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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00368
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: December 1994
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00368
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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UNIVERSITY OF Cooperative Extension Service

SFLORIDA Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences



VEGETARIAN

ji 9 A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication
*Horticultui &acinces Department P.O. 110690 Gainevillc, FL 32611 Telephone 904/392-2134


Vegetarian 94-12


December 19, 1994


Contents

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Celery Yield and Stalk Size.

III. PESTICIDE UPDATE


A. Potential Third Party Dual Registration in Bell Pepper
Row Middles.

B. Special Review Initiated on Atrazine, Simazine and
Cyanazine.

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Are Healthy Vegetables More Resistant?




Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors. The purpose of
trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing
information and does not necessarily constitute a recommendation of
the product.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.











I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

January 14, 1995. Suwannee Valley
AREC Shortcourse and Trade Show.
(Contact Bob Hochmuth)

March 2, 3, 1995. 1995 Florida
Postharvest Horticulture Institute. Holiday
Inn West, Gainesville. (Contact S.A. Sargent,
904-392-2134 ext. 215).

March 6-9, 1995. Harvest and
Postharvest Handling of Horticultural Crops.
Industry Tour. (contact S.A. Sargent, 904-
392-2134 ext. 215).


March 9, 10, 1995 Florida
Science Society Annual Meeting.
Augustine. (Contact W. M. Stall)


Weed
St.


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Celery Yield and Stalk Size.

The Lake Apopka Hydrologic Unit
Project (LAHUP) is a cooperative project
supported by the USDA, Cooperative
Extension Service of the University of Florida,
Soil Conservation Service (SCS), and the
Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation
Service (ASCS). Each agency has a defined
role to play in achieving the common
objectives of addressing the farm nutrient and
water management in the sensitive Lake
Apopka drainage basin. The Extension
Service is responsible for making fertilizer
recommendations and helping farmers manage
nutrients in the most efficient manner possible.
Recommendations based upon soil test and
verifying the recommendations with on-farm
demonstration plots is Extension's major


thrust. The SCS is providing conservation
planning and technical assistance to help
farmers meet water quality standards. The
ASCS administers specific cost-sharing
practices available through this project. This
has been a long way around to get to the topic
of celery yield results when grown on a Gator
muck soil which tested very high on
phosphorus (157+ ppm P), very high on
potassium (133 ppm K), very high on
magnesium (757+ ppm Mg), and had a pH 7.2
(4706+ ppm CA). The soil test results
indicated no additional fertilizer would be
needed. To verify the recommendation, 6
fertilizer treatments were applied broadcast on
25 January 1994 and a side-dress of N on 8
March 1994. Celery was transplanted 8
February 1994 and the randomized complete
block experiment had 5 replications. Fertilizer
sources were: N from ammonium nitrate
(34%), P from triple superphosphate (TSP
46%), and K from muriate of potash (KC1
60%). N was the same over the entire field
with 60 lb/acre being applied broadcast on 25
January and 60 lb on 8 March. All of the P
and K were applied on 25 January. Fertilizer
treatments and celery yield data by size of
stalks are presented in Table 1.











Table 1. Celery yield and stalk size as influenced by various P and K rates when grown in a Gator
muck testing very high for P and K, Zellwood 1994.


Treat. Yield in 60-1b crates/acre by size"
No. Nz P20, K20 % Rotf Small Medium Large Total



1 60/60 0 300 3.6 131 420 ab 510 1061
2 60/60 0 0 5.6 173 429 abw 465 1067
3 60/60 60 300 18.7 132 299 b 509 940
4 60/60 120 300 11.9 171 381 ab 361 913
5 60/60 120 0 4.5 245 465 a 283 993
6 60/60 120 150 5.1 352 376 ab 519 1247

'Nitrate applied pre-plant at 60 lb/acre and side-dress 4 weeks later at 60 lb/acre.
YThe percent of rotten stalks/plot.
xSmall = 1.1-1.9, Medium = 2.0-2.3, and Large = 2.8-3.9 lb/stalk (none were between 2.4-2.7).


Due to a wetter year than normal and
high disease pressure, there was more
variability between plots than expected. Total
yield ranged from 913 to 1247 60-lb crates per
acre, but there was no significant difference in
the yield according to a Duncan's Multiple
Range Test at 0.05. The highest level of
fertilizer gave the lowest yield with no clear
trends related to the various P and K rates.
Overall, on this one test, the soil test
recommendation of no additional P and K
resulted in as high or higher celery yield as
additions of up to 120 lb/acre of P205 or 300
lb/acre of K20. The size of the celery stalk as
with total yield did not appear to be influenced
by additions ofP and K when the pre-plant soil
test indicated adequate P and K.

This is a brief summary of cooperative
work by C. A. Neal, E. A. Hanlon, J. M.
White, A. Ferrer, and S. Cox.


(J. M. White, Vegetarian 94-12)


III PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Potential Third Party Dual
Registration in Bell Pepper Row Middles.

At the request of several pepper growers
in the Palm Beach area, Third Party
Registrations, Inc. (TPR) will be working to
obtain a Special Local Need (SLN)
registration for the use of Dual (Metolachlor)
to control weeds in bell pepper row middles.

TPR projects are grower initiated where
those who participate benefit from TPR's
efforts. Through contracts and agreements
based in Florida contract law, TPR indemnifies
the basic registrant or manufacturer from crop
loss and product performance liability. The
manufacturer retains all environmental and
other liabilities. In return, growers indemnify
TPR from similar liabilities. TPR's liability is
limited to the cost of the purchase price of the
pesticide. Financially, TPR operating expenses











include: EPA and FDACS registration fees,
data generation, registration petition
development costs, maintenance of labels and
agreements, and a contingency legal fund in
case of lawsuit. Each TPR project stands
alone financially so that the costs for a project
remain with only those participants.

Labels are limited to those who
participate. The per acre charge will simply
be the total amount of acres interested in using
Dual divided by the operating expenses.

For information on this label contact
Charles Matthews or Dan Botts at TPR, Inc.
(407) 894-1351.

(Stall, Vegetarian 94-12)


B. Special Review Initiated on
Atrazine, Simazine and Cyanazine.

The EPA has announced that they are
initiating a Special Review on pesticide
products containing the herbicides atrazine,
simazine and cyanazine.

Based on laboratory animal data, EPA
has concluded that those three triazine
compounds are possible human carcinogens
and has determined that exposure to the
triazines in the diet (food and drinking water)
may pose risks of concern. EPA has also
determined that exposure to these triazines
may pose risks of concern to applicators and
mixer/loaders who use products containing
one or more of these chemicals and to the
public who use home lawn care products
containing atrazine.

The EPA is concerned about the
potential ecological impacts of ground and
surface water contamination resulting from the


use of products containing these triazines.

The ecological effects is not included as
a trigger in the Special Review at this time.

For more information consult Federal
Register/Vol 59, No 225/Wed, Nov 23, 1994
or contact the Pesticide information office at
904-392-4721.

(Stall, Vegetarian 94-12)


IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING


A.
Resistant?


Are Healthy Vegetables More


Most of us in Extension have heard for
years from gardeners who believe that "healthy
plants are more resistant to pests than plants
that are stressed", particularly from one
nutrient deficiency or another. Maybe some of
you have even taught this as a principle of pest
management. However, is it always true?

Actually, it has been my observation that
dark green, vigorously growing, succulent
plants (vegetables) are just as prone to attack
by insects as weaker plants. I believe the
following summary of a paper given in
HortScience (29(11):1326-1328.1994) will
substantrate this observation. It is entitled
"Nitrogen Supply during Production of
Tomato Transplants Affects Preference by
Colorado Potato Beetle", by D. W. A. Hunt,
etal.

In their study conducted in Ontario, the
authors found that nitrogen fertilization
significantly affected the Colorado potato
beetle's preference for tomato seedling. In
field tests, beetles were more abundant on
seedlings containing higher N levels and in the











greenhouse, there was also a similar strong
correlation between tomato seedling N
concentration and the number of beetles. As
expected, the seedlings receiving higher N
levels were larger. However, when same-size
plants were tested, beetles preferred those
with higher concentrations of N. So the
beetles were not attracted to plants because
they were taller, but because they contained
more nitrogen.

Further studies also showed that the
beetles preferred tender, succulent tomato
plants to those that were tougher due to
acclimatization. Exposing tomato seedlings to
cool outdoor conditions for 5 days was
sufficient to increase stem stiffness to a point
that beetle damage (preference) was greatly
reduced.

It seems a logical conclusion from these
studies that certain conditions that enhance
succulence and rapid growth may actually
contribute to a preference for those plants by
feeding beetles, and conversely conditions that
lead to stressed plants, such as low nitrogen
and cool-temperature exposure, actually
reduced the feeding damage due to the
Colorado potato beetle. Therefore, perhaps
we as Extension workers need to be careful
about teaching that healthy plants are more
pest resistant. Not always!


(Stephens, Vegetarian 94-12)











Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Chairman



Dr. S. M. Olson
Assoc. Professor



Mr. J. M. Stephens
Professor


Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Professor



Dr. S. A. Sargent d
Assoc. Professor & Editor



Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Asst. Professor


Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor



Dr. W. M. Stall
Professor



Dr. J. M. White
Assoc. Professor




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