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Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00377
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: September 1988
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Volume ID: VID00377
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A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Ve Cable Crops Dcpartmenl 1255 HSPPd Cainc~ ,ilc, FL 32611 Telephocn 392-2134

Vegetarian 88-09 September 13, 1988
A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

B. New Publications.

S C. Spring Shortcourse.
D. Florida Pepper Institute.

.. A. Dilemma in Shipping Mixed Loads.
B. Production of Seedless Watermelons.

C. Soil Testing and CNR A Case Study.

SA. Sethoxydim (Poast) Labels on Several Vegetables.
S-, B. Fluazifop (Fusilade 2000) Label on Endive and
:' '' C. Paraquat (Gramoxone Super) Directed Spray for
4 /: Melons.
( ':" c -4 A. Luffa Gourd Revision,

I"" J ,<;p" BB. 1988 National Gardening Grant Program.
S.'-'Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this
newsletter. Whenever possible, please give credit to the
.i '. authors. The purpose of trade names in this publication is
'i solely for the purpose of providing information and does not
-- necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
nnfl FRrATIVXF VYVTCFAcilnl ialnOV Ih1 Af'l ifi isi rin, A M Ljer u asre iihkra ifr' CTAC n ri fle in lA Ir AC A IMIiIcarvIv efc


A. Calendar

September 12-15, 1988. State
Extension Conference, Biltmore Hotel,

September 25-29, 1988. Florida
Fruit and Vegetable 45th Annual Con-
vention. Ritz-Carlton Hotel, Naples.

September 27, 1988. Soils In-
Service Agent Training. Gainesville
(Contact Ed Hanlon).

October 27, 1988. Florida Pep-
per Institute. Southwest Florida REC
Immokalee (Contact D.N. Maynard).

October 28-31, 1988. National
Junior Horticultural Convention.
Hyatt Regency-Oakbrook Hotel,

November 1-3, 1988. Florida
State Hort. Soc. Biscayne Marriot
Hotel, Miami.

November 15, 1988. Deadline:
for National Gardening Association
Youth Program Grants. (Contact Jim

B. New Publications

Maynard, D.N. 1988. Canta-
loupe Variety Evaluation, Spring
1988. GCREC Res. Rept. 1988-16.

Maynard, D.N. 1988. Icebox
Watermelon Variety Evaluation, Spring
1988. GCREC Res. Rept. 1988-17.

Maynard, D.N. 1988. Seedless
Watermelon Variety Evaluation, Spring
1988. GCREC Res. Rept. 1988-18.

Maynard, D.N. 1988. Leek Var-
iety Evaluation. Fall-Winter 1987-
88. GCREC Res. Rept. BRA 1988-13.

Maynard, D.N.
Rhubarb Production.
1988. GCREC Res. Rept.

1988. Annual
BRA 1988-14.

C. Spring Shortcourse: March
20-24, 1989. Title: "Commercial
Harvesting and Postharvest Handling
of Horticultural Crops.

A 4-5 day tour of commercial
horticultural operations will cover
current technological procedures used
in the harvesting and handling of
vegetable, fruits, and ornamentals in
Florida. This will be offered as a
one credit course, HOS 5330, and will
provide an excellent opportunity for
county agents to visit a wide range
of operations.

Please contact Steve Sargent,
(Suncom 622-7911), Vegetable Crops
Department for further details.

D. Florida Peuper Institute.

The 1988
Institute will be
October 27, 1988 e
Florida Research
Center, Immokalee.
program follows:

Florida Pepper
held Thursday,
tt the Southwest
and Education
A preliminary

1988 Florida Pepper Institute
Thursday, October 27, 1988
Southwest Florida Research & Education Center
Immokalee, Florida

R.L. Brown Moderator


9:30 Registration. Coffee and
doughnuts courtesy of Johnny
Johnson Greenhouses and
10:00 Welcome. C.E. Arnold,
director, SWFREC, Immokalee.

10:10 Introduction. D.J. Cantliffe,
chairman, Vegetable Crops Dept.

10:20 Results of Pepper N & K Ferti-
lizer Demonstration. G.J.
Hochmuth, Vegetable Crops
Dept., Gainesville; P.R.
Gilreath, Manatee County Coop-
erative Extension, Palmetto;
and K.D. Shuler, Palm Beach
Cooperative Extension, Delray

10:50 Yield Response of Bell Peppers
to Biostimulants. A.A.
Csizinszky, GCREC, Bradenton.

11:10 Enhancement of Pepper Quality
and Handling Efficiency. D.D.
Gull and S.A. Sargent, Vege-
table Crops Dept., Gainesville.

11:30 Observations on Peppers in
Northeast Markets. K.D.
Shuler, Palm Beach County
Cooperative Extension, Delray

11:45 Overview of the National Pepper
Conference. P.H. Everett,
Pacific Land Co., Immokalee.

12:00 Lunch. Courtesy of Agrisales,
Inc. and Petoseed Co., Inc.

D.N. Maynard Moderator


1:15 The Best Pepper Varieties for
Florida Panel Discussion.
D.N. Maynard, GCREC, Bradenton-
S.J. Czaplewski, Northrup King
Co., Naples
D.S. Kammerlohr, Petoseed,
T.K. Howe, GCREC, Bradenton
C.W. Obern, Johnny Johnson
Greenhouses, Immokalee
J.N. Simons, JMS Flower Farms,
Vero Beach.

2:15 Weed Management for Peppers.
W.M. Stall, Vegetable Crops
Dept., Gainesville and J.P.
Gilreath, GCREC, Bradenton.

2:30 Endangered Species and Pesti-
cides An Update O.N.
Nesheim, IFAS pesticide
information coordinator,

2:45 Registration Options for Crop
Protection Chemicals. D.
Botts, Florida Fruit & Vege-
table Association, Orlando.

3:05 Pepper Insect Management. D.J.
Schuster, GCREC, Bradenton.

3:25 Questions.

3:45 Adjourn.

(Stall, Vegetarian 88-09)


A. Dilemma in Shipping Mixed

Rains (or lack thereof),
temperature variations, disease,
insects, machines and rough handling
are not the only hazards which
produce have to face on their way
from field to market. Confinement
with other products in the transport
vehicle can also be a formidable
enemy. As products share a common
carrier, incompatible will arise.

This is especially true with
the movement of mixed loads.
Combining products that are
incompatible in terms of ethylene
production and sensitivity, odor
eminations, and temperature/moisture
requirements present a real challenge
for both produce shipper and

Logistics of mixed loads have
also caused problems. These mixed
loads frequently require multiple
pickups and drops which add to the
overall transit time; overall longe-
vity of the product must diminish.
It may take up to three days for a
trucker to complete his rounds to
fill out a load, several additional
hours at terminal market to make
deliveries and therefore the product
is exposed to additional stresses and
deteriorative responses.

Products would benefit from
loading into the transport vehicle
according to degree of perishability;
products most easily damaged should
be loaded toward the middle and most
durable products at the end of the
vehicle, over the axles, which is the
area where more impact damage would
be expected to occur.

Shipping incompatible products
in proximity with each other would be
less damaging than warehousing these

items together. Therefore, buyers
and terminal markets bear the
ultimate responsibility in maximizing
shelf-life of perishable products.

Some production areas have
reported that at certain times of the
year one may get away with shipping
incompatible items together. In
California, Iceberg lettuce is much
more susceptible to ethylene during
May. Consequently, lettuce is not
shipped with heavy ethylene-producing
items at this time. In Florida we
have not identified such situations.
A differential response of product to
temperature has not been established,
regardless of area or season.

Controlled atmospheres now are
being used selectively with overseas
shipment of some fresh produce but
the feasibility of this adaption to
domestic transportation remains in a
question because of economics;
coast-to-coast transit, utilizing CA
isn't worth the expense.

Reducing the problems of ship-
ping mixed loads may be moderated by
research into modified atmosphere
packaging and transportation.
Currently, strawberries are the only
fresh produce commodity shipped
routinely in modified atmospheres.
However, attaining perfection in
transport of mixed loads appears
impossible. Until then, restricting
citrus to straight loads and keeping
cantaloupe and tomatoes separate from
vegetables loads which have tempera-
ture and ethylene incompatibility,
should be practiced.

(Gull, Vegetarian 88-09)

B. Production of Seedless

Specialty vegetables are
high demand in the 1980's,
seedless watermelons offer
attractive alternative for


upscale consumer and the food service
industry. At the same time, new
varieties are being developed that
are superior to those that have been

The concept of seedless water-
melons was described first in the
U.S. literature in 1951 based on
experimentation that began in Japan
in 1939. Seed for planting seedless
watermelons resulted from a cross
between a selected tetraploid female
parent and a selected diploid male
parent. Tetraploid lines are
developed by treating diploid lines
with colchicine. The resulting
triploid is sterile and does not
produce viable seeds. However,
small, white rudimentary seeds
develop which are eaten along with
the fruit like cucumber seeds.

Fruit enlargement in normal
fruit, including watermelon, is
enhanced by growth promoting hormones
produced by the developing seed.
Growth hormones are lacking in seed-
less watermelons so those agents are
provided from pollen. However,
flowers on triploid plants lack
sufficient pollen to effect complete
pollination so normal watermelons are
interplanted with triploids to serve
as pollenizers. The field should be
laid out so that the pollenizer
variety is planted in every third row
with the seedless variety in the two
intervening rows. Almost any open-
pollinated or hybrid variety can be
an effective pollenizer. However, it
will be easier to separate the seed-
less melons from the normal melons if
they are of distinct types. For
example, if the seedless variety pro-
duces an oblong, striped melon like
'King of Hearts', an icebox type
pollenizer such as 'Mickylee' would
be easy to distinguish from the
seedless variety. It is important to
have a market for the pollenizer var-
iety since about one-third of the

total yield will be pollenizer

An adequate bee population is
necessary to transfer pollen from the
pollenizer variety to the seedless
variety. At least eight visits to an
individual flower are necessary for
normal fruit development in diploid
watermelons. This frequency of
visitation usually is provided by
strategically placing one active hive
for each one to three acres of
watermelons. There are no data
available for the number of bee
visitations necessary to produce
symmetrical seedless fruit. However,
it is thought that the bee population
should be similar to that needed for
diploid pollination.

More information on seedless
watermelon production will appear in
future issues of the Vegetarian.

(Maynard, Vegetarian 88-09)

C. Soil Testing and CNR A
Case Study.

Much work has been done over
the years by IFAS researchers to
determine fertilizer management
programs for pepper. This research
literature was reviewed by myself and
Ed Hanlon to establish current IFAS
fertilizer recommendations. Based on
this review, the pepper CNR's for N,
P(P20s), and K(K20) were set at
160,160, and 160 lb/acre. We needed
to develop a closer relationship
however between soil test indices and
fertilizer rate recommendations than
had been done by past research. To
fill in some of the blanks, we have
been conducting demonstrations in
South Florida for the past few years.
This pepper group includes myself, Ed
Hanlon, Phyllis Gilreath, Ken Shuler,
and for a while Rick Mitchell. Our
work with potassium has yielded some

very valuable data to use
recalibrating our Mehlich-I
extraction solution.


This past spring, Ed, Allen
Tyree, and I conducted a large-scale
demonstration with the Hamilton
Produce Company pepper operation near
Jennings, Florida. Our objective was
to test IFAS soil-test-based
fertilizer recommendations on a
large-scale area. Fortunately, Mr.
Harold Law provided a 10-acre block
of pepper to use.

Soil samples were collected
from a 10-acre block, 4 samples from
each 5-acre section. Samples were
extracted with the Mehlich-I solution
and analyzed at the IFAS Extension
Soil Testing Lab in Gainesville.
Results of the analyses are presented
in Table 1 along with the interpre-
tations. The 10-acre block had
received dolomite and gypsum prior to
our sampling. The soil pH over the
10-acre block was considered adequate
for pepper production. The phosphor-
us indices in both 5-acre blocks were
both in the very high range meaning
that no response to phosphorus
fertilizer would be expected.

Potassium indices were "medium"
and IFAS recommendations were for 105
lb. per acre K20. Based on extensive
potassium research in south Florida
in 1986-1987, it was determined that
a potassium index in the area of 70
to 80 ppm should be considered as
"high" rather than "medium". We
decided, therefore, to test the idea
that the soil potassium index is
really "high". One 5-acre block
received 50 lb. per acre K20; the
other received zero K20.

Other nutrients Ca, Mg, and the
micronutrients Zn and Mn were all
considered to be in very adequate
amounts. Calcium and Mg were high
probably due to recent application of
dolomite and gypsum. Zinc and Mn

indices were high, especially for
zinc. Although copper was inter-
preted as low, it was felt that
adequate copper would be supplied
from pesticides. Sulfur would have
been added in adequate amounts from
gypsum and from sulfur in the
irrigation water.

In summary, soil-tests
indicated that, for many nutrients
(P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn, and S),
adequate amounts to supply the CNR of
these nutrients could be derived from
the soil. Nitrogen is added totally
from fertilizer since very little is
assumed to be supplied from the soil.
Research has determined that 160 lb.
per acre is adequate for optimum
yields from a 3 to 4 harvest pepper
crop. Nitrogen scheduling is
presented in Table 2.

A comparison of standardized
IFAS fertilizer recommendations with
the commercial fertilizer program is
made in Table 3. The differences in
amounts of recommended fertilizers
are dramatic, especially for
phosphorus and potassium.

Another difference in the two
fertilizer programs lies in the
management system. Part of the
grower's nitrogen fertilizer was
applied in the bed as a starter mix.
All IFAS nitrogen was applied through
the drip system.

Yield results in Table 4 show
no difference in yield among the 3
test areas. Several points can be
made about these results:

1. Soil testing works! Using
soil-test results we decided not to
add P or micronutrients. No
deficiencies were observed and no
negative effect on yield resulted.
Based on the K results, we could have
elected to add no K.

2. A corollary to the above
is: "Florida soils are not
hydroponics." Obviously this sandy
soil was able to supply nearly all of
the nutrients needed by the pepper

3. The nitrogen management
system with drip irrigation sche-
duling worked so that the IFAS

recommendations of 160 Ib per acre
were confirmed.

4. Fertilizing by a calibrated
soil-test can save the grower a bunch
of money.

Table 1. Mehlich-I (double-acid) pre-fertilization soil-test indices for
Hamilton Produce Co., Spring, 1988.
Test area pH P K Ca Mg Zn Cu Mn


1. To receive K 6.42 183 73 529 52 7.0 .23 11.7
2. No K 6.6 191 83 629 63 5.9 .22 11.6

Interpretation OK VH M OK H VH L H

ZAverage of four samples in 5-acre blocks.

Table 2. Fertilizer injection schedules for IFAS fertilizer program,
Hamilton Produce, Spring. 1988.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

- - lb. N per acre per week - - -

7.0 7.0 10.5 10.5 10.5 21.0 21.0 21.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0

Table 3. Fertilizer amounts applied to commercial and IFAS pepper.

Nutrient IFAS Commercial

- lb. per acre --

N 165 218
P (P20,) 0 125
K (KO2) 0 or 50 404
Ca 0 26
Mg 0 7
S 0 15
Zn 0 1.2
Mn 0 0.9
Cu 0 0
B 0 0.8

Table 4. Total yields of pepper, Hamilton Produce. Spring, 1988.

Yield (25-lb bu/A)

Treatment Fancy jumbo No. 1 No. 2 Cull Total Mkt.z


Added K 122 1156 215 114 1493
No Added K 124 1226 125 95 1475
Commercial 130 1233 150 137 1513
ZAverage pepper production within Florida is about 500 bu/A.

(Hochmuth, Hanlon; Vegetarian 88-09)


A. Sethoxydim
on several vegetables

(Poast) labels

Sethoxydim (Poast) has received
labels for the control of grass weeds
on several vegetables. The herbicide
is to be used postemergence to
actively growing grass at 0.188 -

0.28 Ibs ai/A. Use 2 pints of Crop
Oil Concentrate in 5 to 20 gallons of
water per application.

1. Cucurbits Cantaloupe, cu-
cumber, muskmelon, pumpkins, summer
and winter squash and watermelon. A
total of 3 pt. product per acre may
be applied in on season. Do not
apply within 14 days of harvest.

2. Celery, lettuce (head and
leaf), spinach. A total of 3 pt
product per acre may be applied in
one season. Do not apply within 30
days of harvest.

3. Broccoli, cabbage, cauli-
flower. A total of 3 pt. product per
acre may be applied. Do not apply
within 30 days of harvest.

4. Eggplant, pepper (bell and
non-bell). A total of 4 1/2 pts
product per acre may be used per
growing season. Do not apply within
20 days of harvest.

(Stall, Vegetarian 88-09)

B. Fluazifop (Fusilade 2000)
label on Endive and Spinach.

Fusilade 2000 has been granted
a label for the control of actively
growing grass weeds in endive and
spinach. Recommended rates are .188
Ib ai/A and a total of 96 oz. (75 lb/
ai) may be applied per season. Use
a crop oil concentrate at 0.5 to 1%
V/V or a non-ionic surfacant at .25
to 0.5% V/V in spray mixture. Do not
apply within 28 days of harvest for
endive and 30 days for spinach.

(Stall, Vegetarian 88-09)

C. Paraquat (Gramoxone Super)
Directed Spray for Melons.

A special local needs (24c) for
Florida only has been granted for the
use of Gramoxone Super on melons.
The label is for a directed-shielded
spray for the control of emerged
weeds in row middles. Add a non-
ionic surfactant at 8 fluid oz. per
100 gallons of spray mix. Do not
apply more than three times per

(Stall, Vegetarian 88-09)


A. Luffa Gourd Revision.

Luffa is the genus and common
name of gourds known also as vege-
table sponges, dishcloth gourds, and
running okra. The Luffa acutangula
(L.) Roxb. is the species most
commonly grown in this country. It
has prominent raised longitudinal
ridges on the fruits. The smooth,
non-ribbed type is L. aegyrtica (or
L. cylindrica). Both produce large
3 inch diameter flowers on strong-
smelling, yet attractive cucumber-
like elongated vines. The fruits,
which are usually 12 to 18 inches in
length and 3 to 4 inches in diameter,
have a very well-developed, fibrous
interior which may be used instead of
a cloth or sponge for scrubbing and
cleaning. The immature fruits when
young and tender, may be eaten as
cooked vegetables, very much like
okra or summer squash. The smooth
luffa produces the best quality

Distribution and Importance

Luffa and other gourds are
annuals, and are adapted for planting
throughout Florida and the
continental United States except in
the extreme Northern United States
where the growing season is not of
sufficient length. They do well in
a climate where day temperature in
midsummer is from 70' to 850 F and
the night temperature only a few
degrees lower. Young seedlings are
very tender and are easily injured by

Luffa originated in India, and
now thrives as wild and cultivated
plants throughout tropical regions.
In Florida, the Luffa gourd is grown
almost entirely in home gardens, and
at present is not a commercial crop

of any value. It is grown throughout
the continental United States except
in areas of extreme cold.


This gourd is relatively easy
to cultivate. Because of its close
relationship to cucumbers and
squashes, soils and cultural methods
adapted to the production of these
crops usually give good results with
Luffas. Commercial fertilizer alone
or in combination with rotted manure
or compost will be found suitable for
providing the necessary plant food.
Because Luffa gourds make a rapid
growth, it is essential that they be
provided with an abundance of plant
food. Usually, two to three pounds
of a common analysis garden
fertilizer per 100 square feet of
soil will get them off to a good
start. Additional sidedressings made
by scattering a handful of fertilizer
every 10 feet down the row will be
needed from time to time, unless the
soil is well-composted.

The black, flat, pitted seeds
may be planted in the open as soon as
all danger of frost is past.
However, the young seedlings are very
tender and easily injured by cold.
They require from three to four
months to mature fruit that can be
eaten as a vegetable, and longer (140
days) for the dried product.

If several rows are desired,
the rows are usually spaced 7 to 9
feet apart with the plants 4 to 5
feet apart in the row. They may also
be planted in hills 8 or 9 feet apart
with 2 or 3 plants in each hill. For
best results, the vines should be
trained on trellises or arbors. The
garden fence might be just the thing
for this purpose.

Luffas require a reasonable
amount of moisture and should be
watered during periods of dry

weather. Toward the end of the
season, water should be withheld so
that the gourds will ripen before

Problems and Care

Luffas are subject to injury
from the same diseases, insects, and
nematodes that attack cucumbers and
muskmelons. Downy and powdery mildew
are the most prevalent diseases,
along with fruit rots. They are also
susceptible to certain wilt diseases,
and mosaic virus disease is sometimes
encountered. Crop rotation from one
area to another helps in all cases.
Like most cucurbits, luffa needs
a lot of bees for pollination.

Harvesting and Handling

For eating, pick the luffa gourd
before it is 6 or 7 inches long. It
should be tender and without the
stringy fibers. Some people use them
fresh in salads like cucumbers, while
others use them cooked in a variety
of ways, including stuffed.

If used for purposes other than
eating, the Luffa gourds should
remain on the vines until they are
ripe or until the vines and fruits
are killed by frost. When the fruits
and the stem turn yellow, it is time
to harvest the gourds.

When the gourds are first
gathered as a dried product, they
should be washed in some disinfectant
to prevent the development of molds.
After thorough drying in the sun, the
gourd can be polished and painted for
ornamental purposes.

For sponges, the Luffa gourds
should be soaked in water until the
outer covering and the pith soften.
After softening, the outer covering,
seeds, and pithy materials can be
removed by peeling or brushing. The
extracted sponges should then be

washed through several changes of
clean water and dried in the sun.
Some gardeners have even cleaned the
sponges in a washing machine.

Clean luffa sponges have a
variety of uses. In general, they
have substituted for regular sponges,
being used as dish-rags, pot
scrapers, and in facial cleaning.

(Stephens, Vegetarian 88-09)

B. 19!
Grant Program.

89 National Gardening

The National Gardening
Association (NGA), of Burlington,
Vermont, will conduct its 8th Annual
Gardening Grant Program. There have
been 80,000 youth gardeners
benefitting from these grants to
date, according to the NJHA.

In 1989, 100 awards will be
made to qualified and needy youth
groups in schools, camps, clubs, and
other organized youth programs,
including Florida 4-H projects.
Among the eligible types of gardening
activities are intergenerational
gardens, disabled children gardens,

and 4-H Community gardens. Perhaps
the Florida 4-H Horticultural
Institute could benefit from this
grant program also.

Each grant package contains
approximately $600 worth of tools,
seeds, gardening equipment and
supplies, program information, and
"how-to" guides for beginners and
advanced participants. Also included
for each grant recipient will be a 1-
year subscription to the National
Gardening magazine; one of the best
magazines on gardening in the U.S.

Applications for the 1989
National Gardening Grants are avail-
able now. To receive yours (along
with grant guidelines) just send a
self-addressed stamped envelop to the
National Gardening Association, 180
Flynn Avenue, Burlington, VT 05401.

Deadline for Applying: All
completed applications must be
received by NGA postmarked no later
than November 15, 1988. The grants
will be awarded in January, 1989.

(Stephens, Vegetarian 88-09)

Prepared by Extension Vegetable
Crops Specialists

Dr D. J. Cantliffe

Dr. S. M, Olson
Assoc. Professor

Dr. D. N. Maynard

Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Assoc. Professor

Dr. D. D. Gull
Assoc. Professor

Dr. W. M. Stall

Mr. J. M. Stephens

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