Research Report GC 1981-11, by A. A.
Csizinsky.

3. Effect of Fertilizer Placement Methods on Cabbage Yields
with Seepage and Drip Irrigation, Research Report GC
1981-12, by A. A. Csizinsky.

4. Response of a Fall Crop of Green Peppers to Seepage and
High Frequency Trickle Irrigation A Preliminary Report,
Research Report GC 1981-13 by A. A. Csizinsky.


(Maynard)








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VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


B. Vegetable Crops Calendar


February 16:


March 23-25:



April 20:


April 28:


Florida Seedsmen's Conference, Hilton
Inn, Gainesville.

National Carrot Conference, Altamonte
Springs Inn and Racquet Club, Altamonte
Springs.

Sanford AREC Open House and Research lUp-
date.

Immokalee ARC Field Day.


(Mayna rd)

II. PESTICIDE UPDATE


A. Crisis Exemption For Use Of Benomyl On Lettuce


Doyle Conner, Commissioner of Agriculture, FDACS, in a
January 8th Mailgram to Mrs. Anne Gorsuch, EPA, declared that
a crisis condition exists for the lettuce industry due to
severe disease problems and climatic stress conditions.
Therefore, utilizing the crises exemption provisions con-
tained in Part 166.8, Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regula-
tions, he has stated that the use of benomyl (Benlate) to
control Sclerotinia drop and Rhizoctonia bottom rot onlettuce
will be allowed in Florida effective that date.


A request for specific exemption was submitted on January
4, 1982.


(Stall)


III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION


A. The Problem of Attendance

Attendance at commercial and cooperative extension meet-
ings of which I have been a part in the past four or five











VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


months has been critically low. This poor attendance may or
may not express a lack of interest in the program offered.
It may have been a "sign of the times", indicating that
people are looking critically at almost everything and esta-
blishing a priority of expense, time invested, and expected
take-home value of the meeting. Whatever the cause, we in
extension must face this problem more realistically than ever
before in our times of declining travel budgets, emphasis on
broader program, and accent on the mass information approach.


First, we need to consider the cost-benefit of the meet-
ing to the vegetable grower. Are the topics on target?
Could the topic help the person to solve a key problem, in-
crease efficiency, or reduce costs? An advisory committee
can be very helpful in determining the need for a meeting of
growers, and their advice on topics should be seriously con-
sidered if the committee consists of active and effective
members,


The expense of meetings to the county or state usually
increases as the length of program, number of speakers in-
volved, fanciness of the facilities, refreshments, or meal
provided increases. Tighter budgets of the current period
are not unique to county and state extension workers as the
allied industries are walking the same road, too.


Perhaps we need to include in the publicity for an in-
tended meeting (after a felt need has been established) a
statement such as this:


"This meeting was requested by an advisory
committee of your (co-workers, farm friends,
etc). The meeting should help you to increase
your efficiency, reduce costs, or increase your
cost-benefit relationship on these topics. Be-
cause of the expense of such a meeting we will
need to know if a minimum of attendance of (25-
30-100?) can be expected to justify this effort.
Please call or send in the attached card to indi-
cate your intention to attend or not. This is
not a legal or binding commitment. If we do not
receive notice that a minimum attendance is to be
expected this meeting will be canceled two weeks
before that date."







-5-


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Would this help? We have to do something about the empty
chairs and the declining budget.


(Marlowe)


B. 1982 Watermelon Planting Intentions


The Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service esti-
mated the expected watermelon plantings in Florida for the
1982 season at 57,000 acres, nearly 6% more than the 54,000
acres planted in the 1981 season.


In the January 22 report, they indicate that in the
southwest the transplanted acreage was hurt by freezing tem-
peratures on January 12, causing variable damage in many
fields. Most fields came through in fair condition but spot
replanting will be necessary. The planting was underway in
December, and replanting and planting of new acreage will
continue into February.


In the southeast where the total acreage is small, plants
just emerging were killed by freezing temperatures and will
have to be replanted. Planting and replanting will continue
into February.


In the west central, planting was underway during
January. There was no damage reported but seeds have not
germinated because of the cold weather. Planting will con-
tinue through February.


In the north central, north and west, land preparation
was just getting underway. Seeding is expected to begin in
late January in the north central, and early to mid February
in the north and west depending on weather conditions.


The report goes on to state that acreage may differ
significantly from these intentions due to many reasons. The
report will be updated in April.


(Stall)








-6-


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


IV. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING


A. Know Your Minor Vegetables Truffles


The truffles of commerce are ascomycete fungi which form
subterranean fruit-bodies. They are hypogeous discomycetes
of the order Tuberales, more specifically Tuber melanosporum
(the Perigord truffle) and T. magnatum (the white truffle of
Piedmont), and a number of other species.


Common British truffle species are Tuber rufum, Tuber
puberulum, and Tuber excavatum. The fruit-bodies are globe
shaped, up to 3 cm in diameter. In section they consist of
an outer peridium (covering), often of thick-walled cells,
and a gleba (central fertile part), traversed by darker veins
which represent the hymenium (spore bearing surface). Unlike
many common mushrooms which have external hymenium, the truf-
fle's hymenium is not open to the outside and the spores are
not discharged violently. Spores are thought to be dissemi-
nated through the action of small animals feeding on the
fruit-bodies.


The Perigord truffle is associated with the roots of
Quercus spp. (oaks) in France, both in the wild and in culti-
vations. The tiny truffles, fruit-bodies from 1 to 3 centi-
meters in diameter, are not easily found. They are often
collected with the aid of trained dogs and pigs who detect
them by smell. Experienced truffle experts are sometimes
able to spot the fungi hy the characteristic heaving of the
soil beneath the oak trees, by the droppings of rodents such
as rabbits and squirrels who feed on them, and by the pre-
sence of truffle flies.


In cultivation, wild Quercus trees are moved to the cul-
tivated area, and soil from beneath the trees where truffles
were found is placed in proximity to the transplanted tree
roots. Crops of truffles develop after about seven years and
are gathered by raking the soil under the trees.


Hart's truffle (Elaphomyces) is reported to be the most
common British hypogaeous fungus and can be collected year
round beneath the litter layers of various trees, particular-
ly beech. These range in size from 1 to 4 cm. when cut open,







-7-


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


an outer rind can be distinguished from a central mass of
spore bearing asci. Little is known about the conditions
necessary for the germination of the spores.


In U. S. gourmet food establishments, truffles are a very
expensive food item primarily due to their restricted locale
and unique method of production. Little information is
available on the success or failure of attempts to cultivate
the truffle in the U.S. Truffles are used in such gourmet
food items as pate's (goose liver spreads) and sauces.


(Stephens)


B. Starting Potatoes from True Seeds


Irish potatoes are usually started from the vegetative
tubers cut into two-ounce pieces, each containing at least
one "eye". This season, however, home gardeners are being
offered a new variety, 'Explorer', which is started from true
seed. In 1982, a dozen mail-order seed companies are offer-
ing the 'Explorer' potato. These include Burpee, Field,
Gurney, Harris, Hastings, Herbst, Johnny's, May, Olds, Park,
Stokes, and Twilley.


'Explorer' is being billed as the first open-pollinated
potato from seed that is virtually free of wide variations in
plant characteristics and which has at least 80% seed germi-
nation. It is reported to be the result of seven years of
intensive plant breeding by Dr. Scott Trees, Pan American
Seed.


Although the domestic potato, Solanum tuberosum, commonly
reproduces vegetatively, sexual reproduction plays an impor-
tant role for the wild diploid species in South America. How-
ever, seedlings result in a vast array of plant sizes,
shapes, and productive ability. Most of the introductions of
foreign potato varieties must be propagated and maintained
vegetatively because they do not reproduce or breed true to
their original type when grown from true seed, and many pro-
duce few, if any, true seeds under normal conditions of cul-
ture. The vegetative maintenance of original lines is time-
consuming and expensive.












VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Flower production and seed formation occur in the garden
only when the plants have ideal growing conditions with
especially cool temperatures (easily produced in green-
houses). Whenever cross-fertilization is successful, the
ovaries develop in about 10 days, and about 60 days later the
potato fruit develops, resembling a small green tomato which
does not change color upon ripening. Most seed balls
(fruits) contain from 100 to 300 mature seed. The seed,
which resemble miniature tomato seed without fuzz, germinate
erratically soon after maturity. After storage for a few
months they will germinate and grow more readily. Each of
the small plants originating from the seed constitutes a
potential new variety.


The 'Explorer' potato has yet to be tried in Florida gar-
dens or fields. It remains to be seen just how productive it
will be, especially when compared to our standard varieties
and method of culture from seedpieces.


For gardeners who wish to try the 'Explorer', plant seeds
as you would tomato or pepper. Since it is experimental, it
might be best to plant seeds in plant growing containers to
obtain a 4 to 6 week old transplant before setting out-of-
doors. In Florida, seedlings should be set in the garden
January through February, (March for trial only). 'Explorer'
is said to germinate in 14 days and mature from 90 to 120
days. Each hill should produce 2 to 3 pounds of a white
fleshed, light russet potato for general use.


(Stephens)


C. Master Gardener Program


Florida's Master Gardener program continues to grow and
expand with training of volunteers just beginning in four new
counties.


On the east coast, Broward and Palm Beach counties are
meeting in Ft. Lauderdale. On the west coast, Polk,
Pinellas, and Pasco counties are meeting in Hillsborough
County.







-9-


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Both programs began the second week of January. There
are 70 potential Master Gardeners in the groups; all seem
very interested in helping their extension office by communi-
cating their horticulture expertise to their communities.


Dade, Hillsborough, and Brevard counties completed their
training and brought into their strong programs 55 additional
Master Gardeners.


Dean App, Asst. Dean for Agricultural Programs, recently
sent a memorandum to all District Extension Directors con-
cerning the Master Gardener Program. This memo requested
that the Director make an assessment of counties desiring to
participate in the Master Gardener Program, and report back
to me.


If your county has an interest in this program, let your
District Extension Director know. I welcome your input about
this program.
(McDonald)


D. 4-H and Other Youth


4-H and FFA members from around the state will be travel-
ing to the Florida State Fair in Tampa to compete in many
activities during the next few weeks. One such activity will
be an Ornamental Horticulture Identification and Judging Con-
test. The contest consist of 100 different ornamental
plants, and two classes to judge.


The event will take place on Saturday, February 13. Reg-
istration will begin at 8:30am and judging will start at
9:00am. This contest will include two divisions: FFA and
4-H. Contestants from both organizations will view the
classes together. Tabulations and awards will be handled
separately. Participation is limited to 4-H and FFA members
from the State of Florida. A team consists of three to four
members; only the scores of the three highest members will be
considered in awarding team prizes. The Florida State Fair
Authority will provide trophies for the 1st through 5th place
teams and highest individual. Rosettes will be presented to
each member of the 1st place team.









-10-


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


For further information about this contest, call Ann
McDonald, Vegetable Crops Department, or Bob Black, Ornamen-
tal Horticulture Department, University of Florida.


(McDonald)



























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