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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: April 1988
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Volume ID: VID00372
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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

vegetable Crops Departnicnl 1255 HSPPD Gainesville, FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134


Vegetarian 88-04


April 12, 1988


Contents


I. NOTES OF INTEREST


A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

B. New Publications.

C. Vegetable Weed Tour.

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Greenhouse Study Tour.

B. Specialty Vegetables for 1988.

III. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. New Herbicide Labels through IR-4.

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Reporting Value of Florida Vegetable Gardens.



Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this
newsletter. Whenever possible, please give credit to the
authors.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for
the purpose of providing information and does not
necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
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-1-


I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

April 29, 1988. State FFA Vegetable
ID Finals, JWRU, University of
Florida, Gainesville. (Contact Jim
Stephens).

May 3, 1988. Drip Irrigation Field
Day. Gulf Coast Agricultural
Research and Education Center,
Bradenton. Tour of plots and
presentations by researchers.
Starts at 5:00 PM with Bar-B-Q
dinner. (contact Gary Clark or Don
Maynard 813-755-1568).

May 5, 1988. State Vo-Ag Teachers
Training School, Gainesville.
(Contact Jim Stephens).

May 12-13, 1988. Vegetable Weed
Tour. (Contact W. M. Stall for more
information.)

May 26, 1988. Home Horticulture
Agent In-Service Training,
Gainesville. (Contact Jim Stephens).

June 20-24, 1988. 4-H Horticulture
Institute, Camp Cloverleaf.
(Contact Jim Stephens).

July 26-27, 1988. 4-H State
Congress, Vegetable (Horticulture)
Contest and Career Exploration,
Gainesville. (Contact Jim Stephens).

September 7, 1988. Florida Tomato
Institute. Ritz Carlton Hotel,
Naples, FL. (Contact W. M. Stall).

October 27, 1988. Florida Pepper
Institute: Southwest Florida
Research & Education Center,
Immokalee. (Contact D. N. Maynard.)


B. New Publications.

Knott's HANDBOOK FOR VEGETABLE
GROWERS, Third edition, by 0. A.
Lorenz and D. N. Maynard is


available from John Wiley & Sons,
Inc., One Wiley Drive, Somerset, NJ
08874. $24.95.


C. Vegetable Weed Tour.

The vegetable weed tour is
planned for May 12 and 13, 1988.
The tour will visit plots in
Zellwood and Gainesville this year.
In Zellwood, trials on carrots,
lettuce, chicory, celery, and
Chinese cabbage and Chinese broccoli
will be visited on muck and sand.
In Gainesville, trials on sweet
corn, cucumber, watermelon, squash,
beans, southern peas, cabbage,
mustard, and peppers on sand will be
seen. A tentative schedule of the
tour follows.

May 12
9:00 AM Meet at Duda Entrance.
9:30 to Noon Visit Plots.
Lunch on your own.
Travel to Gainesville.
6:00 PM Gathering and Cookout -
Gainesville.

May 13
8:30 AM Meet at Horticulture
Unit.
8:30 9:00 Coffee and
Doughnuts.
9:00 Noon Visit Plots.


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Greenhouse Study Tour.

From April 16 through April 26,
a group of IFAS Extension
Specialists and County faculty will
be participating in a study tour of
greenhouse vegetable production in
the northern U.S. and Canada. The
purpose of the study tour is to
learn about greenhouse vegetable
research, Extension, and commercial
culture in some of the foremost
greenhouse areas in north America.
Many may not realize that











Florida has one of the largest
greenhouse vegetable industries in
the U.S. The fastest expanding
region is in north Florida in the
Live Oak area. Our climate and
proximity to eastern markets
provides good potential for
greenhouse vegetable culture.
Currently tomatoes and "European"
cucumbers are the major crops, with
small amounts of lettuce and pepper
also grown.
Our study tour will enable us
to be better self-trained in
greenhouse vegetable culture by
studying a variety of research and
education programs being conducted
in other parts of the country and
Canada. We will be visiting
research and Extension personnel at
Ohio State University and North
Carolina State University. In
addition we will visit research
stations in Harrow and Vineland
(Ontario) Canada.
Following the study tour, the
group plans to author a greenhouse
vegetable production handbook for
Florida. In addition, there will be
an In-Service Training program
conducted on vegetable culture in
greenhouses. Everyone might wish to
think about the greenhouse producers
you have in your county and the
problems that need addressing. We
would like to deal with the problems
in the handbook. Contact anyone of
the study tour group, Bill Thomas,
Mike Sweat, Fred Johnson, Gary
Simone, David Zimet, or George
Hochmuth.

(Hochmuth, Veg. 88-04)


B. Specialty Vegetables for
1988.

With each new year come
predictions on events, fads, or
clothing that are likely to occur or
be in style in the coming year. The
produce industry is no exception,
according to a recent article in THE


PACKER. Frieda's Finest/Produce
Specialties of Los Angeles predicts
that top sellers in 1988 will be
purple potatoes, pepino, cactus
leaves, shallots, elephant garlic,
exotic mushrooms, and fresh chiles.
This list, if correct, may not
be too promising for Florida growers
interested in specialty vegetable
production. Shallot evaluations
have been conducted at the Gulf
Coast Research and Education Center.
Shallot trials in both the spring
and fall seasons were unsuccessful
because of excessive division
resulting in up to 25 plants from
each original bulb. None of the
plants produced acceptable bulbs.
Pepino (see Vegetarian 88-01)
evaluations at GCREC indicate that
poor fruit set limits production
here. Similar results were reported
(Vegetable Briefs for California
Farm Advisors No. 270) from two
locations in Southern California.
Although the common mushroom is
grown commercially in at least two
locations in Florida, there is no
exotic mushroom production at the
present time. However, experimental
shiitake mushroom trials are being
conducted in north Florida.
There are an array of chile
varieties ranging in pungency from
mild to hot. Most of the chile
peppers grown in the United States
are processed in some way.
Dehydrated products are sold as
whole pods or ground into various
sauces. The small volume of chiles
grown in Florida is mostly for the
fresh market. Culture is similar to
bell and hot peppers.
To my knowledge, there is no
commercial production, nor have
there been evaluations of purple
potatoes, cactus leaves, or elephant
garlic. However, it would seem that
production of purple potatoes and
cactus leaves would be possible.
Whether Frieda's predictions
materialize or not remains to be
seen. It is certain, however, that
new specialty vegetables will




-3-


continue to be in demand,
particularly in the food service
industry. Growers and potential
growers of these crops need to be
aware of the changing moods of the
industry.

(Maynard, Veg. 88-04)


III. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. New Herbicide Labels
through IR-4.

Establishment of the following
labels was accomplished through IR-4
developed data. I have a copy of
the supplemental labels from IR-4.
Two of the 3 herbicides do not have
enough Florida tests to warrant a
recommendation. Growers may be made
aware of the labels, with
precautions to use only in a trial.

1. Sencor DF and Sencor 4 on
Carrots.

Apply specified dosage per acre
as a broadcast spray over the tops
of carrot plants. Application
should be made after carrots have
formed 5-6 true leaves but before
weeds are 1 inch in height or
diameter. If needed, a second
application may be made after an
interval of at least 3 weeks.
Applications may be made up to 60
days of harvest. Supplemental
labeling must be in possession of
appplicator. There is not enough
Florida data to recommend use at
this time. Growers may wish to try
small areas only.

2. Command 4EC on Pumpkins.

Apply as a soil incorporated
treatment for control of many
grasses and broadleaf weeds. May be
tank mixed with other herbicides to
increase control spectrum if all
cautions and limitations are
followed.


Florida data is lacking for the
recommendation of this compound.
Use with caution on trial bases
only. Supplemental labeling must be
in possession of the user at the
time of application.

3. Dacthal W-75 on Chinese
broccoli and Chinese cabbage (tight
headed).

Apply at seeding or transplant-
ing. Apply uniformly to the soil
preemergence to crop and weeds or
directly over transplants. May also
be preplant incorporated. Weeds
that have emerged will not be
controlled. Supplemental labeling
must be in the possession of the
user at the time of pesticide
application. Florida data does
exist for this use. May be
recommended for trial basis.

(Stall, Veg. 88-04)


IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

Reporting Value of Florida
Vegetable Gardens.

From time to time, many of us
in Extension horticulture work,
particularly in major program 15,
Home Horticulture, must prepare
reports that call for a statistical
analysis of vegetable gardening as
an economic endeavor. The purpose
of this article is to provide a
county-by-county basis for
evaluating individual county
programs on gardening.
My calculations are derived in
part from Florida demographic data
generated by Glenn Israel in his
January 1988 report on "Changing
target audiences: growth in the
number of households in Florida
counties, and from the 1985 Gallup
Survey.
Note that the calculations
reported here should be considered
to be on the conservative side. For




-4-


example, my estimate of number of
gardens is based on using only 1/2
the Gallup surveys reported 44% of
US households with vegetable
gardens. Also, I have used 300
square feet as the average size for
gardens, a figure that was reported
in only one year (1985) instead of
600 square feet reported earlier
(1980-83) and more recently in 1987
at 440 square feet.


U.S. Values (1985 Gallup Poll)


Acreage:
$ Value of Produce:
Produce Val/garden:
Cost/garden:
Net value/garden:


1.3 million
12 billion
$356.00
$ 32.00
$324.00


Florida Values (my 1988 estimates)

Acreage: 6,880 acres
$ Value of Produce: $300 million
Produce Val/garden: $356.00
Cost/garden: $ 56.00
Net Value/garden: $300.00


Vegetable Gardens in Florida by County: Stephens, 1986


Households


Gardens2


Acres


Value3


Florida
Alachua
Baker
Bay
Bradford
Brevard
Broward
Calhoun
Charlotte
Citrus
Clay
Collier
Columbia
Dade
Desoto
Dixie
Duval
Escambia
Flagler
Franklin
Gadsden
Gilchrist
Glades
Gulf
Hamilton
Hardee
Hendry
Hernando
Highlands
Hillsborough


4,612,822
66,497
5,194
46,594
7,212
138,592
485,283
3,486
37,748
33,323
30,293
49,654
14,414
669,218
7,752
3,239
243,678
99,261
7,180
3,172
14,043
2,366
2,767
4,228
3,171
7,321
7,495
30,134
24,795
297,927


1,000,000
14,429
1,127
10,110
1,565
30,074
105,306
756
8,191
7,231
6,573
10,774
3,127
145,220
1,682
702
52,878
21,539
1,558
688
3,047
513
600
917
688
1,588
1,626
6,539
5,380
64,650


6880.0
99.4
7.8
69.6
10.8
207.1
725.3
5.2
56.4
49.8
45.3
74.2
21.5
1000.1
11.6
4.8
364.2
148.3
10.7
4.7
21.0
3.5
4.1
1.7
6.0
11.0
11.2
45.0
37.1
445.3


$300,000,000
$ 4,328,955
$ 338,130
$ 3,033,270
$ 469,500
$ 9,022,338
$31,591,923
$ 226,938
$ 2,457,396
$ 2,169,327
$ 1,972,074
$ 3,232,476
$ 938,352
$43,566,083
$ 504,654
$ 210,858
$15,863,439
$ 6,461,892
$ 467,418
$ 206,496
$ 914,199
$ 154,026
$ 180,132
$ 75,244
$ 206,433
$ 476,598
$ 487,926
$ 1,961,724
$ 1,614,156
$19,395,048


Location


--


--











Households1


Holmes
Indian River
Jackson
Jefferson
Lafayette
Lake
Lee
Leon
Levy
Liberty
Madison
Manatee
Marion
Martin
Monroe
Nassau
Okaloosa
Okeechobee
Orange
Osceola
Palm Beach
Pasco
Pinellas
Polk
Putnam
St. Johns
St. Lucie
Santa Rosa
Sarasota
Seminole
Sumter
Suwannee
Taylor
Union
Volusia
Wakulla
Walton
Washington


SAccording to Israel.
2At 22% of households, represents a conservative 1/2 of Gallup's
estimate of 44% with gardens.
3 Value based on Gallup Poll's $1.00 per square foot (approximately).


-5-


Location


Gardens2
Gardens


Acres


Value3


5,927
32,006
14,745
3,949
1,540
53,429
115,828
63,985
8,787
1,648
5,474
76,122
64,414
34,833
30,873
14,567
50,223
9,611
217,500
32,103
314,039
105,798
368,849
139,724
21,952
27,530
47,145
22,625
109,432
88,444
10,594
9,263
6,713
2,549
133,844
4,702
10,305
5,713


1,286
6,945
3,199
856
334
11,594
25,134
13,884
1,906
357
1,187
16,518
13,977
7,558
6,699
3,161
10,900
2,085
47,197
6,996
68,146
22,958
80,040
30,320
4,763
5,974
10,230
4,909
23,746
19,192
2,298
2,010
1,456
553
29,044
1,020
2,236
1,239


~


8.9
47.8
22.0
5.9
2.3
57.0
173.1
95.6
13.1
2.5
10.5
113.8
96.3
52.1
46.1
21.8
75.1
14.4
325.1
48.0
469.3
158.1
551.2
208.8
32.8
41.4
70.5
33.8
163.6
132.2
15.8
13.8
10.0
3.8
200.0
7.0
15.4
8.5


---


$ 385,848
$ 2,083,590
$ 959,901
$ 257,079
$ 100,254
$ 3,478,227
$ 7,540,404
$ 4,165,425
$ 572,034
$ 107,286
$ 456,358
$ 4,955,541
$ 4,193,352
$ 2,267,628
$ 2,009,832
$ 948,312
$ 3,270,168
$ 625,677
$14,159,250
$ 2,089,905
$22,443,938
$ 6,887,451
$24,012,069
$ 9,096,033
$ 1,429,074
$ 1,792,203
$ 3,069,141
$ 1,472,889
$ 7,124,022
$ 5,757,705
$ 689,670
$ 603,021
$ 437,016
$ 165,939
$ 8,713,245
$ 306,099
$ 670,857
$ 317,916


----


--~-











In looking at these figures,
many of you will quickly determine
some inconsistencies with the actual
situation in your county.
Generalized statistical data from
averages tend to be that way. These
data are skewed toward the more
urban counties where there are more
but smaller gardens. Gardens in
rural counties are larger than the
average. For example, the table
shows only 3.5 acres of vegetable
gardens on Gilchrist County.
However, I suspect Marvin Weaver can
find individuals with gardens that
large.


Also, the value per acre
appears quite high, with an average
value of $43,000 per acre. But keep
in mind that labor costs are not
included, that values are based on
retail prices a gardener would have
to pay for what is grown, and that
yields are high due to intensive
culture.

(Stephens Veg. 88-04)


Dr. D. J.
Chairman


Cantliffe


Prepared by Extension Vegetable
Crops Specialists // /

Dr. G. J4 ofhuth
Assistant Wofessor


Dr. S. M. Olson
Associate Professor


Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor


Mr. J. M. Stephens
Professor


Dr. D. D. Gull
Associate Professor


Dr. W. M. Stall
Professor




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