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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: December 1988
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00380
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Full Text
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

V elablc Crops Deparltment *1255 HSPP D Caincsillc. FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134
--


Vegetarian 88-12


Contents


December 12, 1988


I. NOTES OF INTEREST


A. Vegetable Crops Calendar. NOTICE: PLEASE
B. Eighth Annual FSGSA-IFAS RETURN YOUR
Seed Seminar: Agenda VEGETARIAN
C. Strawberry Field Day Program SUBSCRIPTION CARD
D. Announcement and Invitation NOW OR YOU MAY BE
for Florida Growers to the DELETEDIII
21st Congress of the National
Agricultural Plastics Association.
E. New Newsletter on Greenhouse Vegetables.


":i ',' II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Use of Transplants in Watermelon Production.

III. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Third Party Registrations Future for Vegetable
Labels?
SB. Curbit, EC label on cucumbers, melons, water-
melons.
4 ... C. Methyl Bromide Use on Watermelon.

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. American Horticultural Therapy Association.


V' Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this
4Y5 : newsletter. Whenever possible, please give credit to the
S. -4, authors. The purpose of trade names in this publication is
solely for the purpose of providing information and does not
necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.







The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS. STATE OF FLORIDA. IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING


i, I
~;SL: I
k'.


I )







I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Calendar

Jan. 7, 1989. Suwannee Valley
Vegetable and Greenhouse Vegetable
Shortcourse and Tradeshow. 8:00 am
to 3:00 pm (Field vegetable program),
3:00 pm to 8:30 pm (greenhouse
vegetable program). Programs held at
Suwannee County Agricultural Center
and Coliseum in Live Oak. Lunch and
dinner tickets $5.00 each. (Contact
Bob Hochmuth, Live Oak AREC (904)
362-1725).
Jan. 30, 1989. Watermelon
Institute. Farm Bureau Building
Auditorium. 12:00 noon to 4:00 pm.
(Contact George Hochmuth, (904) 392-
7912).


Feb. 1, 1989. Strawberry Field
Day, Dover
Feb. 5-7, 1989. Southern Region
- ASHS Annual Convention. Opryland
Hotel, Nashville, TN.
Feb. 8-9, 1989. FSGSA-IFAS Seed
Seminar, Holiday Inn West, 1-75 -
Newberry Road. Gainesville.
Feb. 11, 1989. 4-H/FFA Horticul-
ture Identification/Judging Event.
Florida State Fair. Tampa. 9:00 am
(Contact Jim Stephens).
March 6-9, 1989. National
Agricultural Plastics Assoc. 21st
Congress, Orlando Hyatt Hotel,
Kissimmee, FL.


B. Eighth Annual
Seed Seminar: Agenda.


FSGSA-IFAS


EIGHTH ANNUAL FSGSA-IFAS SEED SEMINAR
Feb.8-9, 1989, Holiday Inn West, 1-75
Gainesville, FL

FEBRUARY 8:

11:00 am to 5:00 pm Registration

1:15 pm Welcome Danny Summers, President, FSGSA.

Session One: POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR IFAS CULTIVAR RELEASES AND THE
NEW FLORIDA SEEDS LAWS Moderator: Rick Anderson, Peto Seed Company.

1:30 pm IFAS Cultivar Release Policy J. M. Davidson, Dean for Research, IFAS.

2:00 pm New Wheat Cultivar Releases Ron Barnett, IFAS Agronomy.

2:15 pm Jubilee II Watermelon Jim Crall, IFAS, CFREC, Leesburg.

2:30 pm New Lettuce Releases for Florida Vic Guzman, IFAS Everglades REC.

2:45 pm The New Florida Seed Law Van B. Madden, Seed Section, FDACS.

3:00 pm Florida Laws Pertaining to Labeling and Interstate Shipment of Seeds
When Treated With Pesticides Steve Rutz, Bureau of Pesticides, FDACS
Administration,

3:30 pm Session Two: SEED TREATMENTS AND GERMINATION ENHANCEMENT IN THE
FLORIDA TRANSPLANT HOUSE Moderator: Richard Wojciak, SunSeeds.


FSGSA-IFAS










Seedsman Seminar Agenda continued

3:35 pm New Commercial Seed Enhancements for Vegetable Transplant Growers -
Steve Cull, Peto Seed Company, Saticoy, California.

4:00 pm The Needs for Better Germination Tom Youngs, Zellwin Farms.

4:20 pm Germination Enhancement Treatments and the Need for Better Germination
Dick Bostdorff, Speedling Inc., Sun City.

6:00 pm Social

7:00 Dinner Biotechnology: Monsanto's Perspective, Dr. Stephen Muench,
Product Development Manager Genetically Engineered Plants, Monsanto,
St. Louis.

FEBRUARY 9

8:25 am Session Three: PESTS AS THEY AFFECT EARLY SEEDLING GROWTH Moderator
Leonard A. Douglass, Asgrow Florida Company, Lake City.

8:30 am Improving Plant Stands of Super Sweet Corn by Seed Treatment D.J.
Cantliffe, Vegetable Crops Department, IFAS, Gainesville.

8:45 am Realizing the Promise of Biological Seed Treatments Dr. Gary Harman,
Department of Horticultural Sciences, Cornell University, Geneva, NY.

9:25 am Survey of Alternaria dauci in Carrots and New Germplasm for Resistance.
Jim Strandberg, CFREC, Sanford.

9:45 am Transplant House Foliar Diseases and Insects Galen Francis, Glades
Crop Care.

10:05 am White Fly and its Control in the Plant House and on Young Field
Seedlings Dave Shuster, Gulf Coast REC, Bradenton.

10:45 amSession Four: SEED PRODUCTION OF AGRONOMIC CROPS IN FLORIDA -
Moderator : Charlie Dean, Agronomy Department, IFAS, Gainesville.

10:50 am Field Corn Ed Hamilton, Vegetable Production Manager, Duda.

11:05 am Opportunities and Limitations of Growing Seeds in Florida Dr. Randy
Jeppson, Cargill Hybrids, Minneapolis, MN.










C. Strawberry Field Day Program.

February 1, 1989. Dover AREC (13138 Gallagher Rd.)
Moderator: Dr. D. N. Maynard, Veg. Ext. Spec., GCREC Bradenton

1:30 4:00 PM SPEAKER PRESENTATIONS


Welcome and Introduction
Overview of IFAS Research
Nematode Research
Insects
Weed Control
Irrigation Research
Varieties
Diseases
Nutrition and Culture
Specialty Vegetables


Dr.
Dr.
Mrs
Dr.
Dr.
Dr.
Dr.
Dr.
Dr.
Dr.


Waters
Thompson
.Overman
Price
Gilreath
Clark
Chandler
Howard
Albregts
Maynard


4:00 pm TOUR OF RESEARCH PLOTS

(Contact E. E. Albregts (813) 659-2801)


D. Announcement and Invitation
for Florida Growers to the 21st
Congress of the National Agricultural
Plastics Association.

The 21st meeting of N.A.P.A.
will be held March 6-9, 1989, at the
Hyatt Orlando Hotel, Kissimmee,
Florida. Program includes over sixty
(60) papers, plus special sessions
and workshops, and tours of agri-
plastics applications. Conference
Manager is Dr. George J. Hochmuth,
Vegetable Crops Department, Univer-
sity of Florida, Gainesville, FL
32611.
N.A.P.A. is composed of approxi-
mately 50% researchers and 50% exten-
sion agents, and commercial producers
of ag. plastics. The latter include
makers of films, netting, fabrics,
irrigation and other water management
systems, glazings, horticultural
containers, etc.


Tentative Program

Mar. 5: Arrival, registration, even-
ing reception.
Mar. 6: Plenary Session and breakout
sessions in the am, breakout
sessions and symposium on
Plastics Degradability and
Recycling in the pm.
Mar. 7: Tours by charter bus, (incl.
lunch): A) Ornamentals
Tour; B) Vegetable Trans-
plants & Production Tour.
Evening cash bar and
Banquet.
Mar. 8: Breakout sessions, Industry
workshops (Containers,
Film), Trade Fair-FLORIDA
GROWERS DAY all day.
Mar. 9:Breakout sessions, Trade
Fair luncheon & business
meeting, Adjournment.

N.A.P.A. would like you to come
to the entire Congress, and offers
the Florida Grower member's registra-
tion prices, however, Wednesday March
8th is set aside as FLORIDA GROWERS










DAY and admission is only $10.00.
For a list of Papers or for registra-
tion forms please write or call
N.A.P.A. headquarters at the address
shown below. Or just show up at the
Hyatt Orlando Hotel (at the entrance
to Walt Disney World) on March 8th.

N.A.P.A., P. O. Box 860238
St. Augustine, FL 32086
Carl Hoefer, Executive Secretary
(904) 797-0299; FAX (904) 824-1018)

(Hochmuth, Veg. 88-12)

E. New Newsletter on Greenhouse
Vegetables.

Bob Hochmuth, at the Live Oak
AREC, has begun a newsletter for the
greenhouse vegetable producers.
Although the original idea for the
newsletter centered on the Suwannee
Valley area, it should be of great
benefit to greenhouse producers
elsewhere in the state. If you would
like to be placed on the mailing list
for this new newsletter called "UNDER
COVER", call Bob at (904) 362-1725.

(Hochmuth, Vegetarian 88-12)

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Use of Transplants in
Watermelon Production.

In most years higher prices are
paid for early watermelons especially
in North Florida with competition
from early melons from Georgia and
South Carolina. Many times even
harvesting a week earlier can mean
the difference between making or
losing money.
Watermelons can only be
transplanted using a containerized
system. The older methods included
using peat pots or growing in small
pots and knocking out of the pots to
plant. Both are very expensive
systems to use and in case of the


peat pots, the pot may provide a
barrier to free root growth. With
the advent of the new containerized
systems using flats made of plastic
or expanded polystyrene, costs for
containerized transplants has been
reduced. The shapes of the cells are
of inverted pyramids or cones to
allow for easy root ball removal.
Some of the advantages of using
transplants for watermelon production
are: earlier production; uses less
seed, important in using hybrids;
allow for precise hill placement and
when growing seedless melon, it is
necessary because of seed cost, poor
vigor, emergence problems and precise
germination temperature requirements
(See Maynard, Veg. 88-10 for more
information).
When planting, care must be taken
to not disturb the root ball very
much. Watermelons do not regenerate
their root systems as easily as say
tomatoes or peppers. Also the
transplants must be watered in at
planting or very soon afterward so
that the roots can establish in the
soil rapidly.
Presented below is some data
collected from 1984-1986 on effect of
watermelon transplants versus plug-
mix planted grown on black plastic
mulch. The direct seeding was done
at the same time as the
transplanting. In all 3 years the
transplanted melons matured 6-7 days
earlier. The following table shows
the difference between transplanted
and plug-mix planted for early and
total yields. The early yield is the
first 2 of 4 harvests for
transplanted and first of 4 harvests
for plug-mix planted for 1985. In
1984 and 1986, only 3 harvests were
made, yields were not as high as 1985
because of an infestation of
Watermelon Mosaic II Virus.
As can be seen from the table,
the early yields of the transplants
in all 3 years were significantly
higher than the plug-mix planted.









Only in 1985 were the total yields of
the transplants significantly higher
than the plug-mix planted melons.
This year disease was very low and 4
harvests were made instead of 3.
Also that year the average melon


weight of the transplants was
significantly higher than the plug-
mix planted (24.6 Ibs vs 21.3 lbs).
In other 2 years there were no
differences in melon weight.


The Effect of Transplants versus Plug-Mix Planting on Early and Total Yields
Yields (cwt/A)
1984 1985 1986
Treatment Early Total Early Total Early Total

Transplanted 316.8z 370.3 377.1y 603.3 153.1z 373.1

Plug-Mix 145.9x 353.8 156.0" 486.0 37.9x 383.8
planted

NS NS

*Significant at 5%; zFirst 2 of 3 harvests; YFirst 2 of 4 harvests; XFirst of
3 harvests; WFirst of 4 harvests; First harvest in plug-mix planted was at
second harvest of transplanted.

(S. M. Olson, Vegetarian 88-12)


III. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Third Party Registrations -
Future for Vegetable Labels?

Third party registrations of
herbicides is not a new concept, but
is becoming increasingly important in
obtaining new registrations and keep-
ing existing registrations in minor
crops such as vegetables.
A much simplified example of how
a third party registration works is
the case of the ethalfluralin
registration.
Ethalfluralin was labelled for
use on cucumbers, watermelons, and
muskmelons under the trade name
Sonalan for less than a year by
Elanco. Due to perceived liability,
even due to misuse in several
instances, Elanco dropped the label
for these crops.
Through some persuasion,
particularly by North Carolina State,
United AgriProducts (UAP) entered


into an agreement with Elanco to be
able to label and market ethalflura-
lin on the three commodities under
their own trade name, Curbit. UAP
obtained a state label for curbit in
Florida. Curbit is the only ethal-
fluralin product labelled for this
use. Sonalan is not labelled.
Third party registrations may or
have been obtained by companies such
as UAP, as well as growers organiza-
tions such as an Arizona Chili pepper
growers group. Third Party Registra-
tions, (TPR) Inc., a company speci-
fically incorporated by the Florida
Fruit and Vegetable Association to
handle third party registrations is
also in the process of obtaining
third party labels.
Third party registrations must be
obtained due to the fact that several
companies will not label a herbicide
on a crop due to liability or will
not relabel a compound due to the
expense involved with little or no
return.










The liability issue is a major
factor in registrations. Through
research, the company knows that the
herbicide is efficacious on the weed
spectrum listed and will not cause
injury to the crop when applied
correctly except when certain envi-
ronmental conditions occur. Because
many new herbicides are applied at
ounces per acre and must be applied
at exactly the proper growth stage,
great care must be maintained to
avoid misapplication. Also, if rain
or too much irrigation is used, the
herbicide that is applied to the
surface can be moved into the seed
germination zone. If this is coupled
by cool soils when germination and
growth is reduced, crop damage can
ensue.
Third Party registrations may be
obtained because the original company
will negotiate with a third (party)
organization to allow that group or
company to label and in some crops
market the formulation. In all
cases, the third party must assume
liability for that labelled use.
Clearly stated on the Curbit
label is a warning of crop injury
potential if excessive rainfall
and/or cool weather follows applica-
tion. To buy or use Curbit, a waiver
of these and other risks must be
signed by the grower.
When TPR Inc. receives labels,
the grower must be a member of FFVA
and sign a letter of indemnification
before he will be issued the label
for use for a specific crop. He will
also be assessed by acreage used, the
cost of labelling the material.
This coming year may well be a
pivotal period in possible herbicide
registrations on vegetables. Through
IR-4 and company cooperation, toler-
ances are being established for
labels that will be third party
registration possibilities only. The
vegetables that could be affected
include peppers, carrots, lettuce,


celery, melons, cabbage and other
crucifers as well as others.
To be able t) have third party
labels, the grower must be willing to
pay a little more for the herbicide.
He also must be willing to acknow-
ledge and assume the inherent risks
of the use of the product. These
facts are not only a commodity
consideration, but a vegetable
industry wide concern. If risk
liability is not accepted and a claim
or lawsuit is filed, the label can
and most likely will be immediately
withdrawn. That would not only cause
the loss of that tool for the total
growers of that commodity in the
state, but would severely jeopardize
any future third party labelling on
other crops.
The present facts of life for
vegetable producers are these:

1. Many large multinational
chemical companies are not
interested in registering many
chemicals on low acreage, low
volume use, high value crops.

2. Smaller companies and
organizations are willing to
label chemicals that have a need
and use in vegetable production,
only if they can pay for the
registration costs and make a
profit for their work.

3. Growers (as an industry) must
accept the risks of the use of
pesticides or lose already
registered compounds as well as
potential future tools for pest
control.

(Stall, Vegetarian 88-12)

B. Curbit. EC label on cucum-
bers, melons and watermelons.

United AgriProducts, Inc. has
received a 24(c) Special Local Need
in Florida label for Curbit EC.









Curbit contains the active ingredient
ethalfluralin.
Use rates in Florida are
recommended at 3 pts. material or
1.12 Ib ai/A. Curbit may be applied
over the row as a surface treatment
within 2 days of planting (preemer-
gence to crop and weeds). Curbit may
also be applied as a banded spray
between rows prior to weed emergence.
Curbit is the only ethalfluralin
product registered and legal for use
on these crops. In 1989, growers
must be willing to assume a measured
amount of liability and sign a waiver
in Florida to buy and use Curbit.
Crop injury associated with the use
of ethalfluralin has been rare when
used properly. Injury has usually
been associated with stress factors,
such as excessive moisture or cold.
Curbit is a third party registration.
The company has informed me that
continued registration is contingent
on liability risk by the grower. One
injury claim or lawsuit could mean
the loss of this label.

(Stall, Vegetarian 88-12)

C. Methyl Bromide Use on Water-
melon.

The Environmental Protection
Agency has granted a section 18
(emergency exemption) for the use of
methyl bromide to control nematodes,
fungi, and weeds on watermelon. The
exemption, effective immediately, is
subject to the following conditions
and restrictions:

1. Only methyl bromide/chloro-
picrin products containing 98%
MBr/2% CP or 67% MBr/33% CP,
which are federally registered
for food use may be applied.
All applicable directions,
restrictions, and precautions on
the EPA-registered product
labels must be followed.


2. A single application will be
applied at a rate of 90 to 200
Ibs. of methyl bromide per acre,
the broadcast equivalent of 180
to 400 Ibs for the 98%-2%
formulation, and 270 to 360 lbs.
per acre for the 67%-33%
formulation.
3. A maximum of 17,000 acres may
be applied by injection through
chisels spaced 12 to 18 inches
apart and 6 to 8 inches below the
soil surface. Soil must be
sealed immediately behind the
chisels and covered with
polyethylene.

4. All treatments will be made
either by or under the direct
supervision of certified
applicators.

5. Injection of methyl bromide
is not permitted within a 60 foot
radius of a potable well in order
that any entry of methyl bromide
into groundwater will have a 30
day period in which to degrade or
diffuse into soil/air prior to
reaching well head.

6. The EPA must be immediately
informed of any adverse effects
resulting from use of Methyl
bromide in connection with this
exemption.

7. This exemption expires April
1, 1989.

A final report summarizing the
results of this specific exemption
will have to be prepared by October
1, 1989 indicating locations, rate
and acreage involved. For additional
information, contact:

Dr. J. W. Noling
CREC, Lake Alfred, FL
Phone: (813) 956-1151


(Noling, Vegetarian, 88-12)










IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING


A. American


Horticulture


Therapy Association.


Much useful information about
horticultural therapy may be obtained
from the American Horticultural
Therapy Association (AHTA). It is
the sole (to my knowledge) national
organization concerned with the
promotion and development of
horticultural therapy. It was found
in 1973.
AHTA administers a voluntary
professional registration program,
operates a national employment pro-
ject for disabled persons, provides
educational program help, and
conducts an annual awards program.


Much of what is going on around
the country in the arena of
horticultural therapy is reported in
the AHTA newsletter. To receive this
and other information from AHTA, I
suggest you write to their address,
9220 Wightman Road, Suite 300,
Gaithersburg, MD 20879, phone (301)
948-3010.
AHTA wants to hear from us about
our horticultural therapy projects in
Florida, so let them know what you
are doing in Extension. A group of
Master Gardeners in Duval County has
an excellent on-going project which
I will write about in an upcoming
issue of the Vegetarian.

(Stephens, Vegetarian 88-12)


Prepared by Extension Vegetable
Crops Specialists


Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Chairman



Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Assoc. Professor



Dr. S. M. Olson
Assoc. Professor


Dr. D. D. Gull
Assoc. Professor



Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor



Dr. W. M. Stall
Professor


Mr. J. M. Stephens
Professor -_ Is




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