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Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: June 1988
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00374
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Full Text



INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

VIcl able Crops Department 1255 THSPP Gainesville, FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134


Vegetarian 88-06


June 15,1988


Contents


I. NOTES OF INTEREST


K:':~
e


A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

B. Publications

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Leaf Silvering of Squash.

B. More Pepper Nitrogen Pepper Demonstrations.

C. Chlorination of Dump Tanks.

III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Disease Resistance in Florida Garden Tomatoes.




Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this
newsletter. Whenever possible, please give credit to the
authors.


The purpose
the purpose
necessarily


of trade names in this publication is solely for
of providing information and does not
constitute a recommendation of the product.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
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I. MKTfES OF INTEREST


A. Vegetable Crops
Calendar.

June 20-24, 1988. 4-H
Horticulture Institute, Camp
Cloverleaf. (Contact Jim
Stephens).

June 21, 1988. Vegetable
Twilight Field Day. Live Oak
Agricultural Research and
Education Center, Live Oak, Fl.
from 5:00 to 8:00 PM. (Contact
George Hochmuth).

July 26-27, 1988. 4-H State
Congress, Vegetable
(Horticulture) Contest and
Career Exploration, Gainesville.
(Contact Jim Stephens).

September 27, 1988. Florida
Tomato Institute. Ritz Carlton
Hotel, Naples, Fl. (Contact W.
M. Stall).

October 27, 1988. Florida Pepper
Institute: Southwest Florida
Research & Education Center,
Imnokalee. (Contact D. N.
Maynard).


B. Publications.

Clark, G. A., C. D. Stanley, and
A. G. Smajstrla. 1988. Micro-
irrigation on mulched bed
systems: Components, System
Capacities, and Management.
Univ. Fla. Coop. Ext. Serv. Circ.
245.

Muskmelon Production Guide for
Florida. 1988 Univ. Fla. Coop.
Ext. Serv. Circ. 122C.

Shuler, K. D. 1988. "Super
Sweet" Sweet Corn Cultivar Trial
Boynton Beach, Florida, Winter
1987-88. Palm Beach County


Extension Report 1988-1.


Maynard, D. N. and Gilreath, P.
R., 1988. Pumpkin Variety
Evaluation Summer/Fall 1987.
Bradenton GCREC Research Report
BRAl988-6.

Howe, T. K. and Waters, W. E.,
1988. Bell Pepper Variety Trial
for Immature (Green) and Mature
(Colored) Harvest, Spring 1987.
Bradenton GCREC Research Report
BRA1988-5.

Howe, T. K. and Waters, W. E.,
1988. Sweet Corn Variety Trial -
Supersweets, Spring 1987.
Bradenton GCREC Research Report
BRA1988-4.

Engelhard, Arthur W., Woltz, S.
S. and J. P. Jones, 1988. The
Control of Fusarium Wilt with the
Integrated Lime (pH), Nitrate-N,
Chemotherapy System. Bradenton
GCREC Research Report BRA1988-3.

Engelhard, Arthur W., 1988.
Control of Botrytis and the
Influence of Moisture and
Temperature on Disease
Occurrence. Bradenton GCREC
Research Report BRA1988-2.

Engelhard, A. W., Jones, J. P.,
Woltz, S. S., Overman, A. J.,
1988. Fusarium Wilt: Papers
from the University of Florida
Research Centers Related to the
Development of the Florida System
of Control on Tomatoes and
Ornamentals. Bradenton GCREC
Research Report BRA1988-8.

II. C(IE3RAL VEGEThABIES

A. Ieaf silvering of
squash.

In the past several years, a
condition of squash has appeared
in south Florida, commonly known










as leaf silvering. This
condition is also found in
Israel.
Dr. Harry Paris, Dept. of
Vegetable Crops, Agricultural
Research Organization, Nerve
Ya'ar Experiment Station, Israel,
has published an article on leaf
silvering (Can. J. Plant Sci.
67:593-598).
Dr. Paris also spent a year
on sabbatical in Florida in 1986-
87. From this article several
phenomenon of this disorder is
described. He states that leaf
silvering is a physiological
disorder. In Israel the disorder
is seen in late summer and fall
crops.
Silvering resembles silver
mottling, a genetic (single
dominant gene) leaf character.
Silvering is expressed in
and parallel to leaf veins,
except in severe cases, when it
encompasses the entire leaf.
Silver mottling is expressed as
patches in the axes of leaf
veins. In both conditions
neither appears early in plant
development. Also, if a leaf has
the condition, it will remain so.
They are different in that
in silver mottling, when the
condition appears on one leaf,
the following leaves, when they
emerge, will have the condition.
Silvering of a leaf, however,
does not preclude later leaves
from being green. Anatomically,
both the genetically determined
silver-mottled leaves and the
physiological leaf silvering are
attributable to the lack of close
contact between palisade cells
and contact between palisade
cells and the epidermis,
resulting in air spaces. Silver-
mottled leaves have been reported
to reflect more light than non-
mottled (green) leaves.
Dr. Paris reported in his
paper that although the incidence
of silvering was not affected,


the severity of the silvering
was significantly affected by
soil moisture. The lower the
moisture, the greater the
severity. He also speculated
that silvering may be interpreted
as a plant defensive response
against desiccation. This theory
corresponds with the greater
incidence of the problem during
their no-rain periods of late
summer and fall.
The incidence of silvering
during the "drier" months of the
year also corresponds to Florida.
The initiation of the condition
probably occurs in the bud and
becomes pronounced as the leaf
expands. We in Florida and those
in Israel have not yet identified
the factors necessary for
silvering to be induced.
Although many speculate on a
virus, no isolations have been
seen after numerous attempts.
Air pollution and insect feeding
have also been raised as possible
answers. Both of these are being
studied, but as yet, no
correlation as been found.
There is considerable
ongoing work to isolate the cause
of the problem. If any
correlations to environmental or
biological factors are made by
anyone in the observations of the
leaf silvering occurrences, I
would appreciate being informed.
If we can finally isolate the
cause, then a control can be
worked on.

(Stall, Veg. 88-06)


B. More peper nitrogen
demonstrations.

This past winter, Ken
Shuler, Phyllis Gilreath, and I
continued our field
demonstrations on pepper
fertilizer management and soil-
test calibration. Our objectives





-3-


are to demonstrate IFAS nitrogen
and potassium fertilizer
recommendations and to collect
data for calibrating our
potassium soil test procedure.

This article reports on the
effects of the nitrogen
treatments on pepper yield at
Boynton Beach (DuBois Farms). In
this study, the grower applied
his basic (starter mix) of
fertilizer (800 lb. per acre of
6-8-6) in shoulder bands on
August 28. We then applied
various combinations of nitrogen
and potassium to the center band
of our plots. Total nitrogen
amounts were 160, 220, 280, and
336 lb. of N per acre. The 336
lb. per acre was the grower rate.
Potassium treatments ranged from
48 to 416 lb. of K20 per acre.



Table 1. Response of pepper to levels
Bovnton Beach. Fl. 1988-89.


Plots were seeded September
3, 1987 with 'PR 7594' pepper
hybrid and were harvested 6 times
from Nov. 30 through Feb. 18.
Total marketable pepper yields
for the nitrogen main effects are
presented in table 1. The first
3 nitrogen treatments were
arranged with the potassium rates
in a factorial experiment. The
results showed no significant
differences among nitrogen rates
for total marketable yield.
Presently our fertilizer
recommendations for nitrogen are
set at 160 Ib. N per acre for
three harvests. We are presently
analyzing data from the pepper
grading and storage tests that
were conducted on the fruit.






of nitrogen in a winter crop at


Marketable yield (25-lb ctn. per acre)
N rate Harvest date
lb/A Nov. 30 Dec. 15 Dec. 29 Jan. 12 Jan. 29 Feb.18 Total


160
220
280
336/416Y
Commercial.


456x
480
474
424
449


449
383
394
408
439


332
402
386
342
335


214
233
221
205
175


147
137
123
188
102


85
90
87
104
56


1,683
1,725
1,686
1,671
1 .556


XAverage of 9 observations (3 reps; 3K20 rates).
Ymmercial fertilizer rate with 'PR 7594'.
ZCommercial fertilizer rate with 'Early CalWonder'.

(Hochnuth, Veg. 88-06)


C. Chlorination of dump
tanks.

Dump tank chlorination is a
water purification treatment. It
does not disinfect the tissue of
contaminated vegetables but does
prevent the spread of decay-
producing organisms in the water


of the dump tank. Currently, it
is recommended that chlorine be
maintained at 100 to 150 ppm,
although 50 ppm of chlorine is
probably more than adequate if
that level is maintained.
Ihe most common
disinfectants containing chlorine
that are now in general use are










chlorine gas, sodium hypochlorite
(commercial bleach at 10-12%),
and calcium hypochlorite
(chlorinated lime at about 65%).
All these chlorine-containing
chemicals form hypochlorous acid
when added to water.
Germicidal activity of
chlorinated dump tanks depends
upon factors such as water
temperature, the amount of
organic matter present, exposure
time to the chlorine, and pH of
the water. In the past, minor
consideration has been given to
these factors because most dump
tanks use heated water,
additional chlorine is added
throughout the day to compensate
for increasing organic matter and
tanks are also cleaned daily,
exposure time to the chlorine is
adequate, and under Florida
conditions we have considered
water pH to be in the"effective"
range.
The use of chlorine has an
effect upon the pH of the water,
depending on the type of chlorine
used. Also, water pH is a
critical factor in maintaining
effective chlorine concentra-
tions. For example:


Water pH


6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0


Cl effectiveness


90%
75%
50%
25%


For maximum effectiveness, water
pH should be maintained at 6.5 to
7.5.
We have been in contact with
a water treatment company
operating out of Sarasota and
they have installed their system
in two packinghouses in Florida.
The basis of their system is the
automatic control of water pH and
the metering of chlorine (sodium
hypochlorite) to maintain 150 ppm
of free chlorine. Under these


controlled conditions the level
of chlorine could be lowered for
an additional saving. Their
system of pH control and metering
of chlorine has reduced the daily
usage of hypochlorite by one
half. This reduction in the use
of chlorine and the more
favorable water pH should reduce
the corrosiveness to equipment,
lower the unpleasant odors of
chlorine in the vicinity of the
dump tank, and have a favorable
economic impact upon the
packinghouse operation. More
details of this system will be
made available as results are
obtained. Name of the company
will be furnished upon request.

(Gull, Veg. 88-06)

III. VEGEBIE GAIR

A. Disease resistance in
Florida garden tomatoes.

We all want to avoid
spraying pesticides on our
gardens if at all possible.
However, with all the disease and
insect pests we have in our warm,
muggy state, we sometimes have to
give the little scavengers a
quick chemical kick in the rear
end if we are to get any returns
for our efforts.
One of the best ways to
reduce the need to spray is to
plant varieties of vegetables
that have pest resistance, or at
least tolerance, built into their
genes. But when we look at the
long list of varieties
recommended for our area, we
really can't tell which ones are
resistant to what. Okay, maybe
we should list in our guides the
pests which these varieties are
supposed to ward off. Planting
guides are brief and concise to
avoid the appearance of textbooks
and bulletins, so space is
limited.




-5-


To provide more information
in this area I shall utilize our
Vegetarian newsletter. Let's
start with the big red one the
tomato. In subsequent issues
we'll continue with the other
vegetable varieties. Circular
104P, the Vegetable Gardening
Guide is our main reference on
current varietal recamaend-
ations. Looking at the current


list of tomato varieties. (by
the way, also known as
"cultivars"), we find the
following, which are hereby
described according to disease
resistance. Since resistance to
other pests such as insects and
nematodes is seldom found in the
tomato, we'll list only those
diseases for which the varieties
are legitimately resistant.


Tomato varieties in current vegetable gardening guide (Cir. 104P)


Plant type


Floradel


Tropic


Manalucie


Better Boy


Cherry Grande


Walter


Suncoast


Floramerica


Flora-Dade


Duke


Florida Basket


Large red


Large red


Large red


large red


Small red


Large red


large dp. red


Large red


Large red


Large red


small red


Florida lanai small red


Indet.


Indet.


Indet.


Indet.


Det.


Det.


Det.


Det.


Det.


Det.


Det.

Det.


Fus. wilt (1); gray leaf-
spot; graywall

Fus. wilt (1); vert. wilt;
gray leafspot; graywall

Fus. wilt (1); Early
blight; gray leafspot;
gray wall; leafmold

Fus. wilt (1); verticillium
wilt

Fus. wilt (1); vert, gray
leafspot; Alternaria
stem

Fus. (1,2); gray leafspot;
graywall

Fus. (1,2); vert.; gray
leafspot

Fus. (1,2); gray leafspot;
gray mold; crown rot.

Fus. (1,2); vert.; gray
leafspot

Fus. (1,2); vert.; gray
leafspot; stem alt.


Gray leafspot

Gray leafspot


1NamTT


MA"Um -F" I i i- + -I Pl n-F In-vm Disease resi--fn--ra


Fruit type


nifiPZISP ~i~;mT~P_











Name Fruit type Plant type Disease resistance

Florida Petite small red Det. Gray leafspot

Patio medium red Det. Fus. (1) tolerance

Red Cherry small red Indet. Stem alternaria


A quick glance clearly shows
that many serious diseases of tomato
are missing from the above table.
Some of these include bacterial
leafspot, bacterial wilt, late
blight, and early blight. There-
fore, the planting of resistant
varieties will help in reducing
pesticide applications, but does
not eliminate them altogether.

(Stephens, Veg. 88-06)


Prepared by Extension Vegetable
Crops specialists


Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Chairman

Dr. S. M. Olson
Associate Professor

Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor

Mr. J. M. Stephens
Professor


Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Associate Professor

Dr. D. D. Gull
Associate Professor


LLVJI


Dr. W. M. Stall
Professor




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