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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: February 1999
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00345
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Full Text


SUNIVERSITY OF Cooperative Extension Service
FLORIDA Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Ixtension Publication


Horticultural Sci cc Department P.O. 110690 Caineville, Fl 32611


Vegetarian 99-04"


Telephone (352)392-2134


Jaeurey 1999


CONTENTS


VEGETABLE CROPS CALENDAR

COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

Watermelon Variety Evaluation

New Tolerances for Sethoxydim (Poast


Overview of Alternative Greenhouse and Outdoor
SProduction Systems at Suwannee Valley Research and
Education Center

S V Round White Potato Variety Trial Results, 1998, Hastings,
FL

VEGETABLE GARDENING

Cutting Potato Seed pieces for garden planting


Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever possible,
please give credit to the authors. The purpose of trade names in this publication is
solely for the purpose of providing information and does not necessarily constitute a
recommendation of the product.


The Insatuie of Food and Agricultual Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
inrormanon and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE, HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA,








SETA RIA ...NEWSLETTER. F 1


Vegetable Crops Calendar



February 13, 1999. 4-H and FFA Hort ID
contest. Florida State Fair, Tampa, FL. Contact
Jim Stephens (352)392-1928 x 209.

March 6, 1999. Urban Farming
Workshop Seminole County Extension
Auditorium, Sanford, FL. Contact Richard Tyson
(407) 665-5554.

March 8-12, 1999. Florida Postharvest
Horticulture Institute & Industry Tour. Contact
Steve Sargent (352) 392-1928 ext. 215.


Commercial Vegetables


Watermelon Variety Evaluation

Watermelon varieties were evaluated in
the spring 1998 season at the Gulf Coast
Research and Education Center, Bradenton.
The trials included 36 diploid entries and 21
triploid (Seedless) entries.
The EauGallie fine sand was prepared in
late January by incorporation of 0-1.2-0 lb N-
P2Os-K20 per 100 linear bed feed (Ibf). Beds
were formed and fumigated with methyl bromide:
chloropicrin, 67:33 at 2.3 lb/100 Ibf. Banded
fertilizer was applied in shallow grooves on the
bed shoulders at 3.1-0-4.3 Ib N-P2,O-K20/100 Ibf
after the beds were pressed and before
application of the black polyethylene mulch. The
total fertilizer applied was equivalent to 148-60-
206 Ib N-P20-K20/acre. The final beds were 32
in. Wide and 8 in. high and were spaced on 9ft
centers, with four beds between seepage
irrigation/drainage ditches which were on 41 ft
centers. The diploid watermelons were planted
in rows adjacent to the ditches and also served
as pollenizers for triploid watermelons that were
being evaluated in the two center beds of each
land.
Diploid watermelon seeds were planted
on 13-17 February in holes punched in the
polyethylene mulch at 3 ft in-row spacing.
Seedlings were thinned at the two true-leaf stage
*^ rr~n *nnw llrrid T"-r;l*-in^ Ilrttftnlrft/dfr +i~rir J'^rt


were field planted on 26 February. The 30-ft long
plots had ten plants each and were replicated three
times in a randomized complete-block design.
Weed control in row middles was accomplished by
cultivation and application of paraquat. Plant stand
counts recorded just before vines grew together
showed no significant difference among plots.
Pesticides were applied as needed for control of
silverleaf whitefly endosulfann), gummy stem blight
(chlorothalonil, metaxyl-chlorothalonil, allietle, and
maneb) bacterial fruit blotch (fixed copper), and
worms (Bacillus thuringiensis and methomyl).
Watermelons were harvested from late May
to mid-June. Marketable (U.S. No. 1 or better) fruit
according to U.S. Standards for Grades of
Watermelons were separated from culls and
counted and weighed individually. Triploid fruit 8
Ibs and larger and diploid fruit 12 Ibs and larger
were assumed to be marketable. Tetraploid fruit,
where they occurred, were not included in the
marketable category because they are not
seedless. Soluble solids (a measure of sweetness)
were determined with a hand-held refractometer on
at least six fruit from each entry at each harvest.
The resulting data were subjected to analysis of
variance and mean separation was by Duncan's
multiple range test.
Early diploid watermelon yields, based on
the first of two harvests, ranged from 0 for
'Regency' to 474 cwt/acre for 'Royal Flush'.
Twenty-three other entries had early yields similar
to those of 'Royal Flush'. Average fruit weight
ranged from 16.6 Ibs for 'Bravo' to 28.4 Ibs for
'Starbrite'. Soluble solids concentration varied from
9.7% for 'Verde Grande' to 12.2% for PS 36694.
Total yields varied from 484 cwt/acre for
'Bravo' to 896 cwt/acre for 'Stars-N-Stripes'.
Twenty-six other entries had yields statistically
similar to those of 'Stars-N-Stripes'. Average fruit
weight over the entire season ranged from17.7 Ibs
for 'Bravo' to 28.0 Ibs for 'Starbrite'. 'Huck Finn'
average fruit weight was 27.7 Ibs and a number of
other entries had substantial average fruit weights.
Soluble solids concentrations ranged from 10.1%
for 'Verde Grande' to 12.4% for 'Regency'.
Seasonal average soluble solids for all entries
exceeded the 10% specified for optional use to
designate very good internal quality in the U.S.
Standards for Grades of Watermelons.
Diploid watermelon variety evaluations have
been conducted at this location each spring season
since 1991. The highest yields ranged from 439


Fecbruarvv 1999


~lr;ETA R~A N NE WSLET'I"ER








VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


spring 1998, the highest yield was 896 cwt/acre
which was considerably greater than the 7-year
average yield of 690 cwt/acre.
Yields are a function of fruit number and
fruit weight. In spring 1998, high yields were
related to fruit weight. The highest individual fruit
weight ever obtained in these trials was
produced this year by 'Starbrite' at 49.2 Ibs.
Several other entries, included HSR 2590, 'Huck
Finn', 'Pinata' (small seed), RWM 8036, 'Stars-N-
Stripes', 'Sulton', 'Summer Flavor 800', 'Summer
Flavor 810', SWM 7201and'Verde Grande'
produced fruit exceeding 40 Ibs each.
Based on this and previous trials, the
following Allsweet and blocky Crimson Sweet
type diploid varieties are expected to perform
well in Florida: 'Athens', 'Carnival', 'Fiesta', 'Mardi
Gras', 'Regency', 'Royal Flush', 'Royal Star',
'Royal Sweet', 'Sangria', 'Starbrite', 'Stars-N-
Stripes' and 'Summer Flavor 500'. Other
varieties may perform equally well on some
farms.
Early triploid watermelon yield, as
represented by the first of two harvests, varied
from 273 cwt/acre for 'Sterling' to 607 cwtlacre
for 'Tri-X-Shadow'. Eleven other entries had
yields similar to those of 'Tri-X-Shadow' and 17
other entries had early yields statistically similar
to 'Sterling'. Average fruit weights at the first
harvest ranged from 13.2 Ibs for HMX 7928 to
20.9 Ibs for 'Sterling'. Soluble solids
concentrations varied from 11.6% in RWM 8073
to 13.8% in 'Tri-X-Carousel' at the first harvest.
Total yields ranged from 498 cwt/acre for
'Sterling' to 846 cwt/acre for 'Millionaire'. Only
three entries produced yields significantly lower
than 'Millionaire'. Average fruit weight for the
entire season varied rom 12.7 obs for HMX 7928
to 18.8 Ibs for 'Sterling'. Soluble solids
concentrations varied from 11.9% for FS 4502 to
13.3% for 'Tri-X-Carousel'. Accordingly, soluble
solids in all entries far exceeded the 10%
specified for optional use in the U.S. Standards
for Grades of Watermelons to describe very
good internal quality.
Triploid watermelon variety trials have
been conducted at this location each spring
season since 1988. The highest yields ranged
from 507 cwt/acre in 1996 to 1161 cwt/acre in
1993. In spring 1998, the highest yield was 846
cwt/acre which was somewhat more than the 763
cwt/acre average high yield of the previous ten
years.


Based on results of this and previous trials,
triploid hybrids, in alphabetical order, that should
perform well in Florida include 'Constitution',
'Crimson Trio', 'Freedom', 'Genesis', 'King of
Hearts', 'Millionaire', 'Revere', 'Scarlet Trio',
'Summersweet 5244', 'Summersweet 5544', and
'Tri-X-313'. Other varieties may perform well on
individual farms.
Those readers needing more details on
these trials should request Research Reports BRA-
1998-8 and BRA-1998-9, from the author.

(Maynard, Vegetarian 99-2)

New Tolerances for Sethoxydim (Poast)
Tolerances have been established for the
herbicide sethoxydim (Poast) on the leafy
vegetable crop group and the tuberous and corm
vegetable subgroup. The establishment of the
group and subgroup tolerances will extend
tolerances to include all the commodities in that
group.
The label for use has not yet been issued,
but will probably be forthcoming. Look for it in the
future. The tolerances established will extend to
the following commodities

Leafy vegetable group.

Amaranth (leafy amaranth, Chinese spinach,
tompale)
Arugula (Roquette)
Cardoon
Celery (previously registered)
Chinese celery
Celtuce
Chervil
Chrysanthemum, edible-leaved
Chrysanthemum, garland
Cilantro
Corn salad
Cress, garden and upland
Dandelion
Dock (sorrel)
Endive (Escarole) previously registered
Fennel, Florence (firenchio)
Lettuce, head and leaf (previously registered)
Orach
Parsley
Purslane, garden and winter
Radicchio (red chicory)
Rhubarb (previously registered)
Spinach (previously registered)
I I- | A


Fe~bruarJ7 1999


YEC~TA RIA N NEN/SI~ETTER








V ITAR IN NNEWSLETTER F r


Spinach, vine
Swiss Chard

Tuberous and Corm vegetable subgroup
Anecacha
Arrowroot
Artichoke, Chinese
Artichoke, Jerusalem
Beet, garden
Canna, edible
Cassava, bitter and sweet
Chayote (root)
Chufa
Dasheen
Gunger
Leren
Potato (previously registered)
Potato, sweet (previously registered)
Tanier
Turmeric
Yam bean
Yam, true

(Stall, Vegetarian 99-2)

Overview of Alternative Greenhouse and
Outdoor Production Systems at Suwannee
Valley Research and Education Center

There are four hydroponic systems
being demonstrated a the Center, including:

1) Lay-Flat Bags Filled with perlite, represent
over 90% commercial greenhouse hydroponic
production in Florida.

2) The VerZontalTM System Uses 4-inch pots
held in tiers of PVC pipe, developed for
strawberry production.

3) Floating Hydroponics A simple non-
circulating system, especially works well for
lettuce.

4) The Verti-GroTM System A vertical tower of
styrofoam pots filled with soilless media and
stacked on each other. Works well for several
leafy green vegetables, flowers, and
strawberry.

1) Bag Culture In one Suwannee Valley REC
demonstration greenhouse, there are three
different crops (tomato, peppers, and
*, r| i i


perlite. The tomato and pepper crops include
variety trials. The bags are irrigated with emitters
at each plant and fertilizer proportioners mix the
nutrients with water as the plants are watered.
These same perlite bags are used for several
different crops on an outside hydroponic plot.
There is a strawberry bag culture demonstration
evaluating four varieties. Some bags are being
fertilized with a controlled-release fertilizer and
are irrigated with water only. Other bags are
being fertigated with standard hydroponic fertilizer
programs. These systems are also used for
various other leafy green crops such as lettuces
and herbs. Lay-flat bags in the greenhouse are
also being used successfully for a cut flower
zinnia project.

2) The VerZontalTM System This system is
manufactured by We Gro-Rite (Andrews, NC) and
is part of the outdoor hydroponic demonstration
plot. This system is constructed with 4-inch PVC
pipe with holes cut into the top of the pipe to
accommodate 4-inch pots. Each pot is filled with
media and has an emitter delivering hydroponic
nutrient solution. Initially it was introduced as an
alternative system for growing strawberries. It
has also been quite effective for growing greens
such as lettuce, arugula, and parsley.

3) Floating Hydroponics Also included on the
outdoor hydroponic demonstration plot, are
examples of floating hydroponic systems. There
are three units, two are mixed with standard
hydroponic stock nutrients, the other unit includes
a nutrient solution mix with Miracle Gro and
magnesium sulfate. These units are inexpensive
and easily built for both home gardeners and
commercial growers. R. Tyson began
demonstrating these units in Seminole County 1
year ago.

4) The Verti-GroTM System (Clermont, FL) is also
part of the hydroponic demonstrations in the
greenhouse and outdoors. This system is made
of styrofoam containers stacked in a way that
allows plants to be planted at the corners. There
are small holes in the bottom of the containers
that allow the nutrient to leach through from the
top to the bottom of the stack. This system was
also introduced as an alternative growing system
for strawberries. It has also been found to be
very productive for other crops. There are 24
Verti-Gro towers in one demonstration
_1..... _i, t. ...r..... \1/ 11i ,, ni- r In h.,.-J.-A -


FebruarVIZI 1999


VF~~ETA R~AN NEWSIETTER








VFebruary 1999


in the Verti-Gro Trials are: basil in six different
medias, basil variety trials (six different
varieties), other specialty crops such as:
nasturtium, calendula, spinach, mustard,
chives, cilantro, arugula, and parsley.

(Breman, Vegetarian 99-2)


Round White Potato Variety Trial
Results, 1998, Hastings, FL

Several potato variety trials were
conducted in Hastings in 1998. We called one
the Round White Trial since we were looking
for potatoes that would meet table stock
standards. It included white, red, and yellow-
fleshed potatoes.
The trial was grown in a field consisting
of Ellzey fine sand composed of 90-95% sand,
<2.5% clay, <5% silt, and <2% organic matter,
and pH 6.87. The field was fumigated with 6
gal/A in-the-row (40 in. row spacing) Telonell
(1,3-D) 7 January and 20 Ib/acre Tekmik 15G
(aldicarb) was applied at planting 25 February.
The crop was fertilized with 1200 Ib 14:2:12 at
planting and 700 lb of the same fertilizer 24
March. The crop was irrigated as needed
using seepage irrigation. Variety treatments
were replicated four times in a randomized
block design. Plots were single 15 ft long rows
with 22 seed pieces weighing 2-2.5 oz planted
8 in. apart in each plot. Lexone DF was
applied at 1.25 Ib for weed control 16 March.
Pesticides applied during the season included
Manzate 200 DF (mancozeb) 6, 14, 20,29
April, 5 and 11 May; Bravo Ultrex@ 82.5 WDG
(chlorothalonil) 18 and 26 May; and


Dipel DF (Bacillus thuringiensis) 29 April,
4,11,and 20 May. Vines were desiccated with
Diquat 29 May. Emergence counts were taken
25,27,30 March, and 2 April. Plant vigor was
rated on a 1-10 scale (1=no vigor, 10=most vigor)
1 April. Plant senescence was rated 27 May with
1=vigorous and 10=dead. The crop was
harvested, washed, graded, sized, and weighed 6
June. Random samples of 15-20 A-size tubers
were taken for specific gravity determinations and
tuber quality assessments. Specific gravity was
determined using the weight-in-air/ weight-in-
water method. Appearance of tubers in
composite samples of each seedling was rated
using the NE184 project rating scheme. Tuber
skin color, texture, shape, eye depth, and
appearance were rated. For the complete data
on this trial and others, request Hastings
Research Report HAS 98-4.
Based on data from this trial and
observations made in Maine seed plots, the
following varieties and Maine seedlings are
suggested for additional testing in 1999. Named
cultivars: Superior, New Leaf Superior, Kennebec,
Katahdin, Snowden, Saginaw Gold, Cosmos,
Diamant, Penta, and Atlantic (Diamant has
promising tolerance to corky ringspot). Maine
seedlings: SC8801-2, AFI424-7, AFI437-1,
AF1615-1, AFI753-16, and AF1775-2: Michigan
seedling: MSAO91-1 (selected for chip potential)
and MSA076-2. Although tubers of MSA076-2
were small in 1998, the specific gravity was
promising. Yield and specific gravity data are
found in Table 1.


Table 1. Round white potato variety trial results, Hastings, FL 1998.
Percent size distribution
Yield (cwt/A) 1 7/8- 21/2 Specific
Variety No. 1 No. 1z Size B 2 V2 in. 3 in. >3 in. Culls Gravity


Cosmos
AF1773-1
*Atlantic
Snowden


418 aY
406 ab
356 a-c
354 a-c


MSAO91-1 342 b-d


77 3
87 3
90 4
89 8
87 5


39 30 8 21 1.066 ghY
28 42 17 10 1.061 i
46 36 8 6 1.077 a-d
63 24 2 4 1.075 a-e
48 28 11 8 1 078 ah


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


~l~ebPrrnuv 1999









*Atlantic 328 c-e 89 3 42 35 12 7 1.079 a

AFI615-1 323 c-e 79 10 59 18 2 11 1.066 gh

Saginaw Gold 323 c-e 84 5 48 33 3 12 1.073 e

AF1424-7 323 c-e 89 4 46 39 4 6 1.074 c-e

AF1753-16 322 c-e 73 7 50 18 5 21 1.072 ef


Kennebec

La Chipper

B1452-9

Red La Soda

Katahdin

B1440-18

AF1775-2

Penta

*Atlantic

AF1480-5

Sebago

MSB107-1

MSC103-2

Superior

Diamant

Superior

80178-34

S1136-29

SC8801-2

AF1565-12

Aziza

B1136-1

AF1437-1

B1136-23

AF1758-5

New Leaf Supr

MSN076-2

Carola


321 c-e

316 c-f

316 c-f

315 c-f

312 c-f

304 c-g

302 c-h

302 c-h

294 c-k

291 c-j

290 c-j

290 c-j

278 d-k

278 d-k

277 d-k

272 d-k

270 d-k

269 d-k

265 e-k

259 e-k

241 f-k

235 g-k

229 g-k

227 h-k

219 i-k

217jk

210k

205 k


1.061 i

1.068 fg

1.063 hi

1.0 61 i

1.063 hi

1.069 fg

1.077 a-d

1.064 hi

1.078 a-c

1.068 fg

1.064 hi

1.062 I

1.063 hi

1.073 de

1.068 fg

1.074 b-e

1.078 ab

1.065 g-i

1.063 hi

1.062 i

1.063 hi

1.076 a-e

1.056 j

1.068 g

1.054 j

1.068 fg

1.075 a-e

1.065 g-i


ZNo. 1 consists of sizes 1 7/8 to >3 in. of marketable quality.
YMean separation in columns by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.
Comments: used seepage irrigation, fumigated with Telone II at 6.0 gpa, 201b/A Temik 15G at planting,
plots 15 ft with 22 seed/plot at 8 in., and Lexon DF at 1.25 Ib/A before emergence.


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


February 1999






VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER February 1999


(White, Vegetarian 99-2)


Vegetable Gardening


Cutting Potato Seed pieces for garden
planting

One question I often get at this time of
the year relates to the cutting and treating of
potato seed-pieces before planting them in the
home garden.
Most gardeners are told to buy certified
seed potatoes and cut the tubers into 2-ounce
pieces. Each piece must have from 1 to 3 eyes
for sprouting. What they are not instructed
properly on is how then to treat the cut pieces.
To see how the old Florida Cracker
farmers planted their potatoes, I went back to an
old 1917 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Bulletin (No. 133) written by A.P. Spencer. Here
is his chapter on "Seed Potatoes":
"Growers should exercise special care to
get well-matured seed from reliable growers or
seedsmen who will guarantee them to be true to
name and grown in fields practically free from
disease. It is never advisable to plant potatoes
usually sold by grocers for table use, as they
may be diseased, and not the proper variety.
Florida grown seed potatoes are not generally
used for winter planting as the spring-grown
crop must be kept too long and the fall crop
does not mature sufficiently to give reliable
seed. Most of the seed used in Florida is grown
in Maine. For fall planting, the seed may be
taken from the spring-grown Florida crop. It
should be kept over summer spread out in a dry
place, and by planting only sprouted tubers a
fair stand will result."
"The most successful growers prefer
medium size tubers for seed, and cut them to
two well matured eyes in each piece. Where the
tubers are large, and are to be planted in 3 /2
foot rows, about 12 bushels per acre will be
required for seedling. When the seed is to be
cut, it is best to do it a few days before planting.
Mix a little lime through the pile; it has a
preserving effect on the cut surfaces."
Later guides by the USDA explain the
need to cut a few days early this way: "One of
the main causes of seed-piece decay in the field
is lack of proper healing of the cut surfaces.
This healing is called suberization, or corking
over. Suberization is brouaht about by exDosina


seed pieces to high humidity, 60-70 degrees F
temperature, and plenty of air. A protective
layer of cork cells develops at the cut surfaces,
acting as a barrier to soil-borne diseases. Under
ideal conditions the protective layer develops
within 48 hours. Fresh-cut pieces, when
planted in moist, warm soil, usually heal over
in the soil before decay sets in: however, since
the process is not difficult, it is safer to suberize
seed pieces before planting."
Another old bulletin by an Extension
potato specialist states for the gardener: "If
freshly cut seed is planted, it should be covered
immediately to avoid exposure to sunlight and
dry air. Planting freshly cut seed in very dry soil
favors decay."
A 1975 USDA bulletin (No. 1035) on
Precutting Seed Potatoes compares various
fungicides for coating the cut surfaces. It
reported good results with some of the
fungicides.
Summary: my recommendation for home
gardeners wanting to plant seed potatoes in
Florida is to buy certified seed from reliable
sources, then cut them into 2 ounce pieces with
1-3 eyes, at planting time. Plant them right
away into a moist soil. It is not necessary to try
to cure them, unless they are to be stored for
any reason for a long period of several days.
Treating with an approved fungicide is optional.
I know of some old-timers who still want to treat
with lime, and this practice will not hurt, but
certainly it is not necessary. Small B size
potatoes may be planted whole. Place seed-
pieces 12 inches apart in furrows 3-4 inches
deep and cover right away.

(Stephens, Vegetarian 99-2)


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


February 1999








VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER A't? February 1999


Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Chairman


Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor


Dr. W. M. Stall
Professor


Dr. J. M. White
Assoc. Professor


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. T. E. Crocker Dr. GJ.J chmuth
Professor Professor


Dr. S. M. Olson
Professor


Mr. J. M. Stephens
Professor


Dr. S. A. Sargent
Professor


Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Assoc. Professor


T7


VEG~ETA RLANNEWCSLETTERR


Februarvy 11999




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