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Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00346
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: March 1999
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Volume ID: VID00346
Source Institution: University of Florida
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UNIVERSITY OF Cooperative Extension Service
.. FLORIDA Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


PA Vegetable Crops E.xtenion Publication
Biforticultural &icunce Department P.O. 110690 Gaincavillc, f 32611 Teephona (352)392-2134

Vegetarian 99-03

March 1999




Rimsulfuron (Shadeout) Labeled on Tomatoes

World Vegetable Production

y/ Grape Tomatoes

Chemical Stimulation of Plant Growth of Vegetables in

., Vegetable Grower Profile: Osceola Organics


Certified Sweet Potato Plant Growers 1995 Georgia list
(1999 update).

Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever possible,
please give credit to the authors. The purpose of trade names in this publication is
solely for the purpose of providing information and does not necessarily constitute a
recommendation of the product.
The instirre of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity- Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
mrormation and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.


Vegetable Crops Calendar

May 18, 1999. 43' Vegetable Field Day.
Gulf Coast Research & Education Center -
Bradenton. FL. Contact Don Maynard (941)751-

April 6,7, 1999. A National Science and
Education Conference: Toward Implementing the
Guide to Minimize Microbial Hazards on Fresh
Fruits and Vegetables. Orlando, FL. Contact
Steve Sargent (352)392-1928 ext. 215.

Commercial Vegetables

Rimsulfuron (Shadeout) Labeled on Tomatoes
Rimsulfuron has been labeled for use on
tomatoes under the trade name Shadeout.
Shadeout may be applied preemergence to
For preemergence applications to the
crop, apply after seeding at 2.0 oz. product/acre.
If weeds are present at application, use a
nonionic surfactant. For activation, best results
are obtained if treatment is made to moist soil
and moisture is supplied by rainfall or sprinkler
irrigation no later than 1 week after application.
For mulched row middle applications, adjust the
equipment to keep the applications off the mulch
and use proportionally less mixture based on the
soil area actually sprayed.
For postemergence applications, apply
Shadeout at 1.0-2.0 oz. product per acre to
young, actively growing weeds after the crop has
reached the 2 leaf stage. Usually, small weeds
(less than 1" in height or diameter) are most
easily controlled. Use a nonionic surfactant at a
rate of 0.125-0.25% v/v with all postemergence
Applications may be applied
preemergence followed by single or multiple
postemergence applications. Do not exceed 2.0
oz. product/acre applied preemergence to the
crop and 2.0oz. product applied postemergence
in the same growing season. Do not apply
Shadeout within 45 days of tomato harvest.
Tank mixtures of Shadeout plus Lexone
are labeled for postemergence applications.
This tank mix may be applied for a broader

Read the label and follow all directions and
(Stall, Vegetarian 99-03)

World Vegetable Production
The area harvested (1000 ha), yield
(kg/ha) and total production (1000 MT) of the
world's most important vegetables according to
the FAO Production Yearbook are shown in Table
1. In terms of area harvested, dry bean, potato,
and cassava are the most important crops,
whereas artichoke, green bean, and cauliflower
are relatively unimportant. Highest yields are
obtained from tomato, cabbage, and carrot. The
dry legumes (bean, chickpea, and lentils) produce
the lowest yields per ha because of their low
moisture content. Total world production is
highest for potato, sweet potato, and cassava; the
root crops that provide massive amounts of
energy and that can be stored for extended
periods to provide foodstuff when otherwise
unavailable. Vegetables entering into commerce
on a global basis are harvested from over 118
million ha and produce more than 1 billion MT.
Since much of the population in developing
countries is engaged in subsistence farming
where farm produce, including vegetables, does
not enter into traditional commerce it is clear that
total world wide production is much greater than
that reported.
The ranking of the primary countries in
production (MT) of vegetables also according to
FAO is shown in Table 2. This listing is related to
the size of the country, its population, presence of
a favorable climate for vegetable production and
ethnic culinary habits of the population. Even a
casual examination of Table 2 will reveal the
overwhelming importance of China as a vegetable
producing country. Of 25 vegetables or vegetable
groups listed, China ranks first in 15. India, the
next most frequent listing appears four times as
the leading producer. According to data
developed by the Chinese Ministry of Agricultural
Statistics in1991, the 21 major vegetables in
China were grown on 4, 365,000 ha which
produced more produced more than 142 million

March 1999


Table 1. World Vegetable Production. Principal Vegetables, 1996.
Vegetable Area Yield Production
Harvested (kg/ha) (1000 MT)
(1000 ha)
Artichoke 106 10836 1150
Cabbage 1974 23632 46656
Cantaloupe and 994 16283 16190
other melons
Carrot 770 21396 16477
Cassava 16322 9983 162942
Cauliflower 681 18681 12725
Chickpea 12009 742 8908
Chillies and 1271 11064 14068
pepper, green
Cucumber and 1424 16182 23051
Dry bean 27470 679 18639
Dry broad bean 2355 1499 3531
Dry pea 6515 1680 10945
Eggplant 722 16589 11981
Garlic 986 10549 10401
Green bean 491 7376 3620
Green pea 806 6467 5214
Lentils 3389 832 2819
Onion, dry 2204 16174 35644
Potato 18353 16065 294834
Pumpkin,squash, 768 12789 9822
and gourd
Sweet potato 9156 14662 134244
Taro 1016 5650 5739
Tomato 3094 27435 84873
Watermelon 2393 16601 39725
Yam 3173 10435 33110
Total 118442 1007308

Table 2. World Vegetable Production. Leading countries. 1996.
Vegetable 1 2 3 4 5
Artichoke Ita Spa Arg Fra USA
Cabbage Chi FRus Ind R Kor Jap
Cantaloupe and Chi Tur Iran USA Spa
other melons
Carrot Chi USA F Rus Pol UK
Cassava Nig Bra Zaire Thai Indon
Cauliflower Ind Chi Fra Ita UK
Chickpea Ind Tur Pak Ira Aus
Chillies and Chi Tur Nig Mex Spa
peppers, green
Cucumber and Chi Iran Tur USA Jap
Dry bean Ind Bra Chi Mex USA
Dry broad bean Chi Egy Ethio Mor Ita
Dry pea Fra Ukr Can Chi FRus
Eggplant Chi Tur Jap Egy Ita
Garlic Chi R Kor Ind USA Spa
Green bean Chi Tur Indon Spa Ita
Green pea USA Chi Fra UK Ind
Lentils Ind Tur Can Bang Syr
Onion, dry Chi Ind USA Tur Jap
Potato Chi FRus USA Pol Ukr
Pumpkin, squash, Chi Ukr Tur Mex Egy
and gourd
Sweet Potato Chi Indon Ugnd Viet Rwn
Taro Gha Chi Nig Ct Dv Jap
Tomato Chi USA Tur Ita Egy
Watermelon Chi Tur Iran USA RKor
Yam Nig Ct Dv Gha Ben Togo
.,.j f I / i nf nfl

Grape Tomatoes
Grape tomatoes are a new type of
specialty tomato being grown in Florida and
elsewhere that seems to be quickly gaining
some market share. When I say market share,
I'm not sure where it is taking market share
from. Is it California grapes, or is it Florida
cherry tomatoes? By now most of you have
seen them and they are mostly the shape of a
Thompson seedless grape and about that size,
sometimes a little larger. Grape tomatoes are
much smaller than cherry tomatoes and are
oblong, at least the ones I've seen. Richard
See, Seed Sales Manager, Seedway, says the
tomatoes are much sweeter than cherry
tomatoes and that even the children enjoy
eating them just as they do grapes. The ones
I've tasted do not taste like a grape and as far
as I know the flavor characteristic was not
where the name "grape" came from, obviously
it's the shape. They are somewhat sweeter
than cherry tomatoes and seem to have a more
edible texture. I've had some at a few salad
bars and have made one visit to a commercial
field of grape tomatoes in the Jennings, Florida
area which is about as close to Georgia as you
can get when traveling 1-75.
The grower of the Jennings area grape
tomatoes came to the Gadsden Tomato Forum
on December 3 last year and invited me to
come visit the field. The following week I got a
chance to go and I was somewhat astonished at
what I saw. They were just getting through with
the last harvest which had been going on for
two months and were in the initial stages of field
clean-up. The tomatoes had been transplanted
in early August and here it was December 9.
Keep in mind 1998 was the year for hurricane
weather, particularly in North Florida. The
grower said that they had 18 inches of rain in
September. Back in Gadsden County (Quincy
area) the Fall tomato crop was down about 40%
from average yields due to the wind and rainy
weather. Bacterial spot disease and other
pathogens took a toll. Fruit set ran about 3
weeks late and with the shorter days and cooler
nights that came when the plants finally set fruit,
the Quincy tomato crop was about a month late
in harvest. That same sequence of events was
mostly what these grape tomatoes had been
through. However, unlike a bunch of ragged
late season tomatoes, these grape tomatoes
looked incredibly good and tolerant to bad
weather conditions Frost aenerallv comes nrior


March 1999


to December 9 in North Florida, although one
time in Gadsden County I picked a red ripe
tomato on January 2. Most of the time
November brings a killing frost and North
Florida tomatoes are long gone before
Thanksgiving. The grower said that the variety
he had planted on this 44 acres was an
exclusive and he didn't know the exact name of
this grape tomato variety. According to Richard
See, there are not many grape tomato seed
distributors and his company imports the seed
from two different companies, Makata (China) or
Mikita (Japan). Seedway supplies three
varieties; Juliet, Santa Clause and Red Cherry
(no Florida research data and no variety claims
as to yields, reliability, etc.) The grower did not
know where his company had obtained seed.
These Jennings area tomatoes were extremely
tall, taller than most cherry tomatoes. The
grower was using 72 inch stakes and was
talking about going to 84 inch stakes next year.
You would think he would have been on 6 foot
row spacings in order to get some sunlight. He
was on 5 foot spacing and was well pleased
and was not anticipating going to wider row
spacing, in spite of his plans to grow a taller
crop next year. There were still plenty of
tomatoes on the bushes and they were quite
Grape tomatoes do grow in a cluster,
although it is not near as tight as a Thompson
grape cluster. Of course you're thinking that's
how they are harvesting these grape tomatoes,
in clusters. The recent gaining popularity of the
greenhouse cluster tomatoes would lead you to
believe his would be the only way. Harvesting
grape tomatoes in clusters may be a good idea,
however, these were picked individually.
Another drawback in harvesting grape tomato
clusters appears to be that these tomatoes are
not firmly attached and are easily dislodged.
The tomatoes were harvested in strawberry
harvesting containers and then loaded on trucks
in (approximately 20 lb.) Containers and were
then trucked to a strawberry packing facility in
the Palmetto-Ruskin area and packaged in clear
plastic clam shell type containers before
shipping. Harvest costs are much higher than
for conventional tomatoes, even if you didn't
have to make such a long haul to the
packinghouse. The grower was not at liberty to
say what his yields were, although he did say
the crop was quite profitable and they were
leased with the yields.

Grape tomatoes appear to be a viable
alternative crop. Dr. Steve Olson, NFREC
Vegetable Specialist has obtained two grape
varieties for his variety trials this spring. He said
the seed was hard to come by and the
salesman gave him only a few seed. Steve has
another (first-timer) interesting new type variety
in his 1999 spring trials in Quincy. This is a field
grown cluster tomato from Israel. If this variety
does good it may make some of the
greenhouse folks in Colorado and Canada a
.iltle nervous. I was noticing last week in Winn
Dixie where they were getting an extra dollar
per pound for greenhouse cluster tomatoes
compared to regular tomatoes. It appears that
consumers like them because about 25% of
their shelf space was devoted to cluster
tomatoes, in spite of the higher price.

(Castro, Vegetarian 99-03)

Chemical Stimulation of Plant Growth of
Vegetables in Florida.
Florida farmers cultivated over 290,000
acres of vegetables in 1997, forty three percent
of which were established from transplants.
While possibly best known for tomato
production, FL sweet corn, potato (fresh and
chipping), watermelon and snap bean acreage
all rival that of tomato. Like farmers
everywhere, FL growers want healthy plant
growth and development that is free of disease
and insect pressure. To raise better crops, FL
growers often avail themselves of chemical
opportunities to stimulate plant growth and
increase yields. The following discussion will
focus on chemical plant growth regulators
(PGR's), often called biostimulant products
(seaweed extracts and various hormone
mixtures) as opposed to classical uses such as
ethylene for in-field fruit ripening or anti-GA's for
growth control.
In December 1998, FL vegetable
extension agents were asked to contact 2
growers who used PGR's to help document
crop use acreage and satisfaction with the
products. The survey, while admittedly limited
in scope, revealed that PGR's were used in all
major vegetable production areas throughout
the state with the exception of a corridor from
Gainesville northwest to Quincy. PGR products
were used on all the major vegetable crops on a
total of about 12,300 acres and satisfaction
ranged from poor to fair. Products that


March 1999

4 March 1999

appeared repeatedly in the survey results
included Acadian Seaweed (Acadian Seaplants,
Dartmouth, Nova Scotia), Early Harvest (Griffin
Corp., Valdosta, GA), Folizyme (Stoller
Chemical, Houston, TX), Goemar (Agrimar
Corp., Atlanta, GA), Key Plex (Morse
Enterprises, Miami, FL), and Triggrr
(Westbridge, Vista, CA).
A survey of three local purveyors of
these products in the Immokalee/Homestead
area documented sales on over 40,000 acres of
vegetables treated with PGR's in south FL
alone. These figures in conjunction with county
agent survey results would bring the total
vegetable acreage treated with PGR's to slightly
over 52,300 or approximately 17% of FL's total
vegetable acreage. It is suspected this number
is an under estimate.
Phrases that surfaced during
discussions with growers, suppliers, and agents
about the performance of PGR products

* "inconsistent results from year to year"
* "better performance under stressful
* "everybody has one, but they are
generally too expensive for regular use"
* "snake oil"

Csizinszky (1996), who has more published
works than anyone in FL on the subject, sums
up five years of tomato PGR research on both
spring and fall crops thus:

* inconsistent results increased fruit size
and yield one year, but not the next
* a tendency to increase the uptake of
micronutrients resulting in phytotoxicity
* cultivars vary in response to application
* foliar application is the most efficacious

Our lab (SWFREC) has documented crop to
crop response variation with mode of
application (Fig. 1), critical timing and rate
issues that complicate efficacy (Fig. 2) and
general non-significance across the board
regarding yield.
With such a diversity of variation in
"controlled" trials (cultivars, mode of application,
rate and timing) one can see why researchers
and growers alike have reached the conclusion
thf then nrnrli irtc r r inrnncictant I-ln ^Aiar

Fig. 1. Crop Response to Mode of PGR* Application


Lbs./IO plants


No./24 plants

O Follar Soll I Follar+Soll E Control

'Product primarily cytokinins with micronutrients

Fig. 2. Rate & Timing Issues with PGR* Applications

Lbs. of fruit per plant at st Harvst (Tomato)
S8 oz. once 12 oz. -3 apps. E10 oz. Sapps. Control

*Product contains IBA, GA and micronutrients

statewide use figures seem to indicate some
growers may still believe the beneficial effects
of PGR's outweigh the inconsistent results.

(Vavrina, Vegetarian 99-03)

Vegetable Grower Profile: Osceola Organics
"Innovation + Business Savvy +
Location = Success"
Osceola Organics is a family owned and
operated organic vegetable farm located in Vero
Beach. They have been steadily growing on their
10 acre farm since they opened in 1993. Kevin
and Wendy O'Dare are the owners, and produce
fresh salad greens herbs, edible flowers and
solanaceous vegetables.
Their key to success with such a small
operation is to produce sufficient income during
the season to allow for startup capital for the next
season, funds for reinvestment, salary for a few
seasonal employees and a profit to live on. They
estimate they earn $500-600 per week in gross
sales during the season. The weather this spring
has been ideal for a longer than usual season;
tnmatnpc havp hppn nrnllcr.r from Nnvemhbr



Kevin feels his prior retail business experience
has been invaluable in knowing how to operate
his business. Too often people enter organic
production with great enthusiasm but lack
knowledge of how to run a business. Another
part of their success is due to the location. They
have discovered and developed a niche market
with local upscale restaurants and grow produce
to meet market demands. Indian River County
has a significant tourist industry with many
upscale restaurants. While the idea of organic
produce is desirable to the restaurants, their
primary requirement is that produce be extremely
fresh and consistently available.
Osceola Organics emphasizes the
production of pre-washed and cleaned salad
greens. They rely on composted yard waste,
applications of composted chicken manures, and
fish emulsion as their sources for crop nutrition.
Wendy and other farm employees deliver 80% of
their daily production directly to about 20 local
restaurants up and down Indian River County's 20
mile long coastal areas.
The first two years of their operation were
a real struggle. Their original plan was to sell
produce out of a retail stand on the farm site.
They first felt that salad greens would be a small
part of their production. An accidental bit of good
luck parleyed the operation in this right direction.
The O'Dares inherited a sizable assortment of
seed from a fellow grower that could not make a
go if it. Part of the seed lot was a seed container
with a mixture of many different lettuce varieties.
Kevin couldn't separate the varieties out, so he
planted this mixture in the seed bed. Up came a
wonderful pre-mixed salad product. It was well
accepted by local eateries and health food
enthusiasts, and provided the direction for their
direct marketed restaurant product.
Today he continues to plant a lettuce
variety mixture to create the product desired by
restaurants. Included lettuce varieties are green
and red oak leaf, Lolla rosa, Rubin Red
Romaine, green romaine, Bibb and Tango Curly
leaf. Weed control was and is the biggest
production challenge soil solarization and
plasticulture has allowed them to stay ahead of
the weeds without chemical herbicides. Another
change this season was to increase the size of
their seedling trays, resulting in a 25% increase in
Impediments to future expansion are that
the farm is located on a dead end dirt road and
41r-^ f ii < If -4- ri 1 mn- ct ii^t 1^ 1

have encouraged them to keep up the restaurant
They are acutely aware of urbanization,
and strive to not only grow quality organic
products but teach people about their approach
as well. Their farm is readily available for tours
and a small farm stand provides fresh product to
an ever expanding loyal customer base.
Kevin has been a real asset to this
county's extension office, is always willing to
share his knowledge with others. He recently
spoke at the 1998 Florida Small Farm Conference
in Brooksville, and assists with an annual organic
farming workshop coordinated by the St. Lucie
County Extension Agents Anita Neal, Jack Hebb,
and Sue Munyan.

(Culbert, Vegetarian 99-03)

Vegetable Gardening

Certified Sweet Potato Plant Growers 1995
Georgia list (1999 update).
Many of you agents will be asked by
gardeners and growers where to obtain sweet
potato transplants for the 1999 season. Since the
Florida Department of Agriculture can not certify
Florida growers as a source of plants, we must
rely on our neighboring states (Georgia, Alabama,
Louisiana, and Mississippi) for plants.
The following list of growers had plants in
1995 from Georgia farms. This list may be useful
in advising your growers of possible plant
sources. If need be, you can contact the
Department of Agriculture in those states I
mentioned for their most current lists.


M 'arch 1999


March 1999




James R. Cook
Rt 3 Box 501
Baxley, GA 31513

Curtis Herndon
PO Box 161
Surrency, GA 31563
(912) 367-3331

W. R. Lightsey
296 Johnnie Thornton Road
Odum, GA 31555
(912) 267-6781

Steve Hutchinson
Rt 1 Box 131-A
Nichols, GA 31554

Troy L. Johnson
Rt 1 Box 126
Nichols, GA 31554

Powers Farms
206 Powers Rd.
Cordele, GA 31015

Piedmont Plant Company
PO Box 224
Albany, GA 31708

Joey Veal
Rt 1 Box 545
Ocilla, GA 31774

Leeland Farms
PO Box 690
Leesburg, GA 31763

Steve Stalvey
Rt 2 Box 1290-9
Ray City, GA 31645

PO Box 205
Omega, GA 31775
(912) 528-6767




Georgia Red

Georgia Red
Alabama Nuggets

Georgia Red

Georgia Jets
Georgia Red

Georgia Red
Georgia Jets

Georgia Red

other varieties

other varieties

other varieties

other varieties

* 1999 Update: as of March 1, 1999. The only source certified in Georgia is: Leeland Farms (see address above).



Dr. D. J. Cantliffe


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

Dr. T. E. Crocker Dr. G. J.

Professor Professor

Dr. D. N. Maynard


Dr. W. M. Stall


Dr. S. M. Olson


Mr. J. M. Stephens


Dr. S. A. Sargent


Dr. C. S. Vavrina

Assoc. Professor

Dr. J. M. White

Assoc. Professor


March 1999

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