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Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: July 1988
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00375
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Full Text


INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

vegetable Crops Department 1255 LSDPP Cainesville, FL 32611 Tclcphloii 392-2134


Vegetarian 88-07


Contents

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

II. C(XMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Potassium Demonstrations with
Palm Beach County.

B. Soluble Salt Readings Can Not
Fertilizer Recommendations.


July 15, 1988


Pepper in

Be Used to Make


si C. New Form Releases on the Way.
D. Ken Shuler Receives National Recognition.

III. PESTICIDE UPDATE

j l A. Fusilade 2000 Label for Use on Sweet Potatoes and
Yanms.

S B. Special Local Needs Labels for the Use of
SGramoxone Super (Paraquat) for Melons and Lettuce
in Florida.

C. Special Iocal Needs for Lannate L (methomyl) for
SUse on Chinese Broccoli.

yJS ^IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

..-. A. Whitefly a Current Insect Pest in Florida
Gardens.

Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this
4 newsletter. Whenever possible, please give credit to the
authors. The purpose of trade names in this publication is
solely for the purpose of providing information and does not
Necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
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I. NOCES OF INTEREST


Vegetable Crops Calendar.


July 25-28, 1988. 4-H State
Congress, Vegetable (Horticulture)
Contest and Career Exploration,
Gainesville. (Contact Jim
Stephens).

August 18-19, 1988. State Master
Gardener Continued Training, Reitz
Union, Gainesville.

September 12-15, 1988. State
Extension Conference, Biltmore
Hotel, Clearwater.

September 27, 1988. Soils-Home
Horticulture In-Service Training,
Gainesville.

September 27, 1988. Florida Tomato
Institute. Ritz Carlton Hotel,
Naples, Fla. (Contact W. M. Stall).

October 27, 1988. Florida Pepper
Institute: Southwest Florida
Research & Education Center,
Immokalee. (Contact D. N. Maynard).


II. COMMERCIAL VEGE1TBES

A. Potassium Demonstrations
with Pepper in Palm Beach County.

Studies were continued in Palm
Beach County to develop data that
would enable us to further calibrate
the Mehlich-I extracting solution
for soil testing in vegetable
production. Studies in several
counties last year showed that our
present interpretation of Mehlich-I
soil test indices is set too high.
This means that IFAS is currently
recommending too much potassium in
most situations. Another study was
conducted during the winter of 1987-
1988 on the Dubois farm in Boynton
Beach, Florida. A factorial
experiment consisting of 3 rates of


potassium (K) and 3 rates of
nitrogen (N) was conducted. Results
of the N portion of the study were
included in last month's Vegetarian.
Plots were single beds, 6 ft.
by 20 ft. with 2 rows of peppers per
bed. Rows were 18 inches apart and
plants were 11 inches apart in rows.
In August, 1987, beds were fumigated
and the grower "starter" fertilizer
applied. This fertilizer consisted
of 800 lb/acre of 6-8-6 (N-P2 C-K- O)
applied in 2 side bands on bed
shoulders. Our fertilizer treat-
ments were applied in a band in the
center of the bed to comprise the
"hot mix". This fertilizer was made
from calcium nitrate, potassium ni-
trate, and ammonium nitrate. Our K
rates were 48, 110, and 170 lb/acre
total 1 O, while the growers total
K2O rate was 416 lb/acre. (Note:
our 48 lb. treatment consisted of
K~O from the "starter" fertilizer
only.) Beds were on 6-foot centers
and fertilizer rates were calculated
on basis of 7260 linear bed feet of
crop per acre. Pepper hybrid PR
7594 (resistant to bacterial spot)
was seeded with plug-mix on
September 3, 1987, and hills were
thinned to 2 plants per mulch hole.
Plants were staked and tied.
Plots were harvested 6 times
from November 30 through February
18 with fruit graded according to
USDA standards. For comparisons, we
included 2 additional treatments.
One of these was 'PR7594' at the
grower fertilizer rate (336 lb./acre
N and 416 lb./acre K20). The other
treatment consisted of harvesting
plots within the growers field which
were 'Early Cal Wonder' cultivar at
336 lb./acre N and 416 lb./acre K20.
There was no significant K rate
effect on total marketable yield
(Table 1). Preplant
(prefertilization) Mehlich-I index
was 60 ppm for this soil which we
are currently interpreting as
medium-low and are recommending 105
lb./acre K20. Our results show that





-2-


applying only 48 lb./acre K20 did
not result in reduced yields. These
data, along with results from last
years study clearly emphasize a need
to revise our Mehlich-I calibration.

(Hochmuth, Shuler, Veg. 88-07)


Table 1. Main effects for potassium rates in Bovnton Beach study, 1987-1988 winter.

Marketable yield (25-lb bu/A)

K20 (lb./A) Harvest date
Center band/total Nov. 30 Dec. 15 Dec. 29 Jan. 12 Jan. 29 Feb. 18 Total

0/48 487 406 362 221 135 69 1680
62/110 464 416 391 220 150 89 1730
122/170 459 406 367 227 122 103 1684
368/416 424 408 342 205 188 104 1671
368/416* 449 439 335 175 102 56 1556


* 'Early Cal Wonder' in commercial field.


B. Soluble Salt Readigs Can
Not Be Used to Make Fertilizer
Recommendations.

Many people use words which
seem to fit but may be interpreted
differently by the audience. Here
are a two such definitions to
prevent misunderstanding.

Electrical conductivity
Electrical conductivity is the
actual measurement made by an
instrument which quantifies the
ability of a solution to transport
an electrical charge. The resulting
value is related to the type and
quantity of ions which are dissolved
in the solution. When discussing
this measurement, the term
electrical conductivity is
preferred. Units of this
measurement are expressed in
decisiemens/meter (dS/m) or
millimhos/centimeter (mmhos/cm) .


This term is often used
interchangeably with "soluble
salts."

Soluble salts
A soluble salts value is an
attempt to convert an electrical
conductivity reading into a
measurement of the salt
concentration {parts per million
(ppm)) in the solution. Since
electrical conductivity is a
measurement of the solution's
electrical conductance only, such a
conversion is at best an estimate.
No information about the chemical
species (Ca, Mg, K, ?) present in
solution is available from the
electrical conductivity measurement.
An average set of ions, such as Ca,
Mg, K, nitrates, chlorides, etc.,
must be assumed for the conversion
to soluble salts. Soluble salts is
a term which we should phase out and
replace with electrical





-3-


conductivity.
Soluble salts values are often
used as a basis for fertilizer-
management decisions. This use is
incorrect, since the electrical
conductivity test does not provide
ANY information about which
nutrients are present and which
might be needed. Additional
testing, using a calibrated soil-
test be made before intelligent
fertilizer decisions can be made.
Soluble salt measurements can
help in double-cropping situations
to aid in decisions on where in the
bed (relative to old fertilizer
band) to place seeds or plants to
avoid soluble salt damage for the
second crop. Critical soluble salt
levels have been published for this
purpose.

(Hanlon, Hochmuth, Veg. 88-07)

C. New Form Releases on the


The Extension Soil Testing
laboratory (ESTL) will be sending
new forms to county extension
offices in the near future. These
forms are a result of an upgrade in
methodology of several tests offered
by the ESTL. The following list
indicates the forms which should be
at county extension offices during
June.
Container Media Test
Information Form. This new form
will replace the Greenhouse and
Potting Media forms. There will
also be a new report form including
updated interpretations.
Producer Soil Test Information
Sheet. This new form will replace
the current form of the same name.
The new form has an updated crop-
code listing. When the new forms
arrive, please dispose of the
outdated forms to prevent incorrect
crop code selection by your clients.
landscape and Vegetable Garden
Soil Test Information Form. This
form will replace the older Home


Lawn and Garden form. The new form
has updated crop codes suited with
more information about soil testing
and its uses for home
horticulturists. When the new forms
arrive, please dispose of the
outdated forms to prevent incorrect
crop code selection by your clients.
Pine Plantation and Pine
Nursery Soil Test Information Sheet.
This form replaces the Forest and
Forest Nursery Soil Tests form.
Substantial changes regarding
appropriate soil sampling need and
methods are described on this form.
When the new forms arrive, please
dispose of the outdated forms to
prevent incorrect crop-code
selection or soil-sampling errors by
your clients.

(Hanlon, Veg. 88-07)


D. Ken Shuler Receives National
Rexcogitian.

The National Association of
County Agricultural Agents, along
with Dow Chemical Company, select
one County Extension Agent from each
state annually to go on an all
expense paid, ten-day tour to see
the latest in agricultural
practices. Ken Shuler, Extension
Agent for vegetable crops in Palm
Beach County, has been selected as
the person from Florida to attend
the tour in 1988. The focus will be
on agriculture in the state of
Colorado this year.
Ken Shuler was selected in 1987
as the Outstanding Agent in ten
south Florida counties for his work
with vegetable producers in Palm
Beach County.
Ken has been employed as
an Extension Agent in Palm Beach
County since July 1976. During this
time he has served as a director on
the board of the Florida Association
of County Agricultural Agents. He
presently serves as a director for
the Florida Chapter of Epsilon Sigma









Phi, the national honorary Extension
fraternity.

(Maynard, Veg. 88-07)


in. PESTICIEE UPIAKE

A. Fusilade 2000 Label for Use
on Sweet Potatoes and Yams.

Fusilade 2000 has
received supplemental labeling for
use on sweet potatoes and yams.
Apply as a ground application with
sufficient spray volume and pressure
to ensure complete coverage of
target grasses. Apply to actively
growing grass weeds before they
exceed the recommended growth stages
shown on the label. Do not apply if
rainfall is expected within 1 hour.
Depending on grass species, rates
are 12 to 32 fl. oz/A product (.09 -
0.25 lb ai).
Do not apply a total of
more than 96 oz (0.75 lb ai) of
Fusilade 2000 per acre per season.
Do not harvest within 55 days of
application. Do not plant
rotational grass crops such as corn,
and sorghum, within 60 days after
last application.
All application
directions, restrictions, and
precautions on the EPA-registered
label are to be followed.

(Stall, Veg. 88-07)

B. Special local Needs Labels
for the Use of Gramaxone Supe
(Paraquat) for Melons and lettuce in
Florida.

Two special local needs labels
(24C) have been regenerated and
upgraded for the use of Gramoxone
Super (Paraquat) in Florida for
kill of emerged annual broadleaf
weeds and grasses and for top kill
and suppression of emerged
perennial weeds.
Melons: Preplant and Preemergence


Use: Apply 2 1/2 to 5 pints (0.47
to .94 lb ai) per sprayed acre as a
band treatment over the crop row, or
as a broadcast treatment prior to,
during or after planting but
before emergence of the crop.
Postemergence Directed Spray:
Apply 2 1/2 to 5 pints per sprayed
acre. Apply with conventional
ground equipment directing spray
between the rows and use shields to
prevent spray contact with crop
plants.
Apply 40-80 gallons of spray
mix per acre. Add a non-ionic
surfactant at 8 fluid ounces per 100
gallons of spray mix. Do not apply
more than 3 applications per crop
season.
lettuce: Postemergence Directed
Spray: Apply as a directed spray
using 2 to 2 1/2 pts (.38 0.47 lbs
ai) per sprayed acre in 40-70 gals
spray mix. Apply with conventional
ground equipment directing spray
between the rows and using shields
to prevent spray contact with crop
plants. Add a no-ionic surfactant
at 8 ft oz per 100 gals of spray
mix. Apply when weeds and grasses
are succulent on weed growth is 1 to
6 inches high. Weeds and grasses
emerging after application will not
be controlled. Do not allow spray
to contact lettuce plants as injury
or excessive residues may result.
Outer leaves should be stripped at
the time of harvest. Do not apply
where Gramoxone Super has been used
as a preplant-preemergence spray.
Labeling must be in the possession
of the user at the time of
application.

(Stall, Veg. 88-07)

C. Special local Needs label
for lannate L (methcml) for Use on
Chinese Broccoli.

A special local needs
label (24-C) has been granted for
the use of lannate L on Chinese
broccoli to control cabbage lopper,





-5-


imported cabbageworm and diamond
back moth in Florida. Apply 1 to 4
pints Iannate L per acre in
sufficient water (ground application
only) to obtain thorough coverage.
Add a wetting agent to the spray
solution. Repeat at 5-7 days
intervals as needed. Do not apply
within 3 days of harvest. The label
must be in possession of the user a
time of application.

(Stall, Veg. 88-07)


IV. ,Whitefly a Current
Insect Pest in Florida Gardens.

As if Florida home gardeners
didn't have enough pest problems to
bother their vegetables, a new
insect pest has arrived on the
scene this past season. Whitefly
was the worst problem I had with my
spring garden tomatoes in 1988, and
from calls and contacts around the
state, it appears to have reached
rather serious proportions
everywhere.
Its accepted common name is
sweetpotato whitefly, (Bemisia
tabaci Gennadius), but I suppose you
could call it tomato whitefly when
it attacks your tomatoes. It is not
really a new insect, having been
around Florida for a hundred years,
but it has just recently become a
pest of consequence.
According to reports, this
whitefly attacks at least 500
species of plants including such
vegetables as tomato, eggplant,
pepper, cucumber, melons, squash,
and snapbeans. Many ornamentals,
particularly poinsettias, are
susceptible and bothered by the
sweetpotato whitefly.
last year (1987), D. J.
Schuster and J. F. Price,
researchers at the Gulf Coast Center
at Bradenton, gave a thorough report
on this new pest of tomatoes. I am
utilizing much of their information
for this article.


What I first observed, and what
most gardeners see, are yellowing
weak-looking tomato plants, usually
at the time the first few hands of
fruit are setting. Brushing aside
the leaves with a flick of the hand
sends a cloud of the tiny whiteflies
into the air. A close look at the
leaves reveals yellow chlorotic
spots scattered over the upper leaf
surface, and a host of flattened,
oval colorless nymphs on the
underside.
The whitefly adults are small
insects about lmm long with pale
yellow bodies and white wings. They
resemble small flies but are more
closely related to aphids since they
have piercing-sucking mouthparts.
Adults prefer the younger leaves and
deposit minute, cigar-shaped eggs on
the undersides of these leaves. The
eggs are attached to the leaves by
short stalks.
The immature stages are usually
called nymphs and also have
piercing-sucking mouthparts. The
newly-hatched nymphs have well-
developed legs and are the only
mobile nymphs. After finding a
feeding site on the lower leaf
surface, these "crawlers" attach to
feed and usually do not move again.
A chlorotic spot appears on the
upper surface above each feeding
site.
The subsequent three nymphal
stages appear as flattened, oval
scales and are immobile. The final
immature stage (pupal) is more
convex and elliptical and has large
(for them) red eyes. The
developmental time from egg to adult
at 80F on tomato is about 4 weeks.
Thus, the pupal stage is found
usually on older leaves.
In addition to sucking sap, the
sweetpotato whitefly is a known
vector of many virus diseases in
other areas. Fortunately, no
viruses in Florida are known to be
transmitted (as yet).
Control of the whitefly is
still under study. So far the





-6-


insecticides found to be most
effective in limited tests, and
available to home gardeners for non-
restricted use are: Thiodan,
Lindane, and Cygon. White-fly
sticky traps are sold for this
purpose, but their effectiveness is
not fully established.
Biological control is under
study also. So far, about 25
species of parasites and 15 species
of predators are recorded. In
addition, the use of reflective
mulches may prove helpful in
reducing damage from this new pest
to home garden tomatoes.

(Stephens, Veg. 88-07)



Prepared by Extension Vegetable
Crops Specialists


Dr. D. J. Cantliffe Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Chairman Associate Professor

Dr. S. M. Olson Dr. D. D. Gull
Associate Professor Associate Professor

Dr. D. N. Maynard l A -. ) Dr. W. M. Stall
Professor Lo Professor

Mr. J. M. Stephens
Professor




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