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Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00344
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: January 1999
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00344
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication
Borticulhdral &cicnce Department P.O. 110690 Gaincvie, FL 32611 Tclephonc (352)392-2134

Vegetarian 99-01

January 1999




SNew Teaching Program for Horticulture

Triploid (Seedless) Watermelon Variety Trial Results
Spring 1998, NFREC, Quincy, FL

Vegetable Crops on the Internet

Producing Strawberries With Outdoor Soilless/hydroponic


Heirloom Tomato Varieties for Florida

Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever possible,
please give credit to the authors. The purpose of trade names in this publication is
solely for the purpose of providing information and does not necessarily constitute a
recommendation of the product.

The instirute o Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
inltomation and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.
r-n nc s r mn cv verCIcr wrY e rM ACr Tff T RF ;4r MF FrnNOnMlrC NI ATF F FT (nRInfA fFAS UNIWERSfY OF FLORIDA,

yK UNIVERSITY OF Cooperative Extension Service
FLORIDA Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences



Vegetable Crops Calendar

February 13, 1999. 4-H and FFA Hort ID
contest. Florida State Fair, Tampa, FL. Contact
Jim Stephens (352)392-1928 x 209.

March 6, 1999. Urban Farming
Workshop Seminole County Extension
Auditorium, Sanford, FL. Contact Richard Tyson
(407) 665-5554.

March 8-12, 1999. Florida Postharvest
Horticulture Institute & Industry Tour. Contact
Steve Sargent (352) 392-1928 ext. 215.

Commercial Vegetables

New Teaching Program for Horticulture

A new educational resource for vegetable
producers, and others, is available at the Indian
River Research and Education Center in Fort
Pierce. Seven new faculty members have been
hired to provide the upper division classes
necessary for a Bachelor's Degree in Horticulture
or Agribusiness Management. Horticulture
students can major in General Horticulture or
Fruit and Vegetable Science. Mark Ritenour's
area of specialization is postharvest handling of
produce and he is responsible for the
postharvest and physiology classes. Betsy
Lamb is trained in vegetable production and will
teach the General Horticulture class as well as
the vegetable production classes. Sandi Wilson
from Clemson will cover classes in
Environmental Horticulture and Buddy Tignor,
who received his PhD from the University of
Florida in Citrus Management, will teach the fruit
production courses. In Agribusiness
Management, Ferd Wirth covers the area of
marketing and finance, Suzanne Thornsbury is
responsible for Food systems policy and Trade,
and Mark Wade will teach in the area of
Marketing. Still to be filled is the position in
Labor Regulation. In order to keep all the
teaching faculty up to the minute in their areas of
specialization, all have a 30% appointment in

70% Teaching appointment. Ron Sonoda and Bob
Bullock volunteered their time to teach Plant
Pathology and Entomology last semester and
George Snyder will teach Soils on interactive video
from the Fort Lauderdale Research and Education
Center. Certain classes, such as Genetics, will be
taught at Florida Atlantic University. In addition to
providing classes for the undergraduate program,
Fort Pierce is one of the base sites for the new
Distance Master's Degrees in Agribusiness and
Agricultural Education and Communication.

Facilities at IRREC include 2 classrooms
with the potential for sending and receiving classes
by interactive video, a well equipped teaching lab
and a computer center for student use. Two new
greenhouses and 2 shade houses are in the
bidding process and planting of trees for a teaching
variety collection of citrus and other temperate and
tropical fruits has begun. Land preparation for the
vegetable, herb and ornamental plantings is due to
start in January. Within 2 years, a new teaching
building with additional classrooms and labs, a
library, student lounge and faculty offices will be
completed. Support staff have been or will be hired
to assist faculty in the areas of educational media,
computer sciences, teaching assistance and
statistical analysis.

Classes are available for students in degree
programs and also for those interested in increasing
their knowledge in a particular area without
completing an entire degree. Fall 1998 was the first
semester of the new program and 25
undergraduates and 12 graduate students were
registered in 6 classes. The "average" student was
35, not enrolled in a degree program, and working
in an agricultural industry, primarily vegetable and
citrus production, but students ranged from High
School seniors working on internships to Seniors
completing their class requirements to retirees
learning about dooryard citrus. For students
wishing to complete a bachelor's degree, 2+2
programs with area community colleges, notably
Indian River Community College, are being
developed so students can move easily into the
upper division classes with a completed AA degree.
Scholarships are available through IFAS in
Gainesville, but additional sources of funding are
being sought to accommodate students who do not
fulfill the "traditional" requirements of a full-time

January 1999



In Spring 1999, 14 classes are available;
7 in the area of Horticulture, 4 in Agribusiness
Management and 3 graduate distance education
courses. Horticulture classes include Plant
Propagation, Soils, General Horticulture and
Horticultural Physiology. Agribusiness classes
include Principles of Food and Resource
Economics, Principles of Agribusiness
Management, and Human Resource
Management. Additional information on the
program is available at
http://www.irrec.ifas.ufl.edu or from the Center at
(561) 468-3922.

(Lamb, Vegetarian 99-01)

Triploid (Seedless) Watermelon Variety Trial
Results Spring 1998, NFREC, Quincy, FL

Watermelons ranked 8t' in value ($55
million) and 4th in acreage (30,000) for the 1996-
97 production season among the vegetables
(strawberries included) produced in Florida. At
present triploid watermelons represent only a
small market in Florida (estimated to be about
20%). In other areas such as California and
winter production in Mexico they have become
the predominate type. If it was not for the need
for a standard melon to supply the pollen needed
for fruit set, triploid melons would have even a
larger market share in these areas. There is not
any reason that Florida growers can not increase
their acreage of triploid melons since the market
seems to be there. The growers in Florida that
have tried triploid melons have been pleased
with them and plan to continue. Many trials have
shown the adaptability of triploid watermelons
and shown that yields from triploids are equal to
standard types and in many cases will exceed
those of standard types.

This trial was part of a statewide trial to
evaluate varieties at multiple locations. The
purpose of this trial was to evaluate triploid
varieties for adaptability to the Panhandle area of
the state.

Soil type was an Orangeburg loamy fine
sand. Soil pH before planting was 6.7. Total
fertilizer applied was 150-45-150 Ib/a of N-P20s-
K20. As the black ployethylene mulch was
applied, the beds were fumigated with methyl
bromide:chloropicrin (98:2) at 400 Ibs per

tape (Chapin Twin Wall IV, 0.5 gpa/min at 10 psi)
buried 6 inches from center of bed. Between row
spacing was 8 feet and in row spacing was 3 feet.
Plots consisted of 10 plants with a 2 plant border
between plots of a dissimilar variety (Mickylee was

Seed of twenty entries were planted on 17
February 1998 into flats with cell size of 1.5 in. X
1.5 in X 2.5 in. Plots were planted on 30 March
1998. Four replications were used. Pollinators
were provided both on outsides of plots and in-row.
Between row weed control was used (both contact
and preemergence herbicides). Pesticides were
applied as need to control pests.

Watermelons were harvested on 8-9 June
and 18 June. Marketable fruit were counted and
weighed individually. Yields were calculated as if
the field was solid triploid watermelons. Soluble
solids determinations were made with a digital
refractometer on two fruit of each entry at first
harvest. Ratings were also made for hollow heart
and presence of hard seed. The resulting data
were subjected to analysis of variance and means
were separated by Duncan's multiple range test,
5% level. Temperatures during May and June were
above normal and very dry and may have affected
yields. Disease pressure was very low due to the
dry conditions but spider mites were somewhat a
Total yields (Table 1) varied from a high of
556.5 cwt/a for 'Millionaire' to a low of 399.8 cwt/a
for 'Freedom'. Yields of all entries except 'HSR
1599' and 'Freedom' were similar to 'Millionaire'.
'Millionaire' in past trials has also provided very high
yields. Average fruit size ranged from 15.8 lbs for
'HSR 1599' to 10.2 Ibs for 'HMX 6910'. Only 'FS
4502' had fruit size similar to 'HSR 1599'. Hollow
heart ranged from a high of 4.25 for 'HSR 1599'
(unacceptable) to none present in 'Millionaire' and
'Tri-X-Palomar'. 'Tri-X-313' also had almost none
present. An average rating above 3 would make
the entry questionable as to marketability. Some
hard seed were found in all of the entries but
seemed to be only a problem with 'HMX 6910'.
Soluble solids ranged from a high of 13.8 for 'TriX-
Carousel' to a low of 12.0 for 'HMX 6910'. Ten
other entries had soluble solid levels equal to 'Tri-X-

Januarv 1999)


Table 1. Total yields, average fruit weight, hollow heart rating, hard seed rating and soluble solid content
of triploid watermelons. NFREC, Quincy. Spring 1998.
Entry Source Yield Average Hollow Hard Soluble
(Cwt/A) Fruit Wt. Heart Seed Solids
(Ib) Ratingz RatingY (%)

Millionaire Harris-Moran 556.5 aX 12.3 bc 0.00 g 2.50 bc 12.1 de
95-14 Sakata 549.5 a 13.7 ab 2.62 a-f 2.25 bc 13.2 a-d
Gem-Dandy Willhite 534.7 ab 12.0 bc 0.87 e-g 2.12 bc 12.5 c-e
Crimson-Trio Rogers 533.2 ab 12.6 bc 2.75 a-e 3.00 ab 12.4 c-e
HMX 6910 Harris-Moran 532.4 ab 10.2 c 2.75 a-e 3.87 a 12.0 e
Constitution Sunseeds 531.9 ab 12.0 bc 1.25 d-g 2.50 bc 12.9 a-e
HMX 7928 Harris-Moran 530.5 ab 11.7 bc 0.87 e-g 2.38 bc 13.2 a-c
Tri-X-Palomar American Sunmelon 511.2 a-c 11.4 bc 0.00 g 2.50 bc 12.6 b-e
Tri-X-Shadow American Sunmelon 510.7 a-c 11.5 bc 0.50 fg 2.12 bc 13.3 a-c
XWM-7703 Sakata 489.1 a-c 12.6 bc 3.75 ab 2.37 bc 12.7 b-e

Tri-X-Carousel American Sunmelon 482.1 a-c 12.8 bc 1.12 d-g 1.75 bc 13.8 a
Tri-X-313 American Sunmelon 475.9 a-c 13.0 b 0.01 g 2.25 bc 12.5 c-e
RWM 8073 Novartis 467.2 a-c 12.2 bc 1.87 b-g 1.75 bc 13.0 a-e
95-11 Sakata 455.3 a-c 12.5 bc 3.12 a-d 3.12 ab 12.8 a-e
FS 4502 Florida Seed 453.4 a-c 13.6 ab 1.75 b-g 2.62 bc 12.9 a-e
Genesis Shamrock 445.2 a-c 11.3 bc 2.12 a-g 2.25 bc 13.1 a-e
Sapphire Hollar 444.1 a-c 13.2 b 3.50 a-c 2.25 bc 13.6 ab
Revolution Sunseeds 443.3 a-c 11.2 bc 0.75 e-g 2.00 bc 13.2 a-d
HSR 1599 Hollar 420.8 bc 15.8 a 4.25 a 1.50 c 12.7 b-e
Freedom Sunseeds 399.8 c 12.9 b 1.50 c-g 2.37 bc 13.3 a-c
ZHollow heart rating on a 0-5 scale; 0=no hollow heart, 5=over 20mm separation.
YHard seed rating on a 1-5 scale; 1=no hard seed, 5=more than 5 hard seed.
XMean separation by Duncan's multiple range test, 5%level.

(Olson, Vegetarian 99-01)

Vegetable Crops on the Internet

The Internet has become a dynamic
encyclopedia of information open to anyone who
knows how to access it. With the growing number
of web sites containing information useful to the
vegetable industry, the incentive is greater than
ever for its members to go on-line. One can find
information on nearly everything from scientific
reports, to weather reports & forecasts, to
company products and how to purchase on-line.
Benefits of using the internet include:

* Access in information 24 house a day
* Sites often contain links to other related web
* Searchable indices of information
* Quick access to the most current information
. Direct e-mail links to people

* Online discussion groups to share ideas about
a particular topic

A good way to find information on the
internet is by using a web search engine such as
Alta Vista (www.altavista.com), HotBot
(www.hotbot.com), Excite (www.excite.com) or
Yahoo (www.vahoo.com). Newer web 'crawlers'
such as MetaCraw ler
(http://www.go2net.com/search.html) and
Webcrawler (www.webcrawler.com) have become
popular because they pool the resources of
several different search engines. After a useful
web site has been found that includes links to
similar web sites, further information on that topic
can be quickly found by following the links.
Following is a list of web sites that contain useful
information related to horticulture and vegetable
crops in particular. Most of these sites have

Janutarv 1999


4 Jan"uary 1999

additional links to related sites that can provide
further information.

Background Plant Science Information:
*On-line Biology Book
* Agricultural Web Sites -
*Directory of Land-grant Universities Web Sites -
*Plant Dictionary Plants of Horticulture -
*Name That Crop (identification of exotic crops) -

University On-line Publications:
*UF Extension Digital Information Source (EDIS) -
*UC Extension Publications On-line -
*Washington State University WSU CAHE
Information Department -

Crop Statistics:
*National Agricultural Statistics Service -
*Florida Agricultural Statistics Service -
*Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) -

*Florida Automated Weather Network -
*Agricultural Weather Information Service Inc. -
*The Weather Channel -www.weather.com
*Intellicast http://www.intellicast.com/

HorticultureNegetable Related Links:
*Cornell CENet Vegetable Industry -
*University of California Vegetable Research &
In f o r m a t i o n Center -
*North Carolina State University Horticulture
In f o r m a t i o n Leaflets -

*Organic Gardening &Farming
http://www.all90 com/users/sgprice/backyard/or
*Choosemans Worldwide Guide to Specialty
P r o d u c e
*U.S.EPA Methyl Bromide Phaseout Web Site -

*Handling Techniques for Maintaining
Postharvest Quality of Vegetables -
*USDA ARS Index of Quality Standards -
*University of California Postharvest Outreach
Program http://hostharvest.ucdavis.edu/.
*North Carolina State University Postharvest
In f o r m a t i o n S h e e t s
* FDA Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition -
* Transportation Hot Links -

*AgriGator Agricultural and Related Information
M a r k e t Ne w s
SFlorida Department of Agriculture http://www.fl-
(Ritenour, Vegetarian 99-01)

Producing Strawberries With
Soilless/Hydroponic Systems


Strawberry is a very important crop in the
nation but has special importance to those
growers producing strawberries for local sale,
farmers markets, or for road-side markets. In
southern regions of the US, the annual-hill
production system is common where strawberries
are grown as an annual crop with polyethylene
mulch and drip irrigation. Often methyl bromide is
used to disinfect the soil of disease organisms,
insects, and weed seeds. Methyl bromide is
scheduled to be phased out of use by the year
2005. The popularity and value of strawberries
and the pending challenge to strawberry culture
with the loss of methyl bromide, led a group of



as a culture system for strawberries. This group,
led by Bob Hochmuth, includes fruit crops
specialist Tim Crocker, county agent David
Dinkins, biologist Lei Lani Leon and vegetable
crops specialist George Hochmuth.

Strawberries have been grown in various
media systems with all nutrients supplied from
nutrient solution or from controlled-release
fertilizer materials. Strawberry plug plants were
placed in layflat bags filled with various media and
irrigated with a microirrigation system with an
emitter stake at each plant. Each three-foot long
bag contained about 0.5 cubic ft. of media and 6
strawberry plants. Results of some of these tests
are presented in Table 1.

These hydroponics systems are applicable
for both small farms growing for local sales or for
larger growers. Yield with the hydroponic systems
in northern Florida (4 month harvest season) was
as great as 1.8 pounds per plant. The hydroponic
system arrangement resulted in about 40,000
plants per acre whereas the typical soil-based
system used on commercial farms today results in
one-half as many plants.

Small farmers can easily manage a hydroponic
system for production of strawberries for local
sales. Organic culture of strawberries is
possible with this system where media such as
perlite is approved for use in organic culture.
Larger-scale production appears to have
potential also, mainly due to the high plant
populations and large production capability.
The combination of soilless culture of
strawberries with greenhouses or other
protective structures also is possible and
currently being used on small scale around the
country. Many options for culture systems are
being developed. Most rely on some type of
soilless media including perlite, peat,
vermiculite, coconut coir, or others, alone or in
various mixes. Without mentioning brand
names, the cultural systems include layflat bags,
upright bags, stacked (columns) of styrofoam
containers, horizontal PVC pipes filled with
media, or horizontal PVC pipes with strawberry
plants in plastic pots inserted in the PVC pipes.
There are numerous variations on the cultural
scheme and every one we have evaluated can
be used successfully to produce strawberries.

Table 1. Comparison of yield with several cultural systems, University of Florida Suwannee Valley
Research and Education Center, Live Oak, FL.
Cultivar Media Yield (Ib/plant)

Camarosa Perlite 1.8
Chandler Perlite 1.6

Sweet Charlie Perlite 1.1

Sweet Charlie Peat/vermiculite 1.0

Sweet Charlie wood fibers 1.0

Camarosa Perlite 0.9
Camarosa Peat/vermiculite 1.0
Camarosa Perlite/controlled-release 0.9
Camarosa Perlite/fertigation 0.9

(Hochmuth, vegetarian 99-01)


January 1999


Vegetable Gardening

Heirloom Tomato Varieties for Florida
Heirloom varieties are those grown
years ago by our grandparents and their
ancestors. As such, these varieties represent
our gardening heritage. Most records of early
vegetable varieties start in the first part of this
I have the English edition of "The
Vegetable Garden", a book written in France
in 1905 to benefit the gardeners of England
as well as those in America and Australia. My
earliest US list would come from USDA
Farmer's Bulletin 934, Home Gardening in the
South, written by H.C. Thompson in 1918. My
earliest Florida guide is Extension Bulletin 58,
Vegetable Crops of Florida, by A.P. Spencer,
followed by Fla. Extension Bulletin 80, The
Home Garden, written by F.S. Jamison, June
1935. Still another of the heirloom type by
Jamison was Florida Ext. Ser. Cir. 65, Planting
Charts for Home Gardens, 1943, and Bul 131,
the Florida Home Garden, 1946.
Since the tomato is our most popular
garden vegetable, this article will concentrate
on tomatoes. There are too many other
vegetables to mention all of them now. I will
list all those that were included in the above
stated publications. But the most important
section will be the listing of tomato varieties
kept by the Seed Savers Exchange and
advertised for sale in their Autumn 1998
Heirloom Seeds catalog.
The Seed Savers Exchange (SSE) is a
non-profit organization of 8,000 members who
grow and sell heirloom (handed-down)
varieties. SSE has a farm, fittingly called
"Heritage Farm", located in Decorah, Iowa,
where 18,000 varieties of endangered
vegetables, including 4,100 tomatoes are
maintained. Up to 2,000 are multiplied for
seed each summer. For more information on
that farm and organization, you can write to
Kent and Diane Whealy, Seed Savers
Exchange, 3076 North Winn Rd., Decorah, IA
52101, or call (319) 382-5990.
The following are the listings recorded
in the publications which I have mentioned.
This listing is not to be construed as a
recommendation for their growth in Florida,
n',ne) r4' ,Nt ~f~ n,;0 'rnlrnnnr Ci, ,r n, ,rmnr)

recommended varieties list may be found in
Circular SP 103, Florida Vegetable Gardening
Guide. For more reading of lists of heirloom
tomato varieties, check out the book,
Livingston and the Tomato (1893).

*Heirloom tomato varieties. The Vegetable
Garden 1905.
Large Red Tomato, Powell's Early, Early Dwarf
Red, Tree Tomato, Belle of Massy, Laxton's
Open-air, Atlantic Prize, Marvel of the Market,
chemin Red, Purple Champion, Scarlet
Champion, Perfection, Trophy, Mikado Purple,
Mikado Scarlet, Scarlet Ponderosa, golden
Queen, Apple-shaped Red, Hathaway's
Excelsior, Apple-shaped Purple, Acme, King
Humbert, Pear-shaped or Fig cherry, red
Currant, Beauty, Belle de Leuville, Blenheim
Orange, Eariiana, Early Mayflower, Early
Optimus, Golden Trophy, Honor Bright, Jaune
Petite, Large Yellow, Peach, scarlet Turk's
Cap, Stone, Yellow Pear Shaped, Vilmorin's
*Tomato varieties listed in Home Gardening in
the South. 1918
Earijana, Chalk's Early Jewel, Greater
Baltimore, Red Rock, Globe, Beauty, Acme,
*Tomato varieties for Florida in Veqetable
Crops of Florida. 1930.
Marglobe, Livingston Globe, Stone,
Ponderosa, June Pink, Earliana
*Tomato varieties for Florida in The Home
Garden. 1935.
Marglobe, Livingston's Globe, Pritchard's
Scarlet Topper
*Tomato varieties for Florida in Planting Charts
for Home Gardens. Cir. 65. 1943
Pan America, Marglobe
*Tomato varieties for Florida in The Florida
Home Garden, Bul.131. 1946.
Pan America, Marglobe, Rutgers
*Heirloom Tomato Varieties for the U.S. in
Seed Savers Exchange, 1999.
Amber-colored Russian, Amish Paste, anna
Russian, Aunt ruby's German Green, Big
Rainbow, Black Tula Russian, Black Plum,
Black Sea Man, Brandywine, Broad Ripple,
Yellow Currant, Cherokee Purple, Druzba
Bulgarian, Eurofresh, Federic, ganti Hungarian,
German Pink, Gourmet Yellow Stuffer, Green
Zebra, Grandpa Cock's Plume, Hugh's,
Hungarian Heart, Lisa King, Moonglow, Marizol


January 1999

VE G TA ilA NEWLETTR Jauary199

Nebraska Wedding, Opalka, Orange Banana,
Plum Lemon Productiva, Riesentraube,
Russian Persimmon, Silvery Fir Tree, Soldacki
Polish, Spitze, Striped Cavern, Tommy Toe,
Tyboroski Plum, You-Go
*Heirloom tomato varieties listed by Garden
Seed Inventory. 1995.
Banana Legs, Garden Peach, Golden Queen,
Goldie, Mammoth German Gold, Yellow Pear,
Golden Ponderosa, Yellow Belgium, Yellow
Bell, Arkansas Traveler, Watermelon
Beefsteak, Pink Brimmer, Brandywine, Bull's
Heart, Cherokee Purple, Dutchman, Eva
Purple Ball, German Johnson, Jeff Davis,
Jefferson Giant, Marizol Purple, Mortgage
Lifter, Radiator Charlie's,

Oxheart, Pomme d'Amour, Ponderosa, Purple
Calabash, Sochulak, Tappy's Finest, Winsall,
Abe Lincoln, Ailsa Craig, Bonny Best, Burbank,
Wickline Cherry, Crimson Cushion, Dinner
Plate, Dominick's Paste, Dwarf Champion Tree
Tomato, Earliana, German, Goliath, Grandma
Mary's Paste, Howard German, John Baer,
Landry's Russian, Marglobe, Marmande,
Moneymaker, Red Cup Stuffing, Riesentraube,
Rutgers, Scarlet Heirloom, Stone, Sugar Lump,
Swiss Alpine, The Amateur, Valiant, Ziegler's
Fleisch. Big Rainbow, Dad's Mug, Elberta Girl,
Great White, Hillbilly, Mr.Stripey, White Beauty.

(Stephens, Vegetarian 99-01)

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

Dr. D. J. Cantliffe

Dr. D. N. Maynard

Dr. W. M. Stall

Dr. J. M. White
Assoc. Professor

Dr. T. E. Crocker

Dr. S. M. Olson

Mr. J. M. Stephens
Professor and Editor


Dr. S. A. Sargent

Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Assoc. Professor


Janiriarv 1999

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