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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: June 1994
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VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication
Horticultural sciences Department P.O. 110690 Gainesville, FL 32611 Telephone 904/392-2134


Vegetarian 94-6


June 17, 1994


Contents

I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
A. Tomato Varieties for Florida.
B. Field-Testing Strawberry Petiole Sap N and K
Recommendations.


C. Tomato Institute Program

III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. 1995 Youth Garden Grants are Available.



Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors. The purpose
of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of
providing information and does not necessarily constitute a
recommendation of the product.







il Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity- Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
-nly to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.
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UNIVERSITY OF Cooperative Extension Service

FLORIDA Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences










I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

July 26-27, 1994. State 4H Congress-
Horticultural Workshop, Identification Contest,
Plant Science Demonstrations, Recognition and
Awards. Contact J. M. Stephens, Jeff
Williamson, or Bob Black,
August 14-16, 1994. National Pepper
Conference. Las Cruces (NM) Hilton. Contact
P. W. Bosland, Dept of Agronomy and
Horticulture, NM State Univ., Box 30003, Dept.
3P, Las Cruces, NM 88003.
September 7, 1994. Tomato Institute,
Ritz Carlton Hotel. Contact Charlie Vavrina,
SW Fla REC, Immokalee.
November 1-4, 1994. Cucurbitaccae 94.
Radison Resort, South Padre Island, TX.
Contact James R. Dunlap, TAES, 2415 East
Hwy 83, Weslaco, TX 78596-8399.

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Tomato Varieties for Florida.

Variety selection, often made several
months before planting, is one of the most
important management decisions made by the
grower. Failure to select the most suitable
variety or varieties may lead to loss of yield or
market acceptability.
The following characteristics should be
considered in selection of tomato varieties for
use in Florida:
*Yield The variety selected
should have the potential to
produce crops at least equivalent
to varieties already grown. The
average yield in Florida is
currently about 1200 25-pound
cartons per acre. The potential
yield of varieties in use should
be much higher than average.

*Disease Resistance Varieties
selected for use in Florida must
have resistance to Fusarium wilt,
race I and race 2; Verticillium
wilt (race 1); gray leaf spot; and


some tolerance to bacterial soft
rot. Available resistance to
other diseases may be important
in certain situations.

*Horticultural Quality Plant
habit, stem type and fruit size,
shape, color, smoothness and
resistance to defects should all
be considered in variety
selection.

*Adaptability Successful
tomato varieties must perform
well under the range of
environmental conditions
usually encountered in the
district or on the individual farm.

*Market Acceptability The
tomato produced must have
characteristics acceptable to the
packer, shipper, wholesaler,
retailer and consumer. Included
among these qualities are pack
out, fruit shape, ripening ability,
firmness and flavor.

CURRENT VARIETY SITUATION

Many tomato varieties are grown
commercially in Florida but only a few represent
most of the acreages.
'Agriset 761' was grown on 41% of the
acreage in Florida in the 1993-94 season a
dramatic increase from about 29% in the
previous season. 'Agriset 761' was grown on
about 62% of the acreage in southwest, about
40% of the acreage in west central Florida, and
was the predominant variety in north Florida.
The acreage planted with 'Sunny'
declined to about 18% of the total after having
been the leading variety in the state for many
years, often with about 80% of the acreage.
However, 'Sunny' was still grown on almost
80% of the acreage on the east coast
'Solar Set' continued as the third most
important Florida-grown variety with about 9%
of the acreage. 'Solar Set' was most popular in
west central Florida, but was grown in all










production areas the only variety with that
distinction. 'Solar Set' continued to be an
important factor in the north Florida fall crop.
'Bonita' was grown on about 7% of the
statewide acreage, however, virtually all of the
plantings were in Dade County where it
represented more than 50% of the acreage there.
'Sunbeam' was planted on about 5% of
the statewide acreage with the greatest
concentration about 10% of the acreage in
west central Florida.
'BHN 26' was grown on about 4% of
the Florida acreage representing about 9% of the
southwest Florida acreage.
'Merced' with about 3% of the state's
acreage and 7% of the southwest Florida acreage
and 'Cobia' with about 2% of the state's acreage
and 20% of the Dade County acreage are the
only other varieties of importance in the 1993-94
season. However, many other varieties were
grown on limited or experimental acreages.


TOMATO VARIETY TRIAL RESULTS

Summary results listing the five highest
yielding and five largest fruited varieties from
trials at the Gulf Coast Research and Education
Center, Bradenton; a commercial farm in Delray
Beach; Ft. Pierce Agricultural Research &
Education Center; and North Florida Research &
Education Center, Quincy, for the Spring 1993
season are shown in Table 1. High total yields
and large fruit size were produced by 'Passion'
at Bradenton; 'Merced', XPH 10005, PSX
853389, and 'Olympic' at Delray Beach;
'Olympic', 'Merced', Fla. 7430, and 'Agriset
761' at Ft. Pierce; and 'Mountain Spring' at
Quincy. 'Bonita' produced high yields at three
and 'Merced' at two locations. Large fruit size
was produced by 'Merced' in four locations and
by 'Agriset 761', 'Olympic', 'Passion', and XPH
10005 in two locations.
It is important to note that the same
entries were not included in all of the trials.


Table 1. Summary of University of Florida tomato variety trial results. Spring 1993.
Total Yield Large Fruit Size
Location (tn/acre) (oz)
Bradenton (1) Fla. 7375 2628 HMX 2822 7.2
Fla. 7249B 2612 Olympic 6.8
Passion 2594 Passion 6.8
Bonita 2591 Merced 6.7
Fla. 7430 2558' FMX 171 6.7'

Delray Beach'(3) Merced 2247 PSX 853389 7.8
XPI 10005 2177 Merced 6.8
PSX 853389 2136 Tango 6.6
Cobia 2053 Olympic 6.5
Olympic 2030 XPH 10005 6.4

Ft. Pierce (3) Olympic 2077 Olympic 8.6
Merced 1947 Merced 8.5
Bonita 1925 Agriset 761 7.7
Fla. 7430 1900 Fla. 7430 7.6
Agriset 761 1864' Solar Set 7.5'
Quincy (3) Monte Verde 2664 Passion 8.8
Bonlta 2605 Mountain Spring 8.5
PSX 877491 2600 Merced 8.1
Mountain Spring 2562 Agriset 761 8.1
Sunbeam 2528' XPH 10005 8.0'
'14 additional entries had yields similar to those of Fla 2558.
'8 additional entries had fruit weight similar to that of FMX 171.
'Statistical interpretation of data not available.
'Five additional entries had yields similar to those of 'Agriset 761'.
'Seven additional entries had fruit weight similar to 'Solar Set'.
'18 additional entries had yields similar to those of 'Sunbeam'.
'Ten additional entries had fruit weight similar to that of XPH 10005.





-3-


Seed Sources:

Agrisales: Agriset 761
Asgrow: Solar Set, Sunbeam, XPH 10005
Ferry-Morse: FM 171, Monte Verde
Harris Moran: HMX 2822
Petoseed: Olympic, Passion, PSX 877491
Rogers NK: Bonita, Cobia, Merced, Mountain
Spring, Tango
University of Florida: Fla. 7249B, Fla. 7375,
Fla. 7430


Summary results listing outstanding
entries in order from trials at the Gulf Coast
Research & Education Center, Bradenton and
North Florida Research & Education Center,
Quincy for the Fall 1993 season are shown in
Table 2. High yields and large fruit size were
produced by 'Merced' at Quincy. The highest
yields were produced by 'Agriset 761' at both
locations. 'Passion' produced the largest fruit
size at both locations.


Table 2. Summary of University of Florida tomato variety trial results. Fall 1993.

Total Yield Large Fruit Size
Location (ctn/acre) (oz)
Bradenton (2) Agriset 761 1513 Passion 5.6
Solar Set 1459 HMX 2822 5.5
Sunmaster 1445 XPH 10005 5.4
XPH 10005 1404 Mountain Fresh 5.2
Solimar 1373' FMX 174 5.1'

Quincy (3) Agriset 761 1485 Passion 6.3
Fla. 7375 1424 Tango 6.2
Colonial 1394 PSR 810790 6.1
Fla. 7249B 1323 Merced 6.0
Merced 1320' Mountain Spring 5.9'

'14 additional entries had yields similar to those of 'Solimar'.
'Ten additional entries had fruit weight similar to that of FMX 174.
'12 additional entries had yields similar to those of 'Merced'.
'Nine additional entries had fruit weight similar to that of 'Mountain Spring'.


Seed Sources:

Agrisales: Agriset 761
Asgrow: Solar Set, Solimar, XPH 10005
Ferry-Morse: FMX 174, Mountain Fresh
Harris Moran: HMX 2822
Petoseed: Colonial, Passion, Sunmaster, PSR
810790
Rogers NK: Merced, Mountain Spring, Tango
University of Florida: Fla. 7249B, Fla. 7375

For spring and fall 1993 combined, high
yields and/or large fruit size were achieved by
'Merced' eight times, 'Agriset 761' and
'Passion' five times, 'Olympic' and XPH 10005
four times, and 'Bonita', Fla. 7430, and
'Mountain Spring' three times each.


It should be noted that in some of these
trials, there were little or no significant
differences among the entries. This indicates
that there are a large number of varieties that
produce large yields and have large fruit size
which are available to growers. In some
instances, other factors may dictate the selection
process.
TOMATO VARIETIES FOR
COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION

The varieties listed have performed well
in University of Florida trials conducted in
various locations. Those varieties designated as
FOR TRIAL should be evaluated in trial
plantings before large-scale production is
attempted.





-4-


Agriset 761 (Agrisales). An early midseason,
determinate, jointed hybrid. Fruit are deep globe
and green shouldered. Resistant: Verticillium
wilt (race 1), Fusarium wilt (race 1 and 2),
Alternaria stem canker, gray leaf spot.

Bonita (Rogers NK). A midseason, jointless
hybrid. Fruit are globe-shaped and green-
shouldered. Resistant: Verticillium wilt (race
1), Fusarium wilt (race 1 and 2), gray leaf spot.

Heatwave (Petoseed). An early, large, jointed,
uniform-green fruited hybrid. Determinate.
Fruit is set under high temperatures (90-96F
day/74-780 night). For late summer or fall
plantings. Resistant: Verticillium wilt (race 1),
Fusarium wilt (race 1 and 2), Alternaria stem
canker, gray leaf spot.

Merced (Rogers NK). Early, deep-globe shaped,
green-shouldered fruit are produced on
determinate vines. Jointed hybrid. Resistant:
Verticillium wilt (race 1), Fusarium wilt (race 1
and 2), gray leaf spot, tobacco mosaic virus.
FOR TRIAL.

Olympic (Petoseed). A mid-season determinate,
jointed hybrid. Fruit are deep oblate with green
shoulders. Resistant: Verticillium wilt (race 1),
Fusarium wilt (race 1 and 2), Alternaria stem
canker, and gray leaf spot.

Solar Set (Asgrow). An early, green-shouldered,
large-fruited, jointed hybrid. Determinate. Fruit
set under high temperatures (92F day/72 night)
is superior to most other commercial cultivars.
Resistant: Fusarium wilt (race 1 and 2),
Verticillium wilt (race 1) and gray leaf spot

Sunbeam (Asgrow). Early mid-season, deep-
globe shaped fruit are produced on determinate
vines. Resistant: Verticillium wilt (race 1),
Fusarium wilt (race 1 and race 2), gray leaf spot,
Alteraria. FOR TRIAL.

Sunny (Asgrow). A midseason, jointed,
determinate, hybrid. Fruit are large, flat-globular
in shape, and are green-shouldered. Resistant:
Verticillium wilt (race 1), Fusarium wilt (race 1
and 2), Alternaria stem canker, gray leaf spot.


REFERENCES


1. Howe, T. K., J.
Waters. 1993.
results for spring
Rept. BRA1993-1


W. Scott, and W. E.
Tomato variety trial
1993. GCREC Res.


2. Howe, T. K., J. W. Scott, and W. E.
Waters. 1994. Tomato variety trial
results for fall 1993. GCREC Res. Rept.
BRA1994-5.

3. Maynard, D. N. 1994. Vegetable
variety trial results in Florida for 1993.
Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Circ. S392.

(Maynard Vegetarian 94-06)


B. Field-Testing Strawberry Petiole
Sap N and K Recommendations.

In a previous Vegetarian article (October,
1993), I summarized some research on
strawberry fertigation conducted at the Dover
AREC by Earl Albregts and myself. The results
showed that our recommendations for N and K
fertilization could be reduced from the 1.0 lb per
acre per day to 0.75 lb per acre per day. These
proposed changes were field tested in the
Gainesville area during the 1993-94 season on
two farms. Gary Brinen and I monitored the
plants for petiole nitrate-nitrogen and K
concentrations and for whole-leaf N and K
concentrations. Both growers were long-time
strawberry growers but were new to drip
fertigation.

We started monitoring the crop as it
began to produce fruit in January. Rowcovers
were used on both farms for frost protection with
one farm supplementing protection with sprinkler
irrigation.





-5-


At farm A, about 70 lb per acre of N and
K were incorporated in the beds before
mulching. A small amount of N, but no K was
applied at farm B. Both growers started
injecting N and K in early January about 2 1/2
months after planting. Both growers started out
at 0.5 lb per acre per day of N and K injecting
either once or twice per week.


there was not much response even though the
petiole-sap nitrate-N concentration increased.
Both growers realized excellent crops with
grower A commenting his crop was the best he
has ever had. Results of the tests confirm that
reducing strawberry N and K injection rates from
1.0 lb per acre per day to 0.75 lb per acre per
day would not sacrifice yield.


Petiole-sap and whole-leaf tissue
analyses (Table 1) showed that the plants were
adequately fertilized at 0.5 lb N and K per acre
per day for most of the season. At Farm A, the
injection rate was increased to 0.7 lb N and K
per acre per day in April, but the grower felt




Table 1. Results of strawberry petiole-sap and whole-leaf nutrient tesls for two commercial strawberry farms, spring, 1994.


Petiole-sap (ppm) Whole-leaf (%)
Sampling Measured Recommended Measured Recommended
Farm date NO,-N K NO,-N K N K N K

A 2 Feb 340 2700 300-500 2000-2500 2.7 2.2 3.0-3.5 1.5-2.5
22 Feb 430 3800 300-500 2000-2500 2.3 2.8 3.0-3.5 1.5-2.5
17 Mar 430 2500 200-500 1800-2500 25 2.2 2.8-3,0 1.1-2.5
7 Apr 380 3300 200-500 1800-2500 2.6 1.9 2.8-3.0 1.1-25
21 Apr 500 2500 200-500 1800-2500 1.8 2.0 2.5-3.0 1.1-2.0

B 2 Feb 360 2300 300-500 2000-2500 3.1 2.1 3.0-3.5 1.5-2.5
22 Feb 880 4800 300-500 2000-2500 2.6 2.7 3.0-3.5 1.5-2.5
17 Mar 480 3200 200-500 1800-2500 2.8 2.2 2.8-3.0 1.1-2.5
21 Apr 560 2800 200-500 1800-2500 2.2 1.7 2.5-3.0 1.1-2.0


(Hochmuth, Vegetarian 94-06)







Tomato Institute Program

Ritz Carlton, Naples September 7, 1994

Morning Session
Moderator Stephen Brown, Lee County Agricultural Agent

09:00 Introductory Remarks Dr. Calvin Arnold (SWFREC, Immokalee)

09:10 Alternatives to methyl bromide for nematode control J. Noling (CREC, Lake Alfred)

09:30 Nutsedge and soil-borne pathogen control with alternatives to methyl bromide J. Gilreath, J.P.
Jones, and A. Overman (GCREC, Bradenton)

09:50 An economic analysis of a ban on methyl bromide in the FL tomato industry J. Van Sickle and
Tom Spreen (Food & Resource Economics, Gainesville)

10:10 Methyl bromide: the Montreal protocol and the clean air act Bill Hayes (Consultant)

10:30 Yield losses in tomato due to foliar diseases and the benefits of protective fungicides K. Pernezny,
L. Datnoff (EREC, Belle Glade), and T. Mueller (Collier Farms)

10:50 Biological control of Fusarium crown and root rot L. Datnoff (EREC, Belle Glade), S. Nemec
(USDA-ARS, Orlando), K. Pernezny (EREC, Belle Glade)

11:10 Potato late blight epidemic of 1993 and 1994 ... short term problem or long term constraint on
production P. Weingartner (AREC, Hastings)

11:30 Tomato yellow leaf curl & Admire as a virus deterrent J. Polston (GCREC, Bradenton)

11:50 LUNCH

Afternoon Program
Moderator Ben Castro, Gadsden County Agricultural Agent

1:30 Hand labor tasks in tomato production as affected by the Worker Protection Standard- M. Lamberts
(Dade County), K. Shuler (Palm Beach County), P. Gilreath (Manatee County), S. Swanson (Collier
County)

1:50 Whitefly population, geminivirus incidence, and Admire efficacy in spring '94 S. Swanson (Collier
County) and P. Stansly (SWFREC, Immokalee)

2:10 Potassium source and rate for polyethylene mulched tomatoes S. Locascio (Hort. Sci.,
Gainesville), S. Olson (NFREC, Quincy), G. Hochmuth (Hort. Sci., Gainesville), R. Hochmuth
(SVAREC, Live Oak), and A. Csizinsky (GCREC, Bradenton)

2:30 Automatic transplanting of Florida tomatoes L. Shaw (Ag. Engineering, Gainesville)

2:50 Tomato transplant depth; Can it influence yields? C. Vavrina, (SWFREC, Immokalee)

3:10 The early history of the tomato in FL: implications for the present and future Andrew Smith (Author
of the Tomato in America)

3:30 The ESL tomato; Present status and future prospects J. Scott (GCREC, Bradenton), R. Volin
(Rogers Seed), R. Heisey (Asgrow Seed), M. Barineau (PetoSeed)

4:10 The California perspective on the ESL tomato Fred Williamson (President, Andrew & Williamson
Sales Co., San Diego, CA)

4:30 Adiourn r, ..*..... n, nc\





-7-


III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. 1995 Youth Garden Grants are
Available.

The National Gardening Association
(NGA) has announced that applications for the
12th annual Youth Garden Grants are available.
NGA, a member-supported non-profit
organization based in Burlington, Vermont, will
award 300 grants nationwide consisting of tools,
seeds, plants and garden products to winning
applicants, for use during the 1995 growing
season.
Programs involving at least 15 children
between the ages of 3-18 years are eligible, with
consideration given for educational, social, or
environmental programming; sustainability;
community support; strong leadership; need, and
innovation. In 1994, 200 schools, youth groups
and community organizations from across the


United States each received more than $500
worth of materials and products contributed by
participating companies from the lawn and
garden industry. Florida gardeners have received
some of these grants in the past, mostly in
schoolyard situations. Gardening teaches
youngsters about environmental stewardship,
food production, problem solving and teamwork,
while also developing pride, self-esteem and
delight in feeding and beautifying the
community. Besides, it can be fun! Once
children become involved, they are really
interested in caring for plants which they have
started themselves.
To receive an application, write: Garden
Grants Dept. PS, National Gardening
Association, 180 Flynn Ave., Burlington, VT
05401. Please include the following information:
name, school or organization, address and phone
number. Deadline for completed applications is
November 15, 1994. (FAX: (802) 863-5962)


(Stephens, Vegetarian 94-06)





Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D.J. Cantliffe
Chairman



Dr. S.M. Olson
Assoc. Professor



Mr. J. M. Stephens
Professor


Dr. G.J. Hochmuth
Professor



Dr. S.A. Sargent
Assoc. Professor



Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Asst. Professor


Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor



Dr. W.M. Stall
Professor EdItr



Dr. J. M. White
Assoc. Professor




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