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Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: January 1982
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00381
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES COOPERATIVE
F UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


January, 1982

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

D.N. Maynard
Chairman


G.A. Marlowe
Professor

W.M. Stall
Associate Professor


M. Sherman
Assistant Professor

J.M. Stephens
Associate Professor


A. McDonald
VEA I Multi-County


TO:


VEGETABLE AND HORTICULTURE AGENTS


AND COUNTY EXTENSION DIRECTORS

FROM: M. Sherman, Extension Vegetable Specialisty) -
Vegetable Crops Department
1255 HSPP Building
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Phone: 904/392-2134

VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER 82-1

IN THIS ISSUE:

I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. New Publications

II. PESTICIDE UPDATE
A. Ethylene Use Label Required


III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
A. Boron Toxicity on Tomatoes in

IV. HARVESTING AND HANDLING
A. Influence of Harvest Date and
mechanically Harvested Tomato


Southwest Florida


Cultivar on Semi-
Yields


V. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. Know Your Minor Vegetables Parsley




The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING












VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


I. NOTES OF INTEREST


A. New Publications


1. Micronutrients for Strawberries, Research Report SV-
1981-6, by E. E. Albregts and C. M. Howard is avail-
able from the Dover ARC, Rt. 2, Box 157, Dover, FL
33527.


2. Outline of Current Research and Extension Projects on
Strawberries, GC 1981-17, by W. E. Waters is available
from the Bradenton AREC, 5007 60th St. E., Bradenton,
FL 33508.


(Maynard)


II. PESTICIDE UPDATE


A. Ethylene Use Label Required


The following statements do not represent any change in
the status of ethylene, but they are meant to serve as a re-
minder to the users of ethylene gas.


Ethylene gas used for plant regulation such as coloration
or ripening of fruits and vegetables is legally regarded as a
pesticide for regulatory purposes. Therefore, it must be re-
gistered with the EPA and the state of Florida. Containers
must bear EPA approved labeling including EPA registration
and establishment numbers, intended uses, ingredients state-
ment, and appropriate precautionary labeling statements.


Users should insure that their suppliers are providing
them with registered ethylene in properly labeled containers.


(Sherman and Stall)







-3-


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


III. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION


A. Boron Toxicity on Tomatoes in Southwest Florida


What can vegetable growers do about the increasingly
painful economic crunch most have been experiencing during
the past decade. The options are few. (1) They can strive
for higher yields and better quality. (2) They can try to
reduce costs wherever possible by further tightening an al-
ready taut belt. (3) They can hope to get an occasional bar-
gain on some of the inputs of production or marketing such as
pesticides, fertilizers, machinery and containers. (4) They
can pray for better prices for what they sell. (5) They can
hope for the discovery of oil, uranium or gold on their land.


Farmers live in a hard, real world, thus options (1) and
(2) are usually chosen.


In their effort to increase yields and protect quality
some growers increase specific inputs beyond the "help level"
and actually create new problems. A dramatic example of
overuse of micronutrients occurred in tomato fields in south-
west Florida recently.


Several tomato fields in the Manatee-Ruskin area exhibi-
ted a progressive firing and necrosis of the lower leaves.
This overall scorching did not fit typical nutrient deficien-
cy symptoms, evidence of disease organisms, or insect damage.
The farmers' fertilizer and spray program was examined in de-
tail. The scorch was greatest in the mulched beds near the
irrigation furrow. Application rates of micro-nutrient mix
ranged between 70-100 lbs to the acre. In some areas the
firing had progressed up to the top of the plant with one
side more affected than another.


The recent "late firing" problem was examined by a group
of soil scientists, plant pathologists, plant physiologists,
and horticulturists. Leaf samples, analyzed by Dr. Jack
Woltz of AREC Bradenton, showed boron concentrations be-
tween 130-200 ppm in some of the most troubled fields.







-4-


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


It is generally believed that B levels in excess of 100 ppm
on a dry wt. basis can be toxic. Dr. Woltz had observed sim-
ilar symptoms on chrysanthemums which led him to suspect B
toxicity.


Just because a little is good, more may not be better.
The fertilizer salesman warned these growers of the potential
danger but in an effort to increase yields, the helpful level
was exceeded and this problem developed. Rather wide ranges
of N-P-K can be tolerated by many crops, but most can only
tolerate moderate ranges of the secondary nutrients (Mg, Ca,
S) and very limited ranges of the micronutrients such as B,
Mn, Zn and Cu.


Growers may apply these micronutrients as single element
materials to the soil or as foliar sprays. They may also se-
lect broad spectrum micronutrient mixtures to be mixed into
the soil directly or mixed into complete fertilizers for band
or bed incorporation. A usual applied rate of broad spectrum
micronutrients is 25-30 lbs. per acre, with a typical compo-
sition as follows:


Boron 3% Manganese 7.5%

Copper 3% Zinc 7.0%

Iron 18% Molybdenun 0.2%


This rate would supply approximately 0.9 lb. elemental B,
0.9 lb. of copper, etc.


Extension agents and fertilizer salesmen can guide grow-
ers to use safe micronutrient levels. Hundred-acre tomato
fields demonstrating micronutrient toxicity symptoms are hard
lessons we all hope will not be repeated.


(Marlowe)







-5-


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


IV. HARVESTING AND HANDLING


A. Influence of Harvest Date and Cultivar on Semimechani-
cally Harvested Fresh Market Tomato Yields


'MH-1" and two new jointless Florida tomato releases,
'Burgis' and 'Hayslip', were evaluated for yield characteris-
tics with the IFAS semimechanical fresh market harvester dur-
ing the fall 1980 at the Agricultural Research Center, Fort
Pierce, Florida. Results of this work were presented at the
Florida State Horticultural Society Meetings in Orlando in
November, 1981. The work was done by P. J. Stoffella, Ft.
Pierce ARC, M. Sherman, Vegetable Crops Department, Gaines-
ville, and F. G. Martin, Statistics Department, Gainesville.


Three replications of fifty-foot plots were harvested
with the IFAS semimechanical fresh market harvester either 85
or 99 days after transplanting. All culls were removed and
colored and green fruit were separated by an 8 person crew on
the harvester. Further separation of colored fruit into red
and pink fruit was completed after the harvest operation.
Mature green, pink, and red marketable fruit yields were
weighed and pink and red fruit counted.


No significant difference for total marketable yields oc-
curred between the two harvest dates (Table 1). 'Burgis' had
significantly higher total yields than 'Hayslip' or 'MH-1'.
No significant harvest date x cultivar interaction occurred
for any measured variable.


Table 1. Total marketable fruit yields.


Harvest Date
85 Days 99 Days Mean
-------- 30 lb. boxes/A -------

Burgis 1313 1460 1387 aZ
Hayslip 1140 1180 1160 b
MH-I 987 1120 1054 b

ZMean separation by Duncan's Multiple Range Test, 5%
level.








-6-


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


The first harvest date (85 days after transplanting) had
significantly more green fruit and less colored fruit than
the second harvest (99 days after transplanting) (Table 2).
The higher yields of 'Burgis' were due to the greater number
of colored fruit when compared to 'Hayslip'. The mean col-
ored fruit weight was 0.35 lbs/fruit for 'Burgis' and 'Hay-
slip' compared to 0.27 lbs/fruit for 'MH-1'.


The high percentage of colored fruit and low percentage
of green fruit (Table 2) indicate that 'MH-1' was the earli-
est maturing cultivar. 'Burgis' matured later than 'MH-1'
but earlier than 'Hayslip'.


Table 2. Percentage of green and colored fruit.


Harvest Date
85 days 99 days Mean
Green Pink Green Pink Green Pink
& Red & Red & Red
-------------------% by weight----------------------
Burgis 83 17 40 60 61 bz 39 b
Hayslip 91 9 61 39 76 a 24 c
MH-1 73 27 21 79 47 c 53 a

ZMean separation within columns by Duncan's Multiple Range
Test, 5% level.


Sand damage was observed on all fruit during the harvest-
ing operation. Most of this occurred at the fruit separation
stage. Damage was severe enough to detract from fruit ap-
pearance following ripening.


Although further testing is needed, these results indi-
cate that both 'Burgis' and 'Hayslip' are better cultivars
for mechanical harvesting with the IFAS semimechanical har-
vester than 'MH-1'. It also appears that the ratio of col-
ored versus green fruit can be regulated by different har-
vesting dates without adversely affecting yields.


(Sherman)







-7-


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


V. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING


A. Know Your Minor Vegetables Parsley


Parsley, including both the leaf type, Petroselinum
crispum (Mill.) Nym. and the root type, Petroselinum crispum
(Mill.) Nym. (Tuberosum group), is a member of the same fami-
ly as celery-Umbelliferae. The plant is native to the same
Mediterranean area as celery. The name Petroselinum is de-
rived from the Greek work "petros" which means "stone" refer-
ring to the plants habit of growing in rocky places.
"Selinon" was the greek word for parsley in the 3rd and 4th
centuries B.C.


Both the crowded, dense-leaved type and the broad open-
growing type were described in the 4th century B.C. Parsley
was common in northern Europe in the 13th century, and was
introduced into England from Sardinia in 1548. European col-
onists brought parsley to the U.S. in the 17th century.


Parsley is grown throughout Florida, both as a commercial
crop of minor importance in the vegetable producing areas of
central and south Florida, and in gardens from Key West to
Pensacola.


Parsley is a leafy plant, although there is a rooting
form. Leaf shape is triangular and varies from three-leaflet
to curled and finely cut. The leaves are used mainly for
garnishing meats, fish and other dishes. The finely chopped
leaves are also used as flavoring. Fresh green parsley, how-
ever, should not be left on the plate but should be eaten raw
to take advantage of the nutritious vegetable that it is.


There are numerous cultivated varieties of parsley in-
cluding 'Curled Leaf', a very finely divided leaf type;
'Italian' (or Plain-Leaf), a less decorative but flavorable
parsley that most closely resembles the original non-curly
plants of Europe; 'Hamburg', whose white roots resemble young
parsnips; 'Neapolitan' (or Celery Leaf), grown for its leaf
stalks which are eaten like celery; and 'Dwarf', suitable for
ornamental edging of a garden.








-8-


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Parsley is a cool season biennial that is grown as an an-
nual in Florida. It is propagated by planting seed, either
in the fall (September October) or in the spring (February
- March). The seeds germinate better if soaked for 24 hours
before planting. They should be sown very shallow, about 1/4
inch deep, and covered with a thin mulch layer until the
seedlings appear. Germination takes several days. Seedlings
may be transplanted later.


Only a few plants are needed to serve the needs of most
families, and these may be grown in containers. Space plants
6 inches apart in rows, one foot apart in the garden. Keep
the soil well watered, as parsley requires very moist soil.
Careful weeding is necessary. A complete fertilizer at
planting time followed by monthly feeding with a nitrogen
fertilizer is best on most Florida soils.


Parsley leaves are ready for use about 3 months after
seeding. A few leaves at a time may be removed from each
plant, or the entire bunch of leaves may be removed for use.
Although parsley leaves are used most commonly in the fresh
green condition, their characteristic flavor and green color
can be retained if the leaves are dried rapidly.


Dehydrated parsley flakes are produced commercially in
California (over 1 1/2 million pounds produced annually, with
12 pounds of destemmed fresh parsley producing 1 pound of the
dried product).


The plants flower in the second year, and as soon as the
seed is ripe, it may be collected and dried. All parts of
the plant contain a volatile oil called apiol, extracted and
used in medicine. Parsley seed oil is used for flavoring.


Green parsley leaves have a mild, agreeable flavor, and
are an excellent source of vitamin C, iodine, iron and other
minerals. Quite often parsley is left on the plate to become
the last bite, as it tends to sweeten the breath.











VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


Turnip-rooted parsley is the type that forms edible
leaves and an edible root which is white, dry, and
celery-like in flavor. In shape and appearance, the root
resembles a slender parsnip. It is used as a cooked
vegetable, like carrot or parsnip. It has a long history of
use as a winter vegetable in Holland, Germany, and Poland, as
is indicated by such names as Hamburg and Dutch parsley.


(Stephens)































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