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Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00365
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: September 1994
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00365
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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UNIVERSITY OF Cooperative Extension Service

g FLORIDA Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


VEGETARIAN

.A *B A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication
NH Hliorticultural &iences Department P.O. 110690 Cainesville, FL 32611 Telephone 904/392-2134


Vegetarian 94-9


September 19,1994


Contents

I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.
II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
A. Too Much of a Good Thing.

III. VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. Selection of Fresh Florida Mushrooms.




Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever
possible, please give credit to the authors. The purpose of trade names in this
publication is solely for the purpose of providing information and does not
necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.


V ~










I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

November 1-4, 1994. Cucurbitaceae 94.
Radison Resort, South Padre Island, TX. Contact
James R. Dunlap, TAES, 2415 East Hwy 83,
Weslaco, TX 78596-8399.


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Too Much of a Good Thing.

We have touched on fertilizer management
on several occasions in this column usually
dealing with decision aids to selecting correct
amounts of fertilizer and pointers for best
management practices. Overfertilization often is
viewed as an insurance policy in case of
unforeseen occurrences such as nutrient leaching
from heavy rainfall. Sometimes growers err on the
side of excess fertilizer because they have very
little information guiding them to do anything else.
There also have been instances of
recommendations of excessive fertilizer with the
idea that extra fertilizer helps vegetable quality.
An example of this has been potassium
fertilization. Extra K fertilizer has been touted to
increase yields, improve fruit size, and improve
fruit firmness. Growers therefore might be
tempted to apply a little extra K to achieve these
proposed increases in fruit quality. Most
Extension Specialists, however recommend against
application of extra fertilizer above and beyond the
amount which provides for optimum yield. These
recommendations are based on the philosophy
that, if enough nutrients are available for high
yields then usually the vegetable "quality" aspects
are optimized too. Reduced quality is then usually
due to factors other than fertilizer, e.g. high or low
temperatures, low sunlight, etc.


During our fertilizer studies here in
Florida, we have had the opportunity to measure
effects of fertilization on vegetable quality. It
looks like the extra-K approach might be having
the opposite effect to what some recommendations
would propose. A few examples from our work
are presented in Table 1. These reductions in
vegetable quality are occurring when K
application is increased by 50 to 100% over the
amount recommended. The reductions in quality
are on the order of 10 to 20% compared to quality
with the recommended K program. The
physiological bases for these negative effects of
excessive K on vegetable quality are not
completely understood. High applied K, in our
sandy soils, does reduce plant uptake of Mg and
Ca. However, in most cases, the suppression is not
extreme enough to cause a Ca or Mg deficiency.
Excess fertilizer also could increase salt stress and
reduce water availability to plants thus negatively
impacting fruit growth.
The postharvest aspect has often not been
included in nutrient studies, thus growers have not
had much data at their fingertips to guide against
excessive fertilization. If our data in Florida is an
indication of what might happen elsewhere, then
growers would be wise to check it out on their
farms. Quality is always an important factor in the
produce industry and will probably be even more
important in the future. Proper fertilizer
management is one of the keys to production of
high quality vegetables.










Table 1. Effects of excessive K fertilization on vegetable quality in Florida.


Maximum KO2 Effects of excessive
Crop recommendations K on quality
(lb/A)


Potato

Strawberry

Pepper


Reduces specific gravity, with no positive effect on yield.

Reduces fruit size with no positive effect on yield or fruit firmness.

Reduces fruit wall thickness with no positive effect on yield.


(Hochmuth, Vegetarian 94-09)




III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Selection of Fresh Florida Mushrooms.

While not many gardeners in Florida grow
mushrooms for home use, most all enjoy this
delectable "vegetable" grown time to time. Of course,
the mushroom is not a true vegetable, but rather the
fruit of the fungal plant. As consumers, gardeners
might find the following information helpful when a
yearning for mushrooms reaches irrestible levels. The
information was provided by Quincy Farms, a leading
producer of Florida-fresh mushrooms.









VARIETIES


TYPE DESCRIPTION FLAVOR HANDLING USAGE
AGARICUS White to light Mild flavor which Refrigerate Extremely
(White) brown in color, intensifies when prepackaged versatile, add to
They range in size cooked. Those agaricus "as is". soups, salads,stir-
from small to large with open veils are Once opened or if frys and pasta.
stuffer. Also more mature and purchased loose, Serve raw with
referred to as have a richer, refrigerate in a dips, or saute to
"button" intense taste. paper bag. Before top meat or
mushrooms. use, rinse quickly poultry.
in cool water.

CRIMINI Light tan to dark Meaty, rich flavor; Refrigerate Substitute in any
brown in color with more intense than prepackaged "as recipe calling for
deep, earthy agaricus. is", or in a paper agaricus. Serve
flavor. Also known bag if purchased with beef, stir-frys
as Italian or in bulk. Before and vegetable
W y Roman Brown. use, rinse quickly sautes.
in cool water and
trim the roots.


SHIITAKE Tan to dark brown Full-bodied, meaty Refrigerate in a Saute in butter
in color with large flavor and spongy bowl covered with and garlic, grill, or
open veil between texture when a slightly damp add to stir-frys,
the stem and cap. cooked, cloth. Before use, pastas, soups,
Also referred to as rinse quickly in poultry and meat
Oak, Chinese or cold water; trim dishes.
Black Forest. stem. Use only
the caps for
cooking; stems are
tough.
OYSTER Beige, cream or Soft, meaty texture Refrigerate in bowl Slice raw in
gray in color with and delicate flavor covered with a salads, or cook
fluted caps that when cooked, slightly damp with chicken,
resemble a fan or cloth. Rinse seafood, veal,
oyster shell. Also quickly in cool pork, or vegetable
referred to as water before use. dishes.
pleurottes,
pleurotes or
pleurotus.

ENOKI Long, thin white Lght, mild flavor Refrigerate Toss raw enoki in
stems joined at and crisp texture, prepackaged "as salads, tuck into
the base and a is". Trim base and sandwiches, and
tiny "button" on separate stems. use as a garnish
top. for soups.



Courtesy Quincy Farms



















Calories
Protein
Carbohydrate
Fat
Sodium
Potassium
Crude Fiber


-5-


NUTRITIONAL DATA


0 Fresh mushrooms are low in calories and
sodium and provide a number of important
nutrients.
0 Serving Size: 2/3 cup whole mushrooms (45
grams or 11V2 ounces)


14
1 gram
2 grams
1 gram
0 mg
140 mg
200 mg
(% of U.S. RDA)


Protein 2
Thiamin 2
Riboflavin 10
Niacin 8
Phosphorus 4
Copper 6
Pantothetlc acid' 4


STORAGE


Data provided by Quincy Farms.



(Stephens, Vegetarian 94-09)



Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D.J. Cantliffe
Chairman



Dr. S.M. Olson
Assoc. Professor



Mr. J. M. Stephens
Professor


Dr. G.J. Hochmuth
Professor



Dr. S.A. Sargept
Assoc. Professor & Editor



Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Asst Professor


Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor



Dr. W.M. Stall
Professor



Dr. J. M. White
Assoc. Professor


Here's how to keep mushrooms at their very
freshest:
O Don't wash them until your ready to use.
0 Store them in their package, unopened.
0 Once opened, or if you purchased them loose,
store them in a paper bag or damp cloth bag
in the refrigerator.
0 Never store in a plastic bag, they will go bad
quickly because they can't breathe.
0 Stored properly, mushrooms keep for several
days.
A final storage tip: Mushrooms may be frozen.
Slice and blanch them, then drain and seal in
an airtight bag or container. Freeze until
needed. RB




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