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Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00369
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: January 1988
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Volume ID: VID00369
Source Institution: University of Florida
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A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Vegetable Crops Department 1255 HSDD Gainesvil. FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134



I: ~C

January 15, 1988



A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

B. New Publications.


A. Concept of Crop Nutrient Requirements in
Vegetable Fertilization.

B. Field-Testing Potassium Crop Nutrient
Requirements for Mulched Pepper.

C. Pepino Not a Likely Crop for Florida.


A. Naming the Jerusalem Artichoke.

Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this
newsletter. Whenever possible, please give credit to the

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for
the purpose of providing information and does not
necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.

Vegetarian 88-01

I --Ama


A. Vegetable Crops

February 4, 1988. 4-H/FFA
Horticulture ID Contest, Florida
State Fair, Tampa. (Contact Jim

February 3 and 4,
Seedsmen Seminar,
West, Gainesville.
Dan Cantliffe).

1988. Florida
Holiday Inn

February 7-10, 1988. Annual
meeting of North American
Strawberry Growers Association,
Holiday Inn Int'l Airport,
Tampa. (Contact G. Hochmuth).

February 23-25, 1988. Vegetable
Crops In-Service Training,
Gainesville. (Contact D. D.

March 4-5, 1988. Annual
Hydroponic Growers meeting,
Orlando, Florida, Radisson
Hotel. (Contact George

March 4, 1988. State FFA
Vegetable Training Contest,
Central Florida Fair, Orlando.
(Contact Jim Stephens).

April 29, 1988. State FFA
Vegetable ID Finals, JWRU,
University of Florida,
Gainesville. (Contact Jim

May 5, 1988. State Vo-Ag
Teachers Training School,
Gainesville. (Contact Jim

June 20-24, 1988. 4-H
Horticulture Institute, Camp
Coverleaf. (Contact Jim

July 26-27, 1988. 4-H State
Congress, Vegetable
(Horticulture) Contest and
Career Exploration, Gainesville.
(Contact Jim Stephens).

B. New Publications.

Hochmuth, G. J., and Rick
Mitchell. 1987. Double-Crop-
ping vegetables on polyethylene-
mulched beds. VEC 87-11.

Hochmuth, G. J., and Chris
Meline. 1987. Results of a
full-size watermelon cultivar
trial at Live Oak, VEC 87-12.

Hochmuth, G. J., and Chris
Meline. 1987. Results of
ice-box watermelon cultivar
trial at Live Oak. VEC 87-13.


A. Concept of Crop
Nutrient Requirements in
Vegetable Fertilization.

Plants require 16 elements
(C, H, 0, P, K, N ,S, Ca, Mg,
Fe, B, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, and Cl)
for normal growth and reproduc-
tion. The crop nutrient re-
quirement (CNR) for a particular
element can be defined as the
total amount in lb/A of that
element needed by the crop to
produce economic optimum yield.
This nutrient requirement can be
satisfied from many sources in-
cluding soil, water, air,
organic matter, or fertilizer.
For example, the CNR of potas-
sium (K) can be supplied from K-
containing minerals in the
soil, from K retained by soil
organic matter, or from K
fertilizers. When the soil
cannot contribute anything
toward the CNR (soil-test index
is "very low"), then all of the


CNR must be supplied from fer-
The CNR for a crop is
determined from field experi-
ments that test the yield
response to levels of added
fertilizer. For example, a
watermelon potassium study
might be conducted on a soil
that tests "very low" in soil
K. In this situation, the
soil is expected to contribute
negligible amounts of K to
watermelon growth and yield.
The researcher then plots the
relationship of crop yield to K
fertilizer rate. The CNR for K
is equivalent to the fertilizer
rate above which no significant
increases in yield are
expected, assuming negligible
yield was obtained from the
check plots where zero K was
applied. The CNR values
derived from such experiments
thus take into account factors
such as fertilizer fixation of
the soils. In Florida, these
types of experiments must be
conducted for all of our major
soil types (sands, mucks,
rockland). If data are
available from several
experiments, reliable estimates
of CNR values can be made.
If the researcher has
access to plots that contain
various levels of soil-test
extractable potassium, then he
can test the response to
various rates of K and
calibrate the soil-test
extractant. Results from these
studies will permit us to
determine how much of the CNR
for K can be supplied from the
soil itself.
Using soil testing and the
CNR concept in fertilizing
vegetables, we can become more
efficient fertilizer managers.

More precise fertilizer,
management will increase
growers' profits and reduce the
risks of groundwater pollution
from overfertilization.

(Hochmuth, Veg. 88-01)

B. Field-Testing
Potassium Crop Nutrient
Requirements for Mulched

Recently Ed Hanlon and I
reviewed the Florida literature
pertaining to fertilization of
bell peppers. The research
showed that the crop nutrient
requirements for peppers are
about 160-160-160 (N-P 0 -K 0)
pounds per acre. The 160 I1/A
of P 0 and K20 would be used
as fertilizer only on soils
testing very low in phosphorus
and potassium. Less P 0 and
K 0 would be recommended by the
Extension Soil Testing Lab in
situations where soil test
indices are low or above. The
160 lb/A of nitrogen is
recommended for each crop and
should be enough for a 3- to -4
harvest crop.
During the review of
literature, we could find only
a few reports of research
conducted on potassium
requirements of pepper. To
address this need, Ken Shuler,
Phyllis Gilreath, Rick
Mitchell, and I conducted
several on-farm tests to help
calibrate the Mehlich-I
soil-test for potassium. In
all, four studies were
conducted and the results are
presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Yield (3 harvests) of pepper at four locations in response to rates
of potassium fertilizer.

K20 treatments and yields Significan

Martin treatments (lb K20 per A) 40 100 160 220 280
Martin yield (bu/A): 1100 1260 1260 1270 1220 NS

Palm Beach treatments (Ib K20 per A) 25 100 160 220 280
Palm Beach yield (bu/A): 935 952 735 917 800 NS

Manatee treatments (Ib K20 per A) 50 100 150 200 250
Manatee yield (bu/A): 1300 1540 1438 1462 1298 NS

Hillsborough treatments (lb K20 per A) 75 100 -
Hillsborough yield (bu/A): 490 490 NS

Melilich-I soil test
indices were 24 ppm K in
all fields except Hillsborough
which was 73 ppm. The 24 ppm
index is currently interpreted
as very low which means that
the soil should contribute
nothing toward the crop
nutrient requirement for
potassium. Our current
calibation calls for 160 lb/A
of K 0 to be applied as
fertilizer in this situation.
However, results of our
tests show that we obtained no
response in yield above the
lowest K20 treatment at all
locations. This probably means
that our current calibration
for the Mehlich-I extractant is
set too high and we are
recommending too much K20
fertilizer for pepper. It is
probable that the vegetable
potassium calibration should be
more on the order of that for
agronomic crops. For agronomic
crops indices between 20 and 35
are interpreted as "low"
instead of "very low".
These results show that
significant potassium remains
in the sandy soil between
crops. This potassium can be
determined by soil test but our
current calibration needs to be

refined so that we are
recommending more precise
amounts of potassium. Our
field tests are continuing this
winter and spring in several
locations in southern Florida.

(Hochmuth, Veg. 88-01)

C. Pepino Not a Likely
Crop for Florida.

Pepino, Solanum muricatum
Ait., is a specialty vegetable
being grown commercially for
export in New Zealand and
Australia. Some acreage is
also being grown in California.
It is native to South America.
The plant is propagated
from terminal cuttings because
there are few seed in the
fruit, and most of those
present are sterile. The
cuttings root readily in a mist
house, and are ready for
transplanting to the field in
about two weeks. The plant is
herbaceous and bushy when grown
as an annual, but becomes woody
in frost-free areas where it
persists as a short-lived
As part of the continuing
program to identify specialty

crops for production in west
central Florida, pepinos were
evaluated in the spring,
summer, and fall of 1987 at the
Gulf Coast Research and
Education Center. Unrooted
cuttings of 12 varieties were
obtained from Dennis Pittenger,
Vegetable Extension Specialist
at the University of
California-Riverside and small
plants of 10 varieties (some
duplicate) were obtained from a
commercial nursery in southern
The spring and fall crops
were grown in the field using
the same cultural regime as is
used for tomato production.
The summer crop was grown in
three-gallon polyethylene
containers in a saranhouse.
Although the plants grew
vigorously and flowered
profusely, very few fruit set -
some varieties did not set a
single fruit on 12 plants.
Those fruit that set and
developed to maturity were
heart to egg shaped, light tan
in color some with purple
streaks, and from 1/4 to 1/2
pound each. Poor fruit-setting
has also been reported in
Because of its poor
fruit-setting characteristics
and high attraction to mites,
it is unlikely that pepino will
be a successful commercial
specialty vegetable crop in

(Maynard, Veg. 88-01)


A. Naming the Jerusalem

Vegetables get their
common names in many odd and
sundry ways, and the old
monicer doesn't always seem to

fit. One of the best and most
puzzling examples is the
Jerusalem artichoke.
Many common names can be
associated somewhat closely or
at least vaguely with their
scientific (Latin) names. Some
examples are carrot from
carota, lettuce from Lactuca,
beet from Beta, cucumber from
Cucumis, and spinach from
Other names derive from a
description of some part of the
plant (eggplant, for instance),
or from the name given it by
Indians or other early
acquaintances of the vegetable
(such as squash from the
Indian, askuta squash) or from
the area of its origin or use
(such as New Zealand spinach).
In the case of the
Jerusalem artichokes, no one
seems to know for sure just how
its name applies to any thing
about the vegetable. Of
course, there is another
artichoke, but the globe
artichoke in no way closely
resembles the Jerusalem
artichoke. Nor does Jerusalem
artichoke relate in any obvious
way to its scientific name,
Helianthus tuberosum. Some may
have thought the Jerusalem
artichoke tastes like the globe
artichoke, but how would that
explain the "Jerusalem" part of
the name. Certainly the
vegetable is not from
Jerusalem, for it originated in
North America. The old Indian
name for it was "Kaischuc
penesuk" (or 'penauk'), meaning
sun and roots, from its
resemblance to the sunflower,
as a sunflower with roots.
But, no matter how I try, I
can't associate a similar sound
between that name and Jerusalem
So far, the best
explanation is that it sounds


like the Italian name for the
plant, girasole articoccio,
meaning edible sunflower. That
makes more sense than the
theory that Jerusalem is a
corruption of 'ter Neusen' a
village in Holland where the
vegetable was first grown in
Europe. And any similarity to
topinambour (French)? Forget
Although the name
Jerusalem artichoke is going to
be around a long time, there
are some better names commonly
used, or at least names which
make a bit more sense.

Sunchoke is very common,
especially in the market place.
According to National
Gardening, in 1918 the English
publication Gardener's
Chronicle ran a contest to
rename the Jerusalem artichoke.
Out of hundreds of entries, the
judges chose "sunroot", which
was submitted by ten
contestants. Of course, that
was exactly what it was called
by the Indians, so perhaps we
should go full circle and all
agree to rename it "sunroot".

(Stephens, Veg. 88-01)

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

Dr. D. J. Cantliffe

Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Assistant Professori

Dr. S. M. Olson
Associate Professor

Mr. J. M. Stephens

Dr. D. D. Gull
Associate Professor

Dr. D. N. Maynard

Dr. W. M. Stall

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