SUNIVERSITY OF Cooperative Extension Service
SFLORIDA Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication
BHoticatural Scincet Department D.O. 110690 Gainsville FL 32611 Teephone (352)392-2134
Vegetarian May 10, 1998
1. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.
II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
A. Is there life after 'Sweet Charlie'?
j B. Grower testing program.
C. Bacterial rind necrosis of watermelon.
D. 1998 Quincy tomato industry.
I E. Methyl Bromide alternatives and worker safety.
F. Tomato Varieties for Fall planting in North Florida.
Ill. PESTICIDE UPDATE
A. Select (Clethodim) labeled in tomatoes.
IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. Secondary edible parts of vegetables.
Ii Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever possible,
S please give credit to the authors. The purpose of trade names in this publication is
solely for the purpose of providing information and does not necessarily constitute a
recommendation of the product.
The Institute of Food and Agriculturai Scinc~ is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affmative Action Employer authorized to provide reasexa eduational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age. handicap or national origin.
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I NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.
May 28, 1998. Tomato Variety/Breeding
Line Mini-Field Day, 1 PM 3 PM+. Gulf Coast REC
Bradenton. Contact Jay Scott or Terry Howe (941-
July 29-30, 1998. Horticultural Events, State
4-H Congress. Contact Jim Stephens.
II COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
A. Is there life after 'Sweet Charlie' ?
The short answer is, yes, there will be life
after 'Sweet Charlie'. Recent history of commercial
strawberry production in Florida and California has
been that varieties change every 5 to 10 years. There
is probably more breeding effort on-going with
strawberries both public and private than ever
before. So, as has happened with every variety before
it, 'Sweet Charlie' will be replaced. The real question
is: with what, and when will the replacement take
place? I can not answer these questions with certainty,
but I can present some information that should provide
you with a better view of the future variety situation.
'Sweet Charlie' was planted on 38% of the
west central Florida strawberry acreage last season,
replacing 'Oso' in the number one spot. Growers
made the switch primarily because of the earlier
fruiting pattern of 'Sweet Charlie'. 'Sweet Charlie'
produces the majority of its fruit volume before the end
of February whereas 'Oso' produces over half of its
fruit in March and April. I believe this early fruiting
pattern is key for our industry; we need to produce the
bulk of our berries before southern California starts
flooding the market with fruit in March.
The acreage devoted to 'Sweet Charlie' has
risen steadily since it was released in 1992, but it will
probably level off after this season and then start to
decline as newer varieties from California or Florida
'Camarosa', a University of California
variety, was released only a few years ago, but it has
quickly become the dominant variety in California,
replacing nearly all of the 'Chandler' acreage in that
state. 'Camarosa' has a more even fruiting pattern,
and produces a firmer berry, than either 'Chandler' or
'Oso'. In our trials at the Dover Center last season,
the fruit quality of 'Camarosa' was good, but its early
season yield (Dec. Feb.) was only slightly better than
that of 'Oso'. 'Camarosa's even, but moderate, fruit
production may be more useful in southern California
than it is here. Southern California typically has a
fruiting season of about six months, while the Plant
City/Dover area typically has a four month fruiting
season. Ultimately, I think we need varieties that are
going to give us a high volume of fruit in the period
from late November to mid March.
The University of California breeding
program, earlier this year, released four new varieties:
one short day variety and three day neutral varieties.
The short day variety is named 'Gaviota', and it may
be an alternative to 'Camarosa'. According to
information released by the University of California,
'Gaviota' has excellent fruit quality, especially flavor,
and has a compact plant with a cull rate about half that
of'Camarosa'. Also, it has greater rain tolerance, and
is more resistance to mildew and anthracnose crown
rot than 'Camarosa'. On the down side, 'Gaviota' is
not as adaptable to early planting dates as is
'Camarosa'. This fact might indicate that it will be a
late producer in Florida.
The three new day neutral varieties may be
alternatives to 'Selva'. They are named 'Aromas',
'Diamante', and 'Pacific'. According to the University
of California, all three are superior to 'Selva' for
productivity, fruit quality, and harvest efficiency. Two
of the three new varieties, 'Aromas' and 'Diamante',
are also less susceptible to spider mites and powdery
mildew than is 'Selva'.
These new California varieties should be
available for trial here next season. It appears that
'Gaviota' could potentially replace some of our
'Camarosa' acreage, and one or more of the new day
neutrals may replace our 'Selva' acreage. The day
neutrals could also be an alternative to 'Sweet Charlie'
if they have early and consistent fruit production
here in central Florida.
'Rosa Linda', the new University of Florida
variety, got off to a rough start in its inaugural season
(1996-97). Many of the early season fruit from this
variety had green tips Then the hard freeze of
January 19' caused a high amount of flower damage,
resulting in a lot of misshapen fruit. Despite these
difficulties, however, 'Rosa Linda' produced the
highest amount of marketable fruit among the varieties
we tested at the Dover center last season.
'Rosa Linda' is susceptible to anthracnose
fruit rot, but is less susceptible to Botrytis rot than
'Sweet Charlie', and also appears to have some
resistance to mildew, mites, and bacterial leaf spot.
There will be a small quantity of virus-free
stock available for fruiting fields this season, and it is
my hope that if this material performs well, there may
be some renewed interest in 'Rosa Linda' as an early
season producer of attractive, flavorful fruit.
In summary, there is nothing yet that fills the
December through February time period better than
'Sweet Charlie'. I think it will be two to three years
before we have a suitable replacement. It will most
likely be one of the new California day neutrals, a
cleaned up 'Rosa Linda', or one of the advanced
selections currently being evaluated at the University
of Florida's Dover research center.
(Chandler & Crocker, Vegetarian 98-05)
B. Grower testing program.
This is an update on the program that Tim
Crocker and I initiated to evaluate advanced selections
in commercial fields.
Before this program was initiated in the
summer of 1996, the testing of advanced selections in
commercial fields was done in a rather informal
manner. Cooperators varied from year to year, and no
standard format was used to evaluate grower plots.
Last summer, seven commercial growers in
west central Florida were chosen to participate in the
program. Six of the farms represented different soil
types and growing conditions in the Dover/Plant City
area; the seventh farm, which is in Citrus County, and
was chosen to represent the northern edge of west
central Florida. Each grower was asked to make a four
to five year commitment to the program, and to sign a
non-distribution agreement. This agreement allows
the cooperator to test our material on their farm, but
prohibits them from propagating and distributing the
material to others unless they have written
permission from the University.
Dr. Crocker and I developed a standard data
sheet that each cooperator was asked to fill out once a
month during the fruiting season. This data sheet asks
growers to rate selections for runnering, plant vigor,
amount of misshapen fruit, color uniformity, albinism,
fruit size uniformity, susceptibility to water damage,
and overall productivity.
Eleven different selections were evaluated in
grower trials last season. Unfortunately, we did not
have enough plants for all seven cooperators to receive
plants of all 11 selections. Also, the quality of the
plants we had to distribute was not ideal. The plants
were bare-root plants dug from a winter nursery at the
Dover center. They generally had small crowns and
some blight on the leaves.
Despite our first year problems, we did get
some useful information, and were able to narrow the
II selections down to six that we think deserve another
This season, our cooperators will be looking
at seven selections: one of them is a 1992 selection;
two are 1993 selections; and four are 1995 selections.
The 1992 selection has looked good in the early
season, but its fruit may be too soft. The 1993
selections are designated 93-100 and 93-113. The 93-
100 has good fruit size, firmness, flavor, and color. It
also has a small, manageable bush and a desirable
fruiting pattern (similar to 'Sweet Charlie'). The
biggest drawback of this selection may be fruit shape.
Some of its fruit have blunt ends, and, if it is exposed
to adverse weather conditions, it can produce fruit with
splits or other malformations.
The 93-113 has a more attractive fruit shape
than the 93-100, but has smaller average fruit size, and
may actually be better adapted to Citrus County than to
the Dover/Plant City area.
The four 1995 selections all produced some
beautiful fruit in small plots at the Dover center last
season, but we don't have much quantitative data on
them yet. Last season was their first year in our
observational trial at the Center, and they were not in
any of the grower trials.
We'll take a particularly close look at the 93-
100 this season. Each cooperator will receive about
2,000 northern propagated plants of this selection. If
it performs well, we'll propagate enough for each
cooperator to receive 10-20,000 plant for the 1998-99
season. That's enough plants to set one half to one
acre. Plantings of this size should allow us to get some
good information on the post harvest handling
characteristics of this selection.
( Chandler & Crocker, Vegetarian, 98-05)
C. Bacterial rind necrosis of watermelon.
Hollowheart of watermelon was discussed in
the March Vegetarian. The focus of this month's
article is on another fruit defect bacterial rind
necrosis, sometimes simply referred to as rind necrosis.
Rind necrosis was first reported in Hawaii
(Ishii and Aragaki, 1960). Typical rind necrosis is
characterized by a light brown, dry, and hard
discoloration interspersed with lighter areas. The
disease develops in the rind and rarely extends into the
flesh. Occasionally the affected area is limited to the
vascular bundles, but generally the discoloration
spreads, sometimes affecting the entire rind. The
causal organism was believed to be an Erwinia.
The disease was first reported in the
continental United States in several areas of Texas
(Thomas, 1968). Fruit from some fields were
completely free of the disease, whereas in other fields
infected fruit ranged from few to many. Bacterial rind
necrosis was often more severe in fields where plants
were heavily infested with watermelon mosaic virus.
This led to speculation that a common vector may
facilitate the spread of both diseases. The causal
organism again was narrowed down to an Erwinia
Rind necrosis is a serious disease of
watermelon that regularly occurs in California's
Imperial Valley (Kontaxis and Kurupus, 1975).
Results from several experiments to determine a causal
agent were inconclusive.
In other experiments (Hopkins and
Elmstrom, 1977), the diversity of bacterial flora
isolated from healthy and diseased fruit was similar
except that enterobacteria were isolated more
frequently from diseased than from healthy fruit. Rind
necrosis occurred at inoculation sites following
injection of Erwinia, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, and
Variation among varieties in susceptibility
was reported in Florida (Elmstrom and Hopkins, 1973
and Hopkins and Elmstrom, 1974) and in California
(Kontaxis, 1976). Over a three-year evaluation period
in Florida, 'Sweet Princess' and 'Jubilee' were most
tolerant, whereas 'Klondike Blue Ribbon' and
'Louisiana Queen' were most susceptible. Other
varieties were intermediate in susceptibility and not
always in the same order. The incidence of bacterial
rind necrosis varied from year to year. For example,
'Sweet Princess', the most tolerant variety, had 10.0,
14.8, and 21.8% affected fruit in 1972, 1973, and
1974, respectively. 'Klondike Blue Ribbon', the most
susceptible variety, had 39.1, 64.8, and 73.7% affected
fruit in those years.
Some of these same varieties were evaluated
in Imperial Valley of California (Kontaxis, 1976).
'Klondike Blue Ribbon' was the most tolerant variety
and 'Sweet Princess' was intermediate in
susceptibility. These results are at odds with those
obtained in Florida.
What is known about bacterial rind necrosis
can be summarized as follows: the disease has been
reported from several watermelon growing areas,
Erwinia sp. most often has been associated with the
diseased rind areas, other bacterial organisms isolated
from either diseased or healthy fruit cause typical
symptoms at inoculation sites, the incidence of the
disease varies among varieties and growing seasons,
and varieties may not always respond to the disease in
the same way.
Watermelon bacterial rind necrosis appears to
be genetically controlled but its frequency is affected
by an interaction with environment. For the most part,
varieties in use today appear not to be as susceptible as
those used in the I970's suggesting that watermelon
breeders have been successful in selecting against the
Elmstrom, G. W. and D. L. Hopkins. 1973.
Variable susceptibility to bacterial rind necrosis in
watermelon. HortScience 8:32.
Ishii, M. and M. Aragaki. 1960. Bacterial rind
necrosis of watermelon. Plant Dis. Rptr. 44:761-763.
Kontaxis, D. G. 1976. Rind necrosis in watermelon
cultivars. Calif. Agr. February. p. 22.
Kontaxis, D. G. and T. Kurupus. 1975. Watermelon
rind necrosis in Imperial Valley. Calif. Agr.
September. p. 14-15.
Hopkins, D. L. and G.
Severity of bacterial rind
cultivars in Florida. Proc.
W. Elmstrom. 1974.
necrosis in watermelon
Fla. State Hort. Soc.
Hopkins, D. L. and G. W. Elmstrom. 1977.
Etiology of watermelon rind necrosis. Phytopathology
Thomas, C. E. 1968. Bacterial rind necrosis of
watermelon in South Texas. Plant Dis. Rptr. 52:375-
(Maynard, Vegetarian 98-05)
D. 1998 Ouincv tomato industry.
Acreage: There are 5,100* acres of mulched,
staked tomatoes grown annually in Gadsden and
surrounding counties. About half of this acreage is
grown in Gadsden County. Liberty County, Fl. has
about three hundred acres of production and Decatur
County, Ga. has about 2,500 acres of annual
production. Tomatoes are brought in from as far away
as Lake Park and Moultrie, Ga. to be packed under the
"Quincy" tomato name. Ouincy has become known
nation wide and in Canada for it's excellent quality
tomatoes. In fact Pacific Tomato Co., who just built a
$1 million+ packing house on the west side of Quincy
2 years ago, has never grown any tomatoes in Gadsden
County. When Pacific first started they grew all their
tomatoes around Jay, Fl., a good 100 miles away, and
since have moved most of their production to Decatur
County. They built the packing facility in Quincy
solely for the Quincy name.
*note : No more than V (half) of this acreage
is planted at one time because there are two distinct
growing seasons, a Spring crop and a separate Fall
crop. Spring crop acreage is generally separate from
Fall crop acreage as a disease and insect control
measure. The Spring crop is transplanted in March
and harvested in June and the Fall crop is transplanted
in July and harvested in October-November. The
development of improved hot-set tomatoes by UF and
seed companies caused a major expansion of the
industry about 1990 in regards to the Fall crop.
*note: The above acreage is the actual row footage of
plastic mulch, it takes about 25% additional land area
for drive rows, ends of rows, and erosion conservation.
Large packing houses located in Gadsden
County are: Gadsden Tomato Company, Juniper
Packing Co., N. T Gargiulo, Inc., North Florida
Tomato, Pacific Growers, Thomas Smith Farms,
Quincy Tomato Co.
Economics and Employment: For the past few
years the annual harvested crop value has been from
$40 million to $50 million. The industry employs
over 3,000 full-time, part-time and seasonal workers.
With the economic multiplier effect, the tomato
industry injects over $100 million a year into the local
(Quincy area) economy.
Irrigation: The Quincy tomato industry was
one of the first to adopt drip or trickle irrigation.
Today, 100% of the growers use drip tube irrigation,
which is a major water savings and energy savings.
Compared to overhead irrigation, drip irrigation
requires only about 1/4 or 25% as much water. Plus,
this method of irrigation allows producers to use fewer
pesticides as opposed to overhead sprinkler irrigation.
Gadsden Tomato Growers Association: This
association is a big supporter of the community and
has donated thousands of dollars to 4-H, Redland
Christian Migrant Program, Gadsden County Literacy
Volunteers, Ounce of Prevention, Take Stock in
Children and others. They also contribute about
$30,000 a year to the University of Florida NFREC.
Just this year, they donated an additional $90,000 in
order to get the Plant Pathology position refunded by
Ouincv Tomato Exchange: This new growers
exchange was formed just last year, 1997. The
Capper- VolsteadA ct allows growers who are members
of an exchange to coordinate marketing, pricing, etc.
Quincy area producers saw the increased need to
form their own exchange because of ever increasing
Mexican competition brought on by NAFTA.
(Ben Castro, Gadsden C. Ext. Agent
E. Methyl Bromide alternatives and
While for many the year 2000 means concern
over "whether my computer can make the transition
into the new centennial", the year 2000 has a totally
different meaning for farmers who are dependent on
methyl bromide. Unless the current political climate
changes, the year 2000 may be the last year methyl
bromide is used on many commodities in the U.S.
While most people are becoming familiar
with at least some of the research which has been
underway since 1993 to find acceptable alternatives,
there are other issues that may affect the acceptability
of the alternatives, some of which have not been
emphasized. Growers need to be aware of all the
issues involved to avoid unwelcome surprises later.
They also need to begin working with the most
acceptable alternatives for their region and farming
situation on a small scale, to expose any problems
specific to their cultural practices.
Soil solarization is a practice which has
received considerable interest. Limitations include
diminished effectiveness during cool, cloudy weather.
Also, nematode control has been poor. Organic
amendments and other sustainable practices are
generally expensive and the cost often outweighs the
benefits. Additional work is still needed on practices
such as cover crops. Telone C-17 is the best chemical
alternative currently available; however, it has to be
used in conjunction with a herbicide. There are few
herbicides labeled for use on most vegetables and
chances of new registrations are lower today than 5
years ago, partly due to the Food Quality Protection
Act. The combination of Telone with Tillam has
provided acceptable results in most trials. But Tillam
is an old product, so there is concern about long term
availability. Strict interpretation of the Tillam label
suggests that it can not be used in tomatoes which are
transplanted the way most Florida growers transplant.
Telone, like many of the other alternatives, is more
demanding of the conditions at the time of application
than was methyl bromide. It takes much longer to
dissipate in cold soil, requiring a longer waiting period
prior to transplanting, approximately 3 weeks. This in
turn means earlier land preparation to avoid an
unacceptable shift in harvest window.
The area of most concern for growers,
however, is that of worker protection and safety. The
Telone label requires that workers wear what are often
referred to as "space suits", rubber gloves, rubber boots
and a full face respirator, one which covers the entire
face. It is uncomfortable in cold weather, but
unbearable in the heat and humidity of Florida. The
filter cartridges must be changed regularly. Will the
current wage rate pay someone for enduring the rigors
of this PPE in June, July and August? It may even take
more workers, as they may have to work in shifts with
extended rests, all while being paid. Labor is already
approaching a critical level in Florida, and this could
accentuate that. Then there is the psychological aspect
of poorly educated workers seeing themselves dressed
as if they were about to clean up Chemobyl. Urban
encroachment is becoming a way of life for agriculture.
Imagine the uninformed public seeing this site for the
first time, especially if their property is close to the
area being fumigated. The manufacturer of Telone is
aware of these problems and is exploring ways to
address these issues, but as the label currently stands,
these are real issues.
Recent reports indicate that there may be
some hope for at least leveling the playing field by
putting us on a timetable more in line with the
developing nations. Let's hope this happens. We still
have a lot of work to do to find acceptable alternatives
and those extra 10 years or so could be critical.
(P. R. Gilreath, J. P. Gilreath, Vegetarian 98-05)
F. Tomato Varieties for Fall Planting in
Now is the time to start selection of varieties
for fall tomato planting. Our normal fall planting
period is from about July 15 to August 15. During this
time period night temperatures are too warm (> 700 F)
for fruit set with "normal" varieties. A variety is
needed that will set under warm night temperatures.
'Solar Set' released in 1989 was the first commercial
hot-set variety. Since that time many new hot-set
varieties have been trialed.
Solar Set is a University of Florida release
with seed available from Asgrow. It is still the main
variety for fall production. Yields are good and most
fruit is in the large and extra large category. 'Solar
Set' should be pruned lightly with only ground suckers
plus 2 additional suckers removed. Many times it is
not pruned at all and still does quite well. Not for
spring planting as fruit are usually rough on the
bottom. Has been used for vine ripen and works quite
Equinox is a recent release from the UF/IFAS
program. It is an improved 'Solar Set' with a
smoother blossom end and higher yields. In trials at
NFREC, Quincy, it has been the top entry in 2 of last
3 years. Fruit size is equal to 'Solar Set'. Pruning
again should be light or none. 'Equinox' has also
done fairly well in spring trials. Seed is available from
Captiva, from Petoseed and has done well in
trials at NFREC, Quincy. Yields have been slightly
better than 'Solar Set' but not as high as 'Equinox'.
Fruit size has been about 0.5 oz smaller than 'Solar
Set'. 'Captiva' is one of a very few varieties that has
resistance to race 3 ofFusarium wilt. Has done well in
spring trials also. Prune lightly or none at all.
Sanibel is from Petoseed and has done well in
fall trials at NFREC, Quincy. Yields have been similar
to 'Captiva' but fruit are slightly larger than 'Solar
Set'. 'Sanibel' was developed for the vine-ripe market
and has had good acceptance. It is one of the few fresh
market hybrids that has good resistance to root knot
nematode in trials at NFREC, Quincy. 'Sanibel'
should be pruned lightly or none at all.
Suncrest, a fresh market hybrid from Roger's
Seed has done well in fall and spring trials. Yields
have been equal to 'Solar Set' in fall trials but fruit is
slightly smaller. It should be pruned lightly or none at
all. For trial.
XPH 10035 is from Asgrow Seed. Yields
have been higher than 'Solar Set' but not as high as
Equinox. Fruit have averaged about 0.5 oz larger than
'Solar Set'. Plant should be pruned lightly. Fruit at
times have been slightly flattened. For trial.
Agriset 761 is from Agrisales. It does not set
fruit in high temperatures as well as 'Solar Set' and
should be reserved for the later plantings. If a long
enough production period occurs (no early frost) yields
are equal 'Solar Set' but fruit are slightly smaller.
'Agriset 761' must be pruned to get maximum yields
and increase fruit size. Prune at least lightly, at times
moderate pruning (leave at least 2 below the fork) has
increases yields and fruit size even further.
(Olson, Vegetarian 98-05)
III PESTICIDE UPDATE
A. Select (Clethodim) labeled in tomatoes.
The post-grass herbicide Select (clethodim)
has received labeling for use on tomatoes, alfalfa, dry
beans and peanuts.
Select 2EC may be sprayed over the top of
tomatoes at rate of 6-8 ft. oz/acre (0.187-0.25 lb a.i./A)
to control a large number of grass weeds.
A crop oil concentrate containing at least 15%
emulsifier should be added at 1% v/v in the finished
spray volume. Do not apply Select 2EC herbicide
within 20 days of harvest.
Apply only to actively grasses at
recommended weed heights. Use the high rate under
heavy grass pressure and/or when grasses are at
See the label for additional directions and
(Stall, Vegetarian 98-05)
IV VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. Secondary edible parts of vegetables.
The culinary reputation of most vegetables is
based primarily on the edible qualities of one or
sometimes two primary parts of the plant. For
example, the tomato is the leading garden vegetable
due to the popular appeal of its fruit, while the turnip
contributes both its root and its leaves as tablefare. For
home gardeners who grow and have the entire
vegetable plant at their disposal, other plant parts may
be edible, although perhaps not so tasty as the main
product. For non-gardeners, however, there is little
option for eating parts other than those offered for sale.
The following is a list of ordinary garden
vegetables with both commonly eaten parts and less
frequently eaten parts. Obviously, in a list such as this,
there may be quite a few omissions.
Vegetable Common Edible Part Other Edible Parts
Beans, snap pod with seeds leaves
Beans, lima seeds pods, leaves
Beets root leaves
Broccoli flower leaves, flower stem
Carrot root leaves
Cauliflower immature flower flower stem, leaves
Celery leaf stems leaves, seeds
Corn, sweet seeds young ears, unfurled tassel, young
Cucumber fruit with seeds stem tips and young leaves
Eggplant fruit with seeds leaves edible but not flavorful
Kohlrabi swollen stem leaves
Okra pods with seeds leaves
Onions root young leaves
Parsley tops roots
Vegetable Common Edible Part Other Edible Parts
Peas, English seeds pods, leaves
Peas, Southern seeds, pods young leaves
Pepper pods leaves after cooking, immature
Potatoes, Sweet roots leaves and stem shoots
Radish roots leaves
Squash fruit with seeds seeds, flowers, young leaves
Tomato fruits with seeds leaves contain alkaloids
Turnip roots, leaves --------
Watermelon fruits-interior pulp and seeds rind of fruit
Although many of the secondary plant parts
are edible, their popularity as food items is diminished
by lack of proper flavor or unfavorable texture. For
example, the leaves of practically all the cabbage
family are edible, but the strong flavors of some
species are disagreeable or too strong for most people's
The edible leaves and stem tips of sweet
potato vines are well known in many parts of the
world. Often considered a poor man's food, sweet
potato foliage has a rich protein content that helps
supplement the nutritional value of the roots.
As for all vegetable parts, there is a great
deal of variation within varieties in flavor and culinary
characteristics of these secondary parts. For example
some sweet potato stem tips in certain varieties are
bitter with a resinous flavor that is too strong.
Quite often, cooking is necessary to make the
parts edible. Raw leaves eaten fresh may even be
slightly poisonous in some cases.
(Stephens, Vegetarian 98-05)
Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists
Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Dr. S. M. Olson
Mr. J. M. Stephens
Dr. T. E. Crocker
Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Dr. S. A. Sargent
Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Dr. D. N. Maynard
Dr. W.M. L l
Professor & Editor
Dr. J. M. White