A Vegetable Crops. Extension Publication
Horticultural 8cicnce Department P.O. 110690 Gaincavilc, FL 32611 Telephone (352)392-2134
I. NOTES OF INTEREST
9 A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.
II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
A. REALLY Hot Pepper!
B. Raised Bed and Square Foot Gardening.
C. Foods that Heal.
d D. Sweet Onion Variety Trial, Spring 1998.
III. VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. Minor Vegetable Crops.
Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever possible,
Please give credit to the authors. The purpose of trade names in this publication is
S solely for the purpose of providing information and does not necessarily constitute a
i recommendation of the product.
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S UNIVERSITY OF Cooperative Extension Service
FL ORIDA Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
SFLORIDA Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
1 September 1998
I NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.
September 29-30, 1998. FACTS (Florida
Agricultural Conference and Trade Show), Lakeland.
Contact Ms. Kathy Murphy (407) 678-5337.
November 1-3; 1998. FSHS-Bayfront Hilton,
St. Petersburg, FL. Contact Ms. Kathy Murphy (407)
March 8-12, 1999. Florida Postharvest
Horticulture Institute & Industry Tour. Contact Steve
Sargent (352) 392-1928 ext. 215.
II COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
A. REALLY hot pepper!
Planting bell pepper during August and
September in Florida presents some interesting
challenges. For example, we have all seen summer
planted pepper develop, often within hours of
transplanting, a condition known by such names as
"heat stress," "plastic damage," "heat girdling" or
"stem scalding," The outward appearance is an
hourglass like pinching in of the stem just above the
plastic mulch that is usually associated with a tan or
light brown discoloration. The stem will eventually
collapse so completely that the plant falls over.
Depending on the severity of the condition, the plant
(even fallen plants) may survive for several days
before finally dying all together.
Many assume this phenomenon is caused by
the "flap" made by stretching the plastic mulch
during the mechanical hole punching operation and
hence the term "plastic damage". However, the
phenomenon occurs quite nicely even in the absence
of a plastic "flap" What then is causing this heat
A study designed to look at transplant plug
moisture levels in the field proved fruitless as heat
girdling occurred in all treatments regardless of plug
moisture levels. However, we realized that efforts to
establish the treatments had taken so long
everything was transplanted between 11:00 a.m.
and noon. As a result, another trial was established
to test the effect of planting time on the incidence of
heat girdling. Fully saturated, pepper transplants
were set in a well-irrigated field at 9:00 a.m., 11:00
a.m., 1:00 p.m., and 3:00 p.m. on September 9,
1997. A water wagon was pulled across all plots at
Plants set at 11:00 a.m. and 1:00 p.m.
exhibited 40% and 25% heat girdling, respectively,
compared to 3% and 8% for plants set at 9:00 a.m.
and 3:00 p.m. In theory, plants set well before (9:00
a.m.) or well after (3:00 p.m.) the noon day sun were
able to adjust their water usage to minimize heat
girdling. Plants set during the peak sun hours
basically bypassed the adjustment phase just trying to
cool themselves (i.e., transpiration) and when the
transplant plug ran out of water heat girdling
-occurred! Other factors must certainly be at play (air
and soil temperatures, stem pressure potentials,
drying winds, etc.) but time of day definitely makes
a difference. Your production schedule may not allow
you to discontinue planting from 11:00 a.m. to noon
for example, but if you do, we believe your need for
resets will be reduced.
Weather plays a dominant role as well. Our
efforts to establish how soon water should be applied
following field setting were foiled because we set out
our trial on a day when the solar insolation was only
half that of the day we established the time of
planting trial (though it seemed very hot and bright to
us!). We were able to determine however, that using
the water wagon sooner rather than later was much
better and that bed wetness also affected heat
girdling (more scalding on the road bed than on the
ditch bed). These studies must be repeated in August
'98 so we will keep you posted.
But, the next time you are planting pepper in
the summer you should take a cue from the old
saying "only mad dogs and Englishmen go out in the
noon day sun." Perhaps there's a lesson here for the
pepper grower as well!
(Vavrina, Vegetarian 98-09)
B. Raised bed and square foot gardening.
Some gardeners enjoy mounding beds and
planting crops above normal ground level for the sake
of appearance. The technique becomes a form of
raised-bed gardening and eliminates some of the
stooping that goes with performing gardening chores.
It also provides a neat garden a look backyard
Formal raised beds can range from mounded
piles of soil a few inches to a foot or more high.
Many are enclosed with landscape timbers or treated
lumber. The technique gives a neat, packaged look
and blends into patio designs.
Raised-bed gardens have become one way to
organize planting thoughts and have made
maintenance easier. They put crops in full view and
make them easy to reach, while assuring good
drainage for plants.
Beds 4 feet wide can be cultivated from the
sides, without stepping on the soil. Raised beds also
have been elevated on legs to accommodate a
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2 September 1998
tidy appearance to the landscape and actually are
neat, keeping soil off the paths and out of the
One bed can be devoted to tomatoes and
Southern peas, while another is devoted to beans or
even a shrubby crop of blackberries or a peach tree.
When wooden, brick or even concrete block
edges give form to the bed, the gardener has a
sitting area available that-can -make planting or
weeding a bit easier. In addition to the appearance
and some ease of culture, the main reason for raised
beds is the excellent drainage that gardeners in the
lowlands surely need.
Equal parts of sphagnum peat moss and
perlite make a loose, light substitute for raised- bed
soil. The mix needs the addition of 2 pounds of
dolomitic lime for every 100 square feet of bed
surface to adjust the acidity for most crops. The lime
can be worked in just before planting the bed, but is
better incorporated a week or two earlier to begin
adjusting the acidity.
Fertilizer may be added at planting time, at a
rate of 1 pound f 6-6-6 to each 100 square feet of
bed area. Garden centers and wholesale grower
supply houses stock the ingredients for soilless mix.
Gardeners also can buy a prepared mix by the bag
from garden centers or by the truckload from
companies that supply commercial greenhouses.
Square-foot gardens made at ground level or in
raised beds can be surprisingly productive. Sites 4
feet by 4 feet or 8 feet by 8 feet can help feed a
The technique divides a garden into
individual square feet of space. An area 4 feet by 4
feet will have 16 squares for planting. The number
of plants in each square is determined by the amount
of room needed by the specific crop planted in it to
produce a harvest.
A single square, for example, can contain
one staked tomato, four lettuce or bean plants, one
pepper plant or 50 radishes. Positioning of seeds or
plants within the square also depends on the crop.
Where a single plant occupies a square, set the seed
or transplant in the middle to allow room to grow in
all directions. Several plants in the same square may
be planted in rows, smaller squares, or at random.
For example, to fill a square with four bean
plants, divide the area into smaller squares and plant
one seed in the middle of each. Root crops often are
sown at extremely close spacings. A square foot can
accommodate 50 carrots or radishes or 20 turnips or
onions. These seeds can be scattered across the
square or sown in small rows. Harvest early by
thinning out young plants for use as tender greens or
roots, creating room for the rest to mature. Other
cropping techniques are often used in raised bed and
square foot gardening. The French intensive method
sets plants in hexagonal patterns within wide rows.
Plants are seeded or transplanted at recommended
spacings in a six-sided configuration, then an
additional plant is placed in the center. In an effort to
use every bit of land, gardeners similarly have planted
the corners of triangles, squares or rectangles, then
added a plant or two in the middle.
Trellises add a third dimension to a garden
and are useful-to gardeners seeking more space.
Rather than allowing vine crops to sprawling over the
ground. Many plants can be grown in cages, including
tomatoes, eggplants and melons. In addition to space-
saving planting techniques, gardeners have an
additional resource: the many recent introductions of
dwarf varieties and bush forms of plants that once
grew only as vines. While these space-savers, as
they are called, take less garden room, the harvests
may be somewhat smaller than those from their full-
(Tom MacCubbin Extension Agent
Orange County, Vegetarian 98-09)
C. Foods that heal.
One of the fastest growing trends in the food
industry and one that could have significant positive
impact on vegetable sales is in the area of functional
foods. Functional foods have also been dubbed
nutraceuticals, pharmafoods, phytochemicals or
designer foods and take in a whole array of foods and
nutritional substances. Driven by an estimated 40
million health conscious Americans, major
demographic and psychological shifts in the consumer
market are directing market focus toward products
that offer specific health benefits. People seeking to
ensure good health as they age, form the basis for
the movement. They are concerned about family
nutrition, eat above average amounts of fruits and
vegetables, and exercise regularly. Dr. Nancy Childs
of St Joseph's University in Philadelphia has been
tracking consumer interest in functional foods since
the early 90's. According to Dr. Childs, a majority
of consumers (55 percent) strongly believe that foods
or food products can significantly reduce the risk of
cancer and other diseases. Her findings indicate that
the profile of the functional food consumer is a well-
educated female, approaching middle age, with higher
than average income, who is stressed out and trying
to lead a healthy active lifestyle.
Nutraceuticals are considered to be any food
or part of a food that may provide medical or health
benefits including the prevention or treatment of
disease. They are naturally occurring compounds
found in plants, algae, microorganisms and other
biological sources which support specific bodily
health functions. While there has been a wide range
of claims and benefits attributed to the use and
VEGETRIANNEWSETTE Sepembe 199
consumption of functional foods, some of which
"stretch" science to the absolutely ridiculous, there
is a growing body of scientific evidence that
supports the role of phytochemicals in a healthy
lifestyle. Functional foods could play a role in the
prevention and treatment of at least four of the
leading causes of death in the United States, namely
cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and
hypertension. The National Cancer Institute
estimates that one in three cancer deaths is related
to diet and that eight out of ten cancers have a
Many US food giants including Kellogg,
Heinz and Nabisco have picked up on this trend and
are actively pursuing the development of products
with nutraceutical benefits. Quaker Oats, a leader in
capitalizing on the healthy food market, proclaims,
"...fiber from oatmeal, as part of a low saturated fat,
low cholesterol diet, may reduce the risk of heart
disease." Ocean Spray cites research supporting
cranberries' ability to combat urinary tract infections.
The Citrus Industry has employed a similar campaign
to advocate the nutritional benefits of orange juice.
The vegetable industry has also encouraged
the increased consumption of vegetables through the
Five a Day for Better Health program. Recent
research has discovered a number of phytochemicals
in vegetables. These important findings could be
used to further publicize the benefits of vegetables
in a healthy diet and boost the consumption of
Lycopene, the carotenoid found in tomatoes
that gives them their red color, is attracting intense
interest among the international research
community. The ground breaking study conducted
by the Harvard Medical School which demonstrated
a strong correlation between the consumption of
tomato products and the reduced risk of prostate
cancer, has lead to further research on lycopene.
Work performed at the Dana Farber Cancer Institute
reveals that lycopene accumulates in the prostrate in
high concentrations, supporting earlier findings that
lycopene contributes to a lower incidence of prostate
cancer. Lycopene has been shown to have potent
anti-oxidant properties, which plays a role in cancer
prevention. As an anti-oxidant, lycopene works to
neutralize free radicals, which are normal by-
products of the body's metabolic processes. It is
thought that these free radicals can react with and
damage molecules in cell membranes and genetic
material leading to the development of various
diseases, including cancer. Research at Ben Gurion
University in Israel and the American Institute for
Cancer Research indicates that lycopene is more
potent than carotene in reducing cancerous growths.
In addition to tomatoes, lycopene is found in
strawberries, watermelon and red grapefruit.
Broccoli and other crucifers like cauliflower,
cabbage and kale, contain phytochemicals known as
isothiocyanates, which are known to be effective
stimulators of natural detoxifying enzymes in the
body and explain why consumption of broccoli and
it's relatives are associated with a lower risk of
contracting cancer. Some epidemiological studies,
however, indicate that to cut the risk of colon cancer
in half a person would have to eat approximately two
pounds of broccoli or similar vegetables a week, a
target that few people manage to achieve. Research
at John Hopkins School of Medicine has shown that
sprouts grown from broccoli seeds contain 30 to 50
times the amount of the anti-cancer principle in
mature broccoli. This discovery makes it possible to
easily obtain a reduction in cancer risk with the
consumption of just over an ounce of sprouts per
Even more intriguing, according to Dr. Richard
McAvoy, at the University of Connecticut, is the
possibility of selecting or breeding cultivars that
would have elevated levels of desirable
phytochemicals, making them valuable sources of
healthful principles. Research into this area could
also produce new crops grown for their nutraceutical
benefits. An example of this is purslane, a common
weed which has been identified as containing omega-
3 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids are functional food
substances commonly associated with fish oil. These
fatty acids have been recognized as having
cardiovascular benefits and are thought to contribute
to the low incidence of heart disease in certain
cultures. Other beneficial effects attributed to omega-
3 fatty acids include the relief of symptoms
associated with arthritis and other inflammatory
diseases. Increasing the omega-3 fatty acid content
of purslane through breeding or genetic manipulation
could result in a new crop with pharmaceutical
applications. Development of plant based sources of
these fatty acids could also help take the pressure off
rapidly dwindling marine fishery populations.
In addition to the healing qualities of
vegetables touched on here, there is a whole range of
pharmaceutical properties associated with veggies.
The benefits of carrots and garlic have long been
touted. It seems that moms who have long
admonished their children to "eat your vegetables so
you will grow big and strong" were at the vanguard
of a movement that is already big business. The
Nutrition Business Journal, a trade publication has
placed the nutraceutical market at $86 billion and
growing. Nutraceuticals already outsell prescription
drugs in Europe and Japan. Rising health care costs
and Americans' concern with health and quality of life
coupled with an interest in alternative therapies will
ensure that this trend is not likely to fade away soon.
The nutraceutical movement could play a major role
VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER September 1998
in increasing the 21t' century's demand for fresh
vegetables. The vegetable industry might be well
advised to take advantage of this trend in designing
future marketing strategies to stimulate the
consumption of vegetables.
(Gene McAvoy, Hendry County
D. Sweet onion variety trial, Spring 1998.
Sweet (short-day) onions are a relatively
minor crop in Florida. Production exists as both dry
bulbs (mature) and green tops (immature). Limited
production exists throughout the state. One of the
biggest deterrents for increased production is
competition from established markets from the south
Texas and south Georgia areas. However, the
potential exists for expanded production, especially
in the areas of local sales and direct marketing.
The objective of this trial was to evaluate the
performance of sweet onion varieties under north
The transplants for this trial were produced
from field beds at the NFREC, Quincy. Forty entries
were seeded on 6 Oct 1997, at rate of 30 seeds per
ft, into rows spaced 12 inches apart. Preplant
fertilization of seedbeds was 500 lbs/a of 6-8-8.
Dacthal at 12 Ibs/a was applied over the top after
seeding. Seedbeds were top dressed once with 34
Ibs N/a. Because of the extremely wet conditions
the entries were not transplanted into the production
field until 20 Jan 1998. Soil type was an
Orangeburg loamy fine sand. Preplant fertilization
was 1000 Ibs/a of 6-8-8. Production scheme was 3
rows spaced 15 inches apart under a 5 ft tractor and
in-row spacing was 5 inches (62,726 plants/a).
Goal 2XL at 1 qt/a was applied on soil surface
before transplanting and Dacthal at 12 Ibs/a was
applied over the top after transplanting. Nitrogen
was applied twice during the season at 60 Ibs N/a
each time. One top dressing of K20 as KCI at 60
Ibs/a was made during the season. Registered
pesticides were applied as needed to control pests.
Entries were harvested as they matured,
where maturity was defined when 25% of the tops
had fallen down. Harvest occurred from the period of
4 May to 18 May. Bulbs were lifted, allowed to dry
for a few hours and tops and roots removed. Bulbs
were then placed in bushel baskets and dried for 72
hours at 1000 F in large drying rooms. After drying
time was complete, onions were removed, allowed
to cool down and graded. Grading consisted of
discarding culls (small onions, splits, off color and
decayed) and sizing into medium (1.5-2 inches),
large (2-3 inches) and jumbo (> 3 inches) categories.
Bulbs were then weighed and counted.
Because of the large number of entries
evaluated, only the results of the 25 released varieties
will be presented. Total yields ranged from 781 50-lb
bags/a for 'Sweet Magnolia' to 305 50-lb bags/a for
'Rio Ringo' (Table 1). No other variety produced
yields as high as 'Sweet Magnolia'. Yields were lower
in 1998 than in 1997, especially with the early
varieties, probably due to the late planting date, but
would still be respectable yields for most varieties.
Yields of jumbos followed a similar pattern to the
total yields. 'Sweet Magnolia' also produced the
largest average bulb at 11.6 oz and 'Granex 33 and
'Rio Ringo' produced the smallest at 6.8 oz. All
varieties had percent marketable levels above 87%
except 'Rio Bravo' (73.1%). Bolting was very low
(< 1%) for all varieties.
(Olson, Vegetarian 98-09)
Y wUeC rrA zPA 7V 7 wPRTTKR Speb 1998
Table 1. Average bulb weight and yield for
onion variety trial,
NFREC, Quincy. Spring, 1998.
Yield (50-lb bags/a)
Sweet Magnolia Palmer Seed 11.6 a' 738 a /78 a
Timon Palmer Seed 10.0 c-f 552 bc 693 bc
Evita Shamrock 9.5 d-h 539 b-d 618 c-e
Sweet Success Sunseeds 9.0 e-l 530 b-d 587 d-f
Sunup Sunseeds 9.7 d-f 497 b-f 584 d-f
Dessex Sunseeds 9.1 e-k 523 b-e 582 d-f
Daybreak Shamrock 8.0 k-r 443 c-j 572 d-g
Pegasus Asgrow 9.7 d-f 521 b-e 567 d-h
Big Pete Palmer Seed 8.4 g-o 317 k-m 558 d-i
Adonis Florida Seed 8.1 j-q 430 d-k 552 d-i
Sunsweet Sunseeds 9.0 e-l 442 c-j 552 d-i
Sugar Queen Shamrock 8.0 k-r 480 b-g 548 d-j
Chula Vista Petoseed 10.4 b-d 465 c-h 540 e-k
Sweet Dixie Solar Seeds 8.1 j-p 401 f-I 525 e-l
Savannah Sweet Petoseed 8.7 f-m 441 c-j 516 f-m
Sherita Palmer Seed 7.9 k-r 304 Im 502 f-n
YYellow Granex Imp. Sunseeds 9.1 e-k 447 c-i 502 f-n
Reba Palmer Seed 6.9 p-s 274 mn 481 g-n
Southern Belle Palmer Seed 7.2 o-r 324 k-m 468 i-o
Rio Bravo Solar Seeds 9.4 d-h 405 f-l 456 j-o
Mr. Max Solar Seeds 8.3 h-o 390 f-l 451 k-o
Linda Vista Petoseed 9.7 d-g 376 g-m 436 I-o
Granex 33 Asgrow 6.8 r-s 317 k-m 435 I-o
Southern Honey Palmer Seed 7.2 o-r 307 Im 416 no
Rio Ringo Solar Seed 6.8 q-s 181 n 305 p
2 Mean separation by column by Duncan's Multiple Range Test, 5% level.
Y Denotes standard variety for comparison purposes. (Olson, Vegetarian 98-09)
Vrj~RTd R~d N N77U~~.RTTER
VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER Se 1998
111. VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. Minor vegetable crops.
I gave this talk for Florida Master Gardeners
attending the 1998 State continued training
conference at Gainesville, August 11, 1998, and
thought I would pass it on.
(1) Stanley Kays and Silva Dias. Common
Names of Commercially Cultivated Vegetables of
the World in 15 Languages. 1995. Economic
(2) James M. Stephens. Manual of Minor
Vegetables. 1988. UF-IFAS SP40.
Vegetables, like pornography, are usually
known when seen, but are hard to define.
In 1893, the U.S. Supreme Court's decision
was that a tomato is a vegetable and not a fruit.
Botanically it is a fruit, but that does not make it a
fruit in common usage terms.
Most texts define vegetables this way:
a) Herbaceous, or non-woody. Many
exceptions: bamboo and palm cabbage.
b) Consumed by humans.
c) Eaten raw, cooked, or preserved.
d) Eaten as main course or appetizer, not
dessert. Exceptions: melons, strawberry.
e) Intensively cultivated. Exceptions:
weeds and plants gathered wild.
Many inconsistencies exist, such as herbs,
condiments like horseradish, and the products of
woody trees and shrubs. Potatoes and sweet
potatoes are listed as agronomic in some countries.
So how many different vegetable crops are there?
The Kays and Dias list includes the
following, (but leaves off such things as the fungi,
woodies, and wild species like seaweeds):
390 crops worldwide
67 common crops in U.S.
52 minor crops in U.S.
85 rare crops in U.S.
69 crop families worldwide
223 genera worldwide
Keep in mind that the numbers on this list
are not precise due to the possibility that a
particular common name of a vegetable might be
represented by several species, types, varieties, and
Minor defined: the terms common, minor and rare
are very subjective. Crops like Chinese cabbage
which were little known a few years ago are quite
popular today. As population and customs changes
occur, so do changes in food habits and popularity
In Manual of Minor Vegetables, I have
discussed (from a Florida perspective) 152 crops
which could be called minor or rare as they occur
here. Obviously there is some overlapping between
these and the major ones most often seen in
Selected minor crops (by family grouping)
Aizoaceae (New Zealand spinach family) New
Zealand spinach, ice plant
Alliaceae (Alliums-onion family) leek, shallot,
onion, tree onion, rakkyo, Welsh onion,
elephant garlic, garlic, chives
Amaranthaceae (amaranth family) amaranth,
Apiaceae (celery family) angelica, chervil, celery,
celeriac, coriander, cilantro, carrot, florence
fennel, parsnip, water celery, root parsley,
Araceae (taro family) malanga, dasheen, taro,
Asteraceae (endive family) burdock, tarragon,
chrysanthemum, endive, escarole, chicory,
salsify, cardoon, globe artichoke, Jerusalem
artichoke, celtuce, lettuce, romaine,
Basellaceae (Malabar spinach family) Malabar
Boraginaceae (borage family) borage, comfrey
Brassicaceae or Cruciferae (crucifers family) -
horseradish, cress, mustard, rape, rutabaga,
kale, Siberian kale, collards, cauliflower,
cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli,
kohlrabi, Chinese cabbage, pak-choi, turnip,
sea kale, roquette, watercress, radish,
oriental radish, wasabi
Cactaceae (prickly pear family) prickly pear
Campanulaceae rampionn family) rampion
Capparaceae (caper family) capers
Chenopodiaceae (beet or goosefoot family) beet,
chard, orache, Good King Henry, spinach
Convolvulaceae (morning glory family) sweet
Cucurbitaceae (wax gourds, watermelon, citron,
gherkins, cantaloupe, mango melon, snake
melon, honey dew, casaba, Persian melon,
muskmelon, African horned cucumber,
cucumber, pumpkin, gourds, squash,
zucchini, bottle gourds, luffas, momordica,
balsam pear, chayote, casabana, cucuzzi
gourd, snake gourd
Cyperaceae nutsedgee family) chufa, water
chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis)
VEGETARIAN NEWSLETTER September 1998
Dioscoreaceae (yam family) cush-cush, true yams,
Euphorbiaceae (cassava family) cassava, chaya
Fabaceae or leguminoseae (bean family) peanut,
pigeon pea, jack bean, sword bean,
garbanzo, guar, soy, hyacinth bean,
groundnut, lentil, alfalfa sprouts, velvet
bean, yam bean, jicama, tepary bean,
scarlet runner bean, lima bean,-common
bean, English pea, edible podded pea,
winged bean, broad bean, moth bean,
adzuki bean, black gram bean, mung bean,
yardlong bean, southern peas
Lamiaceae (mint family) basil, spearmint,
marjoram, summer savory
Liliaceae (asparagus family) asparagus
Malvaceae (okra or hibiscus family) okra and
Marantaceae (arrowroot family) arrowroot
Nelumbonaceae (lotus family) lotus root
Phytolaccaceae (poke family) poke salad, poke
Poaceae (Gramineae grass family) bamboo
shoots, sweet corn
Polygonaceae (rhubarb family) rhubarb, sorrel,
Portulacaceae (purslane family) purslane, talinum
Solanaceae (nightshade family) tomato, potato,
pepper, eggplant, chili, tree tomato,
tomatillo, pepino, naranjillo, garden
Trapaceae (chestnut family) water chestnut
Tropaeolaceae edible nasturtium
Valerianaceae corn salad, lamb's lettuce
Zingerberaceae (ginger family) ginger
(Stephens, Vegetarian 98-09)
Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists
Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Dr. D. N. Maynard
Dr. S. M. Olson Dr. S. A. Sargent
Professor Professor & Editor
Dr. W. M. Stall
Mr. J. M. Stephens
Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Dr. J. M. White
Dr. T. E. Crocker