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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: October 1998
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00341
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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/^^ UNIVERSITY OF Cooperative Extension Service
FLORIDA Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


VEGETARIAN

oiA Vegetable Crops Extension Publication
Horticultural &Scicncc- Dcpartmcnt D.O. 110690 Gaineasvillc, FL 32611 Telephoue (352)392-2134


Vegetarian 98-10


October 1998


CONTENTS


VEGETABLE CROPS CALENDAR


,r COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

Florida Greenhouse Vegetable Industry Update and
Trends

SFacts 98 Survey Results


S ^ VEGETABLE GARDENING

Preventing Deer Damage In The Garden

Container Gardening



Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever possible,
please give credit to the authors. The purpose of trade names in this publication is
solely for the purpose of providing information and does not necessarily constitute a
recommendation of the product.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.
rr/'MnD n C ATTVIT cVTCfTCTM Dc I tfDV M AiDiTTT Tr IDE TunaL K Tr'ITALI CTIAT C- CT A O TD A rMAC f ItrTIDCIrrv A nDTPTnA









VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER O 19


Vegetable Crops Calendar


November 1-3, 1998. FSHS, Bayfront
Hilton, St. Petersburg, FL. Contact Ms. Kathy
Murphy (407) 678-5337.

March 8-12, 1999. Florida Postharvest
Horticulture Institute & Industry Tour. Contact
Steve Sargent (352) 392-1928 ext. 215.



Florida Greenhouse Vegetable
Industry Update and Trends


There was an in-service training for
vegetable crop agents conducted in Seminole
County during April of 1998. The training included
an update on the Florida greenhouse vegetable
industry. As I compiled the information for the
training, I found the results very interesting and am
including an overview of the information.

Statewide greenhouse vegetable surveys of
all counties in Florida were conducted by Dr.
George Hochmuth in 1991 and 1996. The 1991
survey showed primarily cucumber and tomato
production. Production systems included rockwool,
modified NFT, and peat. By 1996 the industry had
decreased somewhat (66 to 57 acres), largely due
to reduction in acreage in North Florida. Crop
diversity increased greatly with more pepper,
strawberry, lettuce, and herbs. The predominant
production system became the perlite bag system.






Table 1. 1991 Florida (
Tots


In the early 1990s the majority of Florida
growers were producing tomato. One large grower
(Burnac) in Ft. Pierce, at the time, grew cucumber only
and represented over half of the Florida acreage.
North Florida tomato acreage declined from 1991 to
1996 due to several factors: marketing group
problems, Benlate litigation concerns, new whitefly-
vectored virus, and significant structural damage from
a storm in March, 1993. The tomato variety picture
changed during this same period also. Transition from
'Jumbo' to 'Caruso' in the late 1980s and early 1990s
changed by 1996 to, almost exclusively the variety
'Trust'. During the 1997 season some limited
production of cluster tomato varieties, primarily
'Tradiro', began in Florida. Cluster tomato production
"exploded" into the worldwide marketplace in the last
three years. Cluster tomato varieties were grown in
50% of the Holland acreage in 1997-98.

The current status of the Florida greenhouse
vegetable industry is much different now than even
1996. Much more specialty crop production is in
place today. In addition, speciality production systems
such as float production systems, vertical growing
systems (Verti-Gro ), horizontal racks using small
pots (VerZontal ), and others have become very
popular. A survey of selected county extension agents
in the state reveals the great diversity of products
being grown now. These include: colored pepper,
cluster harvest tomato, other specialty tomatoes,
several specialty lettuces, herbs (basil primarily), ethnic
spinach, strawberry, sweet onion, eggplant, mustard
greens, green beans, dune grasses, and plug
transplants (tobacco and vegetables).

This diversity has led to educational challenges
in IFAS to supply the current information needed by
these growers. This increase in the crops listed above
represents over 30 acres of greenhouse space planted
to new crops in the last 5 years alone. Industry
experts feel this trend will continue into the
foreseeable future.


greenhouse Vegetable Acreage
l 66 Acres


County Square Ft. Crop (%) Production System

St. Lucie 1,742,000 Cucumber (100) Rockwool

Suwannee 336,000 Tomato (90) NFT (Modified)

Palm Beach 92,000 Tomato (65) Peat

Columbia 87,000 Tomato (92) NFT (Modified)
Bake 67200 omao (10) FT (odiied


--


October 1998


VE~E TA RIAN NE WSLETTE~R


67/,200


Tomato (100)


NFT (Modified)


Baker









S117r.A17 J AFWYRTTER October 1998


Table 2. 1996 Florida Greenhouse Vegetable Acreage
Total 57 Acres


County Square Ft. Crop (%) Production System

St. Lucie 1,742,000 Cucumber (86), Pepper (14) Perlite

Hillsborough 198,350 Herbs (88), Strawberry (8) Perlite

Palm Beach 177,000 Cucumber (100) Perlite

Suwannee 152,000 Tomato (66), Lettuce (18) Perlite, NFT (Modified)

Seminole 41,000 Lettuce (94), Herbs (6) Float


(Robert Hochmuth, Multicounty Ext. Agent, SVREC)




FACTS 98 Survey Results


Vegetable Pest Management


Methyl Bromide Situation
Methyl Bromide Alternatives Update
Phytophthora capsice
Vector Management for Vegetable Insect Pests
Resistance Management for Vegetable Insect Pests
Critical Periods for Weed Competition
New Sprayer Tip Technology


Very
Useful
11
16
14
11
12
16
14


Mod.
Useful Useful
15 3
11 2
13 4
15 4
14 5
13 1
11 2


High
Likelihood of adopting or changing current practices based on today's program 13


Are you a:


Acreage


Grower Crop Advisor Farm Svc/Supply
7 6 4


0-50
8


51-200
1


Med Low None
9 1 2


Gvmt Ed
14


200+
1


Crops grown: tomatoes, watermelons, squash, eggplant, citrus, cucumbers, cabbage, greens, corn, pepper,
okra, strawberries, cantaloupe, and specialty vegetables

Topics you wish to see in future programs: Alternative management practices. Corrections for farm problems.
New methods of pest and virus protection. Comparison of pest management around the world. Additional
Methyl Bromide alternatives. Grower point of view on Methyl Bromide situation. Fallow land weed control.
Sustainable farming. Very specific information such as: crops in rotation, what combinations of alternatives,
chemicals, etc.

General Comments: Excellent. A good Program. Good choice of topics. Speakers did well, staying on time.
Need to get more grower attendance. Well done. Speakers were easy to listen to and very informative.
Enjoyed the practical information provided. Many useful recommendations.


Not
Useful
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


No
Opinion
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


October 1998


~I~TdlZrd NNITUr;C~. FTT'I~R









SV1GT F PTAN A NJ? LETTER O 1998


Vegetable Crop Management


Cover-crop and Selection for Vegetable Production
Windbreak Use in Vegetable Production
Use in Strip-Culture in Vegetable Production
Effect of Mulch Color on Vegetable Production
Insect Pollination of Vegetables
Solarization: Principles and Practices for Veg. Production


Likelihood of adopting or changing current practices based on today's program


High Med Low None
6 5 2 0


Grower Crop Advisor
4 3


Farm Svc/Supply
2


Acreage of Growers


0-50 51-200
2 1


Crops: watermelon, cantaloupe, tomato, green beans, strawberries, squash, onions, potatoes, cabbage, citrus,
mustard and collard greens, pepper, and lettuce.

Topics you wish to see in future programs: Varieties of melons and tomatoes. Sweetcorn, cabbage, potatoes,
carrots. Specialty crops, direct marketing opportunities. Organic growing idea.

General comments on program: Very good program. I learned a lot. Handouts would benefit people more,
because so many subjects are covered. Excellent.

(Bill Stall, Extension Vegetable Specialist, Gainesville
and Steve Olson, Extension Vegetable Specialist, Quincy)


Preventing Deer Damage
In The Garden


Deer those beautiful, gentle animals that
we have come to associate with every rural wooded
area of our state-always seem to elicit a feeling of
joy and wonder when encountered. It is fun to see
one cross our path, and we pause quietly to
observe, knowing that there may be one or two
more following close behind. However, our love
and fascination for them varies greatly with our
personal perspective.

At this time of year, many hunters are
trying to attract deer, while other residents view
Bambi as a troublesome pest and wish only to shoo
it away, especially out of their gardens. The wise
hunter might want to consider planting a vegetable
garden in his deer-food plot rather than the
traditional rye and millet.

Florida journalist Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings
best chronicled the deer's voracious appetite for
-nnrrln weennthlae in hor 19QRf Plllit7Pr-nri7f


winning novel, The Yearling. Her fiction was based
on much first-hand knowledge, for her own kitchen
garden lay smack in the middle of a Cross Creek
hammock abounding with all sorts of "critters",
including deer. Today, as back then, a gardener in
that well-known hamlet is quite likely to examine
his garden and find the unmistakable signs of
nocturnal nibbling up and down his rows of
assorted crops. Most often it is the work of white-
tails similar to Jody Baxter's pet yearling, "Flag".

So, if their sharp-toed hoofprints show up
next to a row of leafless stems in your garden,
quickly discount cutworms and prepare to out-wit
the sharpest-witted of all your adversaries.

Shooing them away helps little, for they can
sneak back into your plot as soon as you are
asleep. Deer have extremely acute hearing which
allows them to detect deep snoring from the far
fringes of your property. Some say you should
plant only those things the little darlings don't
particularly like. However, if such a list even exists,
it must be shorter than their tails, and includes such
things as horseradish, which you don't like either.
I have observed that they are especially fond of


Very
Useful
8
9
6
8
10
7


Useful
5
6
7
7
3
4


Mod.
Useful
2
1
0
0
1
3


Not
Useful
0
0
2
0
0
0


Are you a:


No
Opinion
0
0
0
0
0
0


Gvmt/Edu
8


200 +
1


October 1998


~ITA RJ;4 N NE~CLETTER








V7TA RIA AAEWLETTEROctober1


beans, peas, and sweetpotatoes, but they will not
pass up corn, cucumber, and even tomatoes.
Sometimes they prefer the fruits of the plant to the
shoots and leaves, as is often the case of the pods
of southern pea and watermelons. It sort of
depends on what you have planted compared with
what your neighbors have and natural foods
available in the nearby woods.

Gardener "Starch" told me she uses a
recording of a baying hound, which is activated by
a trip-wire. The version I heard sounded like an
Indian conch-blower calling animals to the feed-
trough!

Another popular method of defense is "de
fence", but most fences are low enough for a
crippled armadillo to leap. Certainly they never
appear close to the 12 feet needed to deter the
antlered cousin of the flying squirrel. Electrifying
the fence, especially with 110 to 220 volts, may
sound plausible, until you consider how much you
have invested in your pets and kids. A 12-volt
system is about right, but arranging the wires for
these wily creatures can be tricky. A single strand
placed low to the ground is too easily detected and
jumped, while one at 20 ft does not provide a
proper electrical ground. And forget multiple
strands with all those required insulators. You
certainly don't want your neighbors to think you're
keeping your husband in a razor-wire compound
instead of the dog-house.

If you thought of hiding among the corn
stalks until the unsuspecting beast comes close
enough to wrestle to the ground, forget it! First, a
deer is never unwary, except possibly in the "rut",
and second, you don't want to tangle with a
rutting, antlered buck! I happened to see a TV
program showing a buck attacking a good-sized,
thoroughly terrified man, Remember those sharp-
toed hoofprints in your garden? Emphasis should
be placed on the word "sharp". That poor man
barely escaped with his clothing in shreds and the
buck had not even started to use his ten-point rack!

That leaves us with repellents instead of the
well-placed shotgun pellets you might have in mind
as a last resort. It just so happens that there is a
variety of deer repellents marketed through
gardening catalogs, some of which are sworn to by
gardeners. Like the many home remedies and
concoctions, most of these would probably fail if
scientifically tested. However, a respected
horticultural researcher at Auburn University
reported positive results from his replicated study
using human hair as the repellent. As a result of
L- *..1: l I...1. n n*,*.nn+n ktnrrinrn m ainn otattlinn fillarl


with at least 6 ounces of human hair at 20 foot
intervals around the garden's perimeter. This
professor (let's just call him "baldy") found this to
work for up to a year under Alabama's heavy deer
pressure. A plus is that the hair, if placed at closer
intervals, also kept out rabbits.

Deer Off repellent spray made from hot
peppers and garlic is the current hot-seller in
catalogs. It is touted to last up to 3 months
without washing off or leaving a residue harmful to
humans. Another product called Garlic Barrier
comes with similar claims, so Auburn graduate
students Simmone and Owen decided to test it. In
their trial, they sprayed it on sweetpotato,
sweetcorn, southernpea, and zucchini at ten times
the recommended rate, then evaluated damage
three times a week. Their reported results showed
Garlic Barrier" significantly reduced grazing damage
to sweetpotato and southernpea, but not enough to
prevent economicallosses. Damage to sweetpotato
began 3 days after establishment, while damage to
southernpea was limited to the developing pods.
The deer did not damage the sweetcorn and
zucchini, treated or untreated, during the vegetative
and reproductive stages. From this study, they
concluded that this particular repellent could not be
counted on to provide economical protection under
severe deer pressure.

(Jim Stephens, Extension Vegetable Specialist)


CONTAINER GARDENING


Although Gardening in containers has been
around for many years, it recently is becoming more
popular with gardeners in southwest Florida. That
really shouldn't be much of a surprise when we
think of all the advantages we find in container
gardening such as: the small amount of space
needed; the portability of your plant containers; the
absence of most pests in your potting soil.

Most of us have been growing plants in
"flower" pots for as long as we can remember, but
not many of these plants have been vegetables.
Not only can we grow a variety of vegetables in
containers, but we can also grow them in many
different kinds of containers. The containers can be
big or small, clay or plastic, or various kinds of
baskets. What is to be planted will determine the
size of the container to be used.

Because containers are portable, gardeners
have no problem when the shade patterns change
with thp pqfnna We iinst move the containers to


October 1998


VE~ETA RI;11N NE~I;BTTER









VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER October 1998


follow the sun. This allows us to extend the
growing season so we can plant several crops
during one season.

When you fill your containers, never use the
soil from our outside garden bed. Instead use some
other type of growing medium. A good
professional potting mix is a reliable choice. Most
of these potting mixtures contain peat or compost,
perlite or vermiculite and sand. Some gardeners
prefer pine bark aor well-aged saw dust or shredded
paper. Maybe you didn't realize the paper shredder
you bought at the office supply store was also a
gardening tool.

Since this is the beginning of the fall season
when we plant our cool weather plants. Let's use
broccoli as an example for our container gardening.

When you are preparing to fill the container
with potting soil, be sure the container has proper
drainage. While you want excess water to drain
out, you will need some kind of barrier to prevent
the soil from draining out with the water. Pebbles,
broken pieces of a clay pot, or a coffee filter placed
in the bottom of the container will help to hold the
soil in place. If you are planning to grow only a
few plants, it will be better to use transplants rather
than seeds in the container. Be sure to select
sturdy healthy plants. Don't buy and take home
someone else's problems. Moisten the soil before
removing the broccoli transplants from their
individual pots. If the roots are pot-bound, spread
them out and trim any that are too long before
placing them in the planting hole. After placing the
plant in the hole, don't compress the soil around
the roots. Instead gently pour a pint of starter
solution into the hole. Then fill the hole with
potting soil.


After planting keep the soil evenly moist
(not wet). Lack of moisture may keep the broccoli
from heading. Container gardening requires more
frequent watering and fertilizing than gardening in
a bed. Dissolve a water soluble fertilizer in your
watering can each time you water.

Harvest your broccoli when the heads reach
maximum size usually 60 to 65 days after planting.
Leave as much stem on the plant as you can when
you cut the heads so the plant can produce side
florets to be harvested later. When the plant no
longer produces, dump it on the compost pile if you
have one, clean the pot thoroughly with water and
a little chlorine. You are now ready for your next
planting.

(Richard Blackburn Charlotte County Master Gardener and
Carolyn Best,
Charlotte County Extension Director)


VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER


October 1998








VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER October 1998


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Chairman



Dr. S. M. Olson
Professor


Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Professor



Dr. S. A. Sargent
Professor & Editor



Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Assoc. Professor


Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor



Dr. W. M. Stall
Professor



Dr. J. M. White
Assoc. Professor


Dr. T. E. Crocker
Professor


VEGETARLANNNEWclSLETTERR


October 1998




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