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Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: August 1988
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00376
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Vgclt ble Crops Departmentl 1255 ISDD GainesvilIc, n 32611. Telephone 392-2134
-1


Vegetarian 88-08


August 15, 1988


.:- Contents

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

(;. BB. 1988 Florida Tomato Institute.

II. OCI MERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Crop Nutrient Requirement Concept.

B. Pumpkin Varieties for Florida.

: / C. Preprint Cartons Image Enhancers.
III. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Chlorothalonil Labels on Chinese Broccoli and
i Tight Headed Chinese Cabbage.
IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Horticulture Events at 1988 State 4-H Club
SCongress.



Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this
I.. newsletter. Whenever possible, please give credit to the
authors. The purpose of trade names in this publication is
solely for the purpose of providing information and does not
necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.







The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research.
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
COOPERATIVF FXTFNSIqN wnRIn I IA A LIOi nil TI e llr unaAi fti CTATr re e r i er. Ir ft itrn-A, &r


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-1-


I. NUOES OF INTEREST


A. Vegetable Crgcs Calendar.

September 7, 1988. Florida Tomato
Institute, Ritz Carlton Hotel,
Naples. (Contact W. M. Stall).

September 12-15, 1988. State
Extension Conference, Biltmore
Hotel, Clearwater.

September 25-29, 1988. Florida
Fruit and Vegetable 45th Annual
Convention. Ihe Ritz-Carlton Hotel,
Naples.

September 27, 1988. Soils-Home
Horticulture In-Service Training,
Gainesville.


B. 1988 Florida Tomato Institute.

The 1988 Florida Tomato
Institute will be held Wednesday,
September 7, 1988 at the Ritz-
Carlton Hotel, Naples, Florida from
8:30 am to 3:30 pm.
The Tomato Institute, which is
an IFAS sponsored educational
program immediately precedes the
joint Florida Tomato Ccmmittee/
Florida Tomato Exchange Conference
on September 8 and 9.
Hotel reservations may be made
through the Florida Tomato Commit-
tee/Exchange, P. O. Box 140635,
Orlando, Florida 32814-0635.
The program for the Tomato
Institute is as follows:


October 27, 1988. Florida Pepper
Institute: Southwest Florida
Research and Education Center,
Immokalee.
(Contact D. N. Maynard).

1988 Florida Tomato Institute
Wednesday, September 7, 1988
Ritz-Carlton Hotel
Naples, Florida


W. M. Stall Moderator


8:30 AM -


9:00


9:20



9:40


10:00


10:20


Registration and Coffee


Welcome D. J. Cantliffe, Chairman, Vegetable Crops Dept.,
Gainesville.

Tensiometers as a Management Tool for Micro Irrigated
Tomatoes in South West Florida. G. A. Clark, GCREC,
Bradenton.

Evaluating Plant N Status with Plant Sap Quick-Test Kits.
G. J. Hochmuth, Vegetable Crops Dept., Gainesville.

Under-bed Trenching for Mulched Tomatoes on Calcareous
Soils. H. H. Bryan, TREC Homestead.


Size Distribution of Florida Tomatoes:
Report. S. A. Sargent, Vegetable Crops


A Preliminary
Dept., Gainesville.










Problems with Florida Produce at Terminal Markets:
Perceived or Real? P. R. Gilreath, Manatee County
Cooperative Extension Service, Palmetto.

Registration Options for Crop Protection Chemicals.
D. Botts, Florida Fruit and Vegetable Assn., Orlando.

Questions

lunch on your own.


S. M. Olson Moderator


Irregular
Industry.
Extension


Ripening: A New Threat to the Florida Tomato
R. L. Brown, Collier County Cooperative
Service, Naples.


Update on the Endangered Species Act. O. N. Neisheim,
Pesticide Information Coordinator, Gainesville.

Expression of Bacterial Wilt in Tomato as Influenced by
Cultivar and Lime. S. J. Locascio, Vegetable Crops Dept.,
Gainesville.

Dispersal of the Bacterial Spot Pathogen by Hand Operations.
K. Pohronezny, TREC, Homestead.

Nightshade Control in Tomato Row Middles. J. P. Gilreath,
GCREC, Bradenton.

Management of the Sweet Potato Whitefly in the Tomato Crop
of South Florida. D. J. Schuster, GCREC, Bradenton.

Questions.

Adjourn.


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES


A.
Canoept.


Crop Nutrient Reuemnt


Growers spend money on
fertilizers because they have been
shown that these products enhance
crop productivity. Having decided
to fertilize, the critical decision,
then, becomes choices involving how
much of which nutrient to purchase.
A systems approach is the best
approach to solving the above
problem. By understanding the CROP
NUTRIET RETIREMENT concept,


growers will have a workable model
to help with fertilizer-management
decisions.
Definition. The crop nutrient
requirement (CNR) is defined as the
total amount of a nutrient which is
needed to produce optimum plant
response. Every crop has a CNR for
each nutrient, the so-called 100%
sufficiency level. The key to
understanding the CNR concept is
that the concept considers all
nutritional sources, NOT just that
supplied from fertilizer.
Oh No. An Equation. The
dominant nutritional sources are the


10:40



11:00


11:30

11:45


1:30 PM


1:50


2:10


2:30


2:50


3:10


3:30

3:40










soil and fertilizers. The following
equation illustrates these two
sources of nutrition and their
relationship to the CNR:

CNR = nutrition supplied from the
soil + nutrition from
fertilizer.

The Calibrated Soil Test and
CNR. There is no direct method to
determine the amount of a nutrient
supplied from the soil for soil-
immobile nutrients such as P, and to
a lesser extent K and Mg. However,
a predictive, or preplant, soil test
does provide an INDEX of the
nutrition which may be supplied from
the soil. This index from a soil
test is of little value if the index
is not related to positive crop
response. The process of relating
soil-test values, fertilizer
additions, and positive crop
response is called calibration.
This calibration process is time-
consuming; but without calibration,
the soil test can not be interpreted
OR used as a reliable tool for
fertilizer recommendations. In
Florida, the Mehlich I or double
acid extractant is the current
solution used for calibrated soil
testing. Researchers are exploring
other soil extractants and the
Extension Soil Testing laboratory
(ESTL) will continue to use the
current extractant until a superior
extractant is found. Other
extractants, such as Bray P1 and P2,
have not been calibrated for Florida
soil conditions. Recommendations
based upon uncalibrated soil testing


must be considered to be question-
able.
It is important to understand
that a predictive soil test can be
used to estimate the nutrition
supplied from the soil. Then the
amount of fertilizer can be adjusted
to insure that the CNR is satisfied.
Appropriate Iterretatins.
If a predictive soil test is
interpreted as "VERY IW", then the
CNR must be supplied mostly from
fertilizer addition. In terms of
probability, a soil testing in the
very low range will produce less
than 50% of the crop yield
potential if no fertilizer is added.
For most crop production, less than
50% of the crop potential is
tantamount to crop failure, due to
the simultaneous loss of quality and
quantity. Conversely, if the soil
test indicates a "HIGH" soil-
nutrient" condition, the soil can
supply 100% of the CNR and
fertilizer need not be added. The
CNR will be satisfied from nutrition
already within the soil and response
to added fertilizer is not expected.
Attainable Yields MY). NOT
Maximum Yield. The Crop Nutrient
Requirement concept works. Table 1
has been prepared to show that top
yields are possible. Yields from
fertilizer research and grower
demonstrations have shown that IFAS
recommendations, based upon soil
testing, can produce competitive
results. In terms of grower
management, yields are near the
upper range using the maximum
economic yield approach to total
farm management.




-4-


Table 1. Representative yields from IFAS fertilizer experiments compared to
state averages by commodity for 1986.

Coamodity State average IFAS yields Unit


Tomato 1,240 2,750 25-lb.ctn./acre
Pepper 585 1,540 25-lb.ctn./acre
Sweet corn 220 320 crates/acre
Watermelon 157 365 crates/acre


References:
1. Vegetable Summary 1986=1987. Florida Agricultural Statistics
Service, 1222 Woodward St., Orlando, Florida.

2. Maynard, D. N. 1987. Vegetable Variety Trial Results in Florida
for 1986. University of Florida Extension Circular S-341.

(Hanlon, Hochmuth, Veg. 88-08)


B.
Florida.


Pumpkin Varieties for


Pumpkins are in great demand,
mostly for decorative purposes, from
mid-October until late November for
the Halloween and Thanksgiving
holidays. Only a few hundred acres
of pumpkins are grown in Florida so
that production is not nearly enough
to meet demand. Accordingly, most
of the pumpkins used in the state
are shipped in, primarily from the
midwest. There is opportunity,
therefore, for increased pumpkin
production in Florida.
Variety evaluations were
conducted on a commercial farm in
Manatee County and at the Central
Florida Research and Education
Center Leesburg in the 1987 season
to identify varieties suitable for
production in Florida. These are
listed under size designations so
growers can select varieties to meet
market demands.

Giant 25 to 80 lbs.
Big Max open pollinated
Big Moon open pollinated (PVP)


Large 10 to 30 lbs.
Connecticut Field open
pollinated
Howden open pollinated (PVP)
Jackpot hybrid

Medium 5 to 10 lbs
Autumn Gold hybrid
Young's Beauty open
pollinated

Small 1 to 5 lbs.
Baby Pam open pollinated
Little Lantern open
pollinated

Miniature < 1 lb.
Munchkin open pollinated
Jack-Be-Little open
pollinated
Sweetie Pie open pollinated

Growers are advised that
production of pumpkins in the
summer and early fall requires
stringent pest management
practices, especially for foliar
diseases. As with other vegetable
crops, a market should be
established before planting.


(Maynard, Veg. 88-08)




-5-


C. PREeRIT C T Imae
Enhancers.

"They're bold, striking, vivid,
sophisticated, and maybe even
shocking. Despite being just
cartons, they've became a strategic
part of shippers' marketing
efforts". looking for ways to
attract attention, retailers and
wholesalers are enthusiastic about
the vivid preprinted cartons gaining
shippers' favor. They believe
bright and varied colors make more
people look at product in the
carton. Grower/shippers are vying
for enhancement of their product
with buyers but first, "you have to
get their attention"; PREPRINTS
are very effective attention
getters. Compared to direct-printed
cartons, preprinted cartons vividly
accommodate complicated graphics and
a larger number of colors,
admittedly at more expensive costs.

On a recent trip to the New
York/New Jersey receiving markets
for Florida vegetables, a number of
county extension faculty viewed
arrival condition of our products in
comparison with those produced at
other locations. Although consensus
was that Florida was competitive, it
was readily recognized that there is
substantial need for improvement of
Florida vegetables. Can we afford a
"classy carton" filled with "first
rate" produce? Or, can we afford
not to?

Preprinted cartons were
originally aimed at retailers who
liked the fancy boxes for store
display. Now, wholesalers find
preprinted cartons add class to
terminal displays. However, the
real attraction of preprints to the
shipper is a means to differentiate
their product, a way to stimulate
buyer interest, not just an "eye
catching" box.


Although Western and Florida
citrus industries were among the
first to utilize preprinted cartons,
during the last three years more
than 20 shippers of products such as
strawberries, apples, onions, and
yams (sweet potato) have started
using these colorful cartons.
According to Cheryl Benson, a sweet
potato grower in Benson, NC, what
they wanted to get across was "Con-
sumer, look at me. I'm just not an
ugly old potato. I'm really
something that's good for you". The
preprinted carton paid off
tremendously. It gave the sweet
potato publicity on its nutrition
and it gave the company a
substantial increase in business.

Vidalia sweet onions are a
specialty crop and some growers are
merchandising them in preprinted
cartons. Growers feel they have a
quality product and they want to
project this image to the people by
shipping in a special package.

Appearance is not the only
advantage preprint cartons have.
Because of construction differences,
these cartons are also stronger then
direct-print cartons. However, cost
is still the big differential.

Another innovative carton soon
to make its debut is the eight-sided
box designed for cabbage. Packaging
Corp. of America has just completed
testing this new carton. Claimed
advantages of this eight-sided box
are that shape is more compatible
with the shape of cabbages, it is
stronger than conventional
corrugated boxes, offers more
protection to the product, stacks
more efficiently in trucks and
coolers, allows more ventilation
holes so cooling takes half the time
of wooden crates, and boxes are
self-locking on both top and bottom
and can be packed in either field or
shed.
(Gull, Veg. 88-08)




-6-


A. Chlorothalonil labels on
Chinese Broccoli and Tight Headed
Chinese Cabbaqe.

Chlorothalonil products (Bravo
500, 720, 90G) have obtained
supplemental labels for the control
of alternaria leaf spot and downy
mildew on Chinese broccoli and tight
headed Chinese cabbage. These
labels were developed in response to
IR-4 work obtained crop group
tolerances and performance data
generation by Ken Shuler.
Supplemental labels must be in
possession of the user at the time
of application.

(Stall, Veg. 88-08)

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Horticulture Events at
1988 State 4-H Club Congress.

State 4-H Congress was held on
the UF campus July 25-28, 1988. Two
major horticulture competitive
events were part of the week's acti-
vities. These were the Plant
Science Demonstrations and the Hort-
iculture Judging and Identification
Contest.
Winners of these two events,
along with the state garden record
winner, were recognized at the
awards banquet on the last night of
the convention.


Here are the winners in the
various horticulture events for
1988:

Gardening Record: Joe Judge, Leon
County, wins trip to National 4-H
Congress, Chicago, Dec. 2-9, 1988.
Sponsored by: Chevron Chemical Co.,
Ortho Division.

Plant Science Demonstrations: Tycee
Betts, Manatee County, wins trip to
NJHA Convention, Chicago, Hyatt
Regency Oak Brook, Oct. 28-31, 1988.
Sponsored by Florida Fruit and
Vegetable Association.

Horticultural Identification and
Judging. Marion County, members
Claudia Craven, Danny lane, Kim
Charles, and Yogi Williams. High
individual award: Kim Charles,
Marion County. Coach was Bob
Renner, Marion County 4-H Agent.
Team wins trip to compete against
other top state teams at National
Junior Horticultural Association
Convention, Chicago Hyatt Regency
(Oak Brook) Oct. 28-31, 1988.
Sponsored by Florida Fruit and
Vegetable Association, Orlando.

The following are results of the two
major competitive events in the
horticulture area:




-7-


Plant Science Demonstrations


Raink


Narme


Cmnntv


1 Tycee Betts

2 Leanne Barco and Edwin Rooks

3 Francine Huggins

4 Lin Sperlanes/Jenni Stephens

5 Danette Kosola

6 Amy Theus and Leslie Theus

7 Dwayne and Belinda McQuillan

8 Kevin Crowell

9 Jonathan Hill

10-T Charlotte Riley

10-T Dawn March

12 Steve Forehand

13 Michael Lucas and Susan Lucas

14 Heather Anderson

15 James Watkins

16 Dan Thomas

17 Amy Thompson

18 Mark Fooshee


Manatee

Citrus

Seminole

St. Johns

Orange

Marion

Highlands

Polk

Volusia

Washington

Broward

Gulf

Osceola

Pinellas

Bradford

Gilchrist

Jackson

Duval


Rankr ___


Judges: Susan Carr (VC); Leah Willis


Score Demonstration
92.3 Cold Protection/Citrus

90.6 Grafting the Rose

90.3 Natural Attractions

89.3 Xeriscape

88.6 Tissue Culture

88.0 Thorobred Trees

85.6 Caladiums

85.0 Hybridizing Plants

82.6 Orchids

82.3 Watermelon Production

82.3 Tropical Trees Around World

81.6 Propagation of Fruit Trees

79.0 Fertilizer

77.3 Aquatic Gardening

76.0 Summer Color for the Patio

74.3 Air Layering

73.3 Care of Our Soils

70.6 Mounding Tomatoes


(FC); Chrisi Murphy (OH)










4-H Horticulture Identification and Judging-1988


Rank


Kim Charles
Yogi Williams
Claudia Craven
Danny Lane
Cathy Thorson
Nick Hernandez
Melissa Kuhn
Tara York
Candy Barnes
Jeremy Pugh
Sandi Schoonover
Jeff Cameron
Jennifer Huddlesten
Tim Dandelski
Tracy Warner


Team Placing


Rank County Score

1 Marion 2,561.00
2 Clay 1,990.50
3 Sarasota 1,748.75
4 Martin 1,477.75


Congratulations to all these participants and winners for a job well done.

(Stephens, Veg. 88-08)


Prepared by Extension Vegetable
Crops Specialists


Dr. D. J.
Chairman


Cantliffe


Dr. S. M. Olson
Associate Professor


Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor


Mr. J. M. Stephens
Professor


Dr. G. J. Hochmuth ;(
Assistant Profess '
i


Dr. D. D. Gull
Associate Professor


Dr. W. M. Stall
Professor


rnrnmi-vr


Marion
Marion
Marion
Marion
Clay
Sarasota
Clay
Sarasota
Martin
Clay
Clay
Martin
Sarasota
Sarasota
Martin


Score
867.75
854.25
839.00
806.50
729.50
725.50
696.50
583.00
565.00
564.50
545.75
506.00
440.25
440.00
406.75


-------




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