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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: October 1997
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00329
Source Institution: University of Florida
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97-10

/ UNIVERSITY OF Cooperative Extension Service
'FLORIDA o-----
i I. FIDA Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


1-V VEGETArIAN


A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication
Horticultural sciences Department P.O. 110690 Gaineaville, FL 32611 Telephone 904/392-2134


Vegetarian


October 20, 1997


CONTENTS


I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

B. Publications.

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. SP-170 Vegetable Production
the WEB.


Guide for Florida is on


B. New Marketing Strategies for Florida Produce.

III. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Matrix (rimsulfuron) Labeled for Use on Potatoes in
Florida.

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Community Vegetable Gardening in Florida (1997).


Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever
possible, please give credit to the authors. The purpose of trade names
in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing information and
does not necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.











I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

October 31 November 3, 1997.
National Jr. Horticultural Assoc. Convention,
Williamsburg, VA. Contact Bob Renner,
Marion County Cooperative Extension.

November 2-4, 1997. Florida State
Horticultural Society Annual Meeting. Clarion
Plaza Hotel, Orlando. Contact Dr. Norm
Childers.

February 18-21,1998. American
Society for Plasticulture 27'h Congress,
Tucson, Arizona. Contact Bob Hochmuth,
Suwannee Valley REC, Live Oak.

March 9-13,1998. Florida Postharvest
Horticulture Institute and Industry Tour.
Contact Steve Sargent, UF, (352) 392-2134
ext. 215.

B. Publications.

SVREC 97-01. George Hochmuth.
Response of cucumber to meister controlled-
release fertilizers.


SVREC 97-02. George
Response of pepper to meister
release fertilizers.


Hochmuth.
controlled-


SVREC 97-03. Robert C. Hochmuth,
Lei Lani Leon, and George J. Hochmuth.
Evaluation of several greenhouse cluster and
beefsteak tomato cultivars in Florida.

SVREC 97-04. George Hochmuth.
Mulched pepper response to pursell polyon
controlled-release fertilizers.


SVREC 97-05. Robert C. Hochmuth,
Jennifer L. Hornsby, George J. Hochmuth.
The evaluation of three pickling cucumber
plant populations on plastic mulch culture in
northern Florida.

SVREC 97-06. Robert Hochmuth and
Tim Crocker. Producing strawberries in north
Florida using an outdoor hydroponic system.

SVREC 97-07. George Hochmuth.
Response of sweet corn and snapbean to
growplex humate.


SVREC 97-08. George
Response of mulched tomato
controlled-release fertilizer.

SVREC 97-09. George
Response of mulched pepper
controlled-release fertilizer.


SVREC
Response of
monopotassium
solutions.


Hochmuth.
to meister


Hochmuth.
to meister


97-10. George Hochmuth.
tomato and pepper to
phosphate-based starter


SVREC 97-11. George Hochmuth.
Response of snapbean, carrot, and sweet corn
to monopotassium phosphate-based starter
solutions.

SVREC 97-12. Robert C. Hochmuth,
Jennifer L. Hornsby, and George J. Hochmuth.
The evaluation of three pickling cucumber
cultivars on plastic mulch and bare ground
culture in north Florida.

SVREC 97-13. Robert C. Hochmuth,
Jennifer L. Hornsby, and George J. Hochmuth.
Efficacy of monopotassium phosphate as a
fungicide for powdery mildew control in
squash and muskmelon.











SVREC 97-14. Robert C. Hochmuth,
Lei Lani Leon, George J. Hochmuth, and
Charles Vavrina. Effect of three planting
depths on greenhouse tomato yield.

Selected websites related to
postharvest technology are available from
Steven Sargent (sasa@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu).


H. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. SP-170 Vegetable Production
Guide for Florida is on the WEB.

Our last edition, the green book, of SP-
170 has made it to the EDIS database. On the
FAIRS Web site, you can get to SP-170
through the Commercial Vegetable Production
menu and in the "New Documents" section.
SP-170 is currently undergoing indexing for
the search engine. Please check out SP-170 if
you have a moment. Since it is new to the
Web, we might have a few errors we need to
know about.

(Hochmuth, Vegetarian 97-10)

B. New Marketing Strategies for
Florida Fresh Produce.

This session was part of the
educational program at the 1997 Florida
Agricultural Conference and Trade Show
which was held on 30 September and I
October in Lakeland. There were five featured
speakers who presented several strategies for
improving the competitiveness of Florida-
grown fruits and vegetables.

Dr. Ron Schmidt, Extension Safety
Specialist, Food Science & Human Nutrition
Dept., U.F., started off the session by


providing an overview of the need for
adequate sanitization during food handling.
He described an outbreak of food poisoning
caused by cross-contamination of citrus juice
and the steps which were taken to reduce the
potential for reoccurrence. He also mentioned
that the Food & Drug Administration has
recently decided not to require the
implementation of rigid HACCP (Hazard
Analysis/Critical Control Point) procedures
for packers of whole produce. Similarly, fruit
juices are not required to be pasteurized prior
to distribution. Vegetable growers and
packers should evaluate their handling
operations to minimize the potential of
introducing human pathogens to their produce.
In order to reduce the importation of
contaminated produce, "Country-of-Origin"
labeling is being discussed at the national level
(this is already required for produce sold in
Florida) and the implementation of user fees to
permit more thorough inspection of produce
for potential contaminants at ports of entry.

The second speaker was Mr. Frank
Piason, Director of the Horticultural and
Tropical Products Division, Foreign
Agricultural Service (FAS), Washington DC.
Mr. Piason presented a number of statistics
related to exports of U.S.-grown produce.
Since 1986 produce exports have increased
almost 300%, anticipating over $11 billion in
1998. The largest markets in descending order
are: Canada, Europe, Japan and Hong Kong
and there is strong growth in South Korea,
Taiwan and the Dominican Republic. Trends
include significant increases in organically
grown and fresh-cut produce. Florida exports
are up by 20% since 1994, with Miami and
Tampa being the largest ports handling fresh
produce. FAS promotes the export of U.S.
horticultural crops via the Market Access
Program of which the Southern U.S. Trade











Association (SUSTA) promotes grapefruit and
vegetable exports for our region. Information
on produce prices from major markets in the
world can be obtained from the FAS website:
www.fas.usda.gov.

Dr. Tom Mueller, Product Manager for
Rogers Seed, Naples, addressed several
factors which can make Florida crops more
competitive against imports from other
production areas, particularly Mexico. First,
grower/shippers should strive for "premium
quality" vegetables, with attention paid to
quality such as flavor, nutrition, uniqueness
(exotic crops) and point-of-purchase
packaging. Second, shippers must maintain
control of product quality after it leaves the
packinghouse by developing specialized
marketing and distribution networks. Third,
premium quality means consistency, in terms
of quality and availability. And, fourth,
profitability depends on stable pricing (e.g.,
contracts), costs of production/
marketing/distribution and having an outlet for
non-premium product. Growers and shippers
should also consider limiting production
volume to keep prices higher, seeking out
upscale markets, brand labeling and
promotion/merchandising.

A number of successful direct
marketing alternatives from the Northeast
were described by Mr. R. Alden Miller, a
Direct Marketing Specialist from the
University of Massachusetts. The state of
Massachusetts has assisted growers by
promoting locally grown produce through the
Massachusetts Grown & Fresher Program,
consisting of promotional materials and labels
to identify the product as being from the state.
Farm stands have been the most consistently
profitable direct-marketing operations,
followed by U-Pick and farmers markets.


Tomatoes are now a key promotional item at
these markets. The keys to success include
location, "down-home" look, a variety of
produce and other features such as country
themes and attractions for families.

Mr. David Solger, Washington County
Extension Director, Chipley, gave an
enthusiastic example of a successful direct
marketing operation in his area. Growers have
set up a cooperative and sell directly to Wal-
Mart for distribution to their "Super Stores"
across the panhandle. The main crop has been
cantaloupe, followed by several other crops
which include snap bean and squash. Sales
have increased five-fold since 1994, showing
the popularity of these crops which are sold as
"locally grown" produce. The crops are, for
the most part, field-packed and must be
delivered to Wal-Mart within 24 hours of
harvest.

The panel discussion lasted for almost
30 minutes, with the majority of questions
from the audience addressing direct marketing.
In summary, it appears that greater attention
must be given to diversification of our
produce, considering how to consistently
supply high quality vegetables to both
traditional and non-traditional markets which,
in many cases, are willing to pay more to make
this type of product available to their
customers.

(Sargent, Vegetarian 97-10)

II. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Matrix (rimsulfuron) labeled for
use on potatoes in Florida.

Matrix (rimsulfuron) has received
clearance for application to potatoes in Florida











for weed control. Matrix may be applied as a
preemergence application, a postemergence
application or a pre plus a postemergence
application to potatoes.

Preemergence Applications: Matrix
may be applied at a rate of .25 oz/A ai (1 oz
product) to .38 oz/A ai (1 V2 oz product)
immediately after hilling or, drag off to a clean,
newly prepared seedbed. Matrix must be
activated in the soil by sprinkler irrigation or
rainfall within 5 days after application. If
rainfall or sprinkler irrigation cannot be
managed, waiting for weeds to emerge and
applying Matrix postemergence would result in
better weed control. Preemergence tank
mixtures of Matrix with Lexone DF, Eptam,
Prowl, Lorox DF, or Dual are labeled.

Postemergence Applications: Matrix
may be applied at 1 to 1 /2 oz product (.25 oz
to .38 oz ai) per acre to young, actively
growing weeds after crop emergence. Small
weeds (less than 1" in height or diameter) that
are actively growing at application are most
easily controlled. Use a non-ionic surfactant at
.125 to .25% v/v. Rainfall or irrigation should
not occur within 4 hours.

Temporary chlorosis may occur if
applied to a crop under stress. Symptoms
usually disappear within 2 weeks.

Postemergence applications of tank
mixtures of Matrix plus Lexone DF or Eptam
are labeled to increase weed control of certain
weed species.

Do not apply Matrix within 60 days of
harvest. Do not exceed 2.0 oz (product)
Matrix per acre during the same growing
season.


Consult the label for weeds controlled
pre and postemergence.

(Stall, Vegetarian 97-10)

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

Community Vegetable Gardening in
Florida (1997).

Due to a mild climate and a burgeoning
population, vegetable gardening is a booming
avocation throughout the state of Florida.
Gallup Poll surveys in recent years provided us
with the basis to estimate that over one million
vegetable gardens (averaging 300 sq ft) are
tilled annually in Florida. Based on a
$1.00/square foot produce retail profit
calculation, the monetary value of all Florida
gardens is $300,000,000. Of course, the main
benefits from such gardens may not be
financial, but relate more to social, nutrition,
and therapeutic aspects.

Most of these gardens are grown in the
immediate vicinity of Florida residents, as
singular enterprises. However, quite a few
exist as plots in community gardening projects.

Recognizing that the benefits of
vegetable gardening are most needed by
families who do not have a back-yard plot to
cultivate, the Florida Cooperative Extension
Service in at least six counties gave leadership
to the promotion, establishment, and
educational advisement for community
gardening projects in several towns and cities.
Counties reporting community gardening
projects in connection with Extension
programs in 1997 were: Broward, Dade,
Duval, Hillsborough, Pinellas, and Sarasota.











This article summarizes those projects,
as reported by the Extension Agents in
charge. It does not include the many school
gardens and independent community gardens,
such as the Organic Gardens and the Ag
Council gardens at the University of Florida.

Broward County
Jay Vedaee reports Broward Extension
targets low income and multi-family residential
units, including schools. He employs the help
of Master Gardeners. In 1997 they had 7
community gardens associated with schools
and 4 adult gardens at Davie, Cooper City,
Hallendale, and Hollywood. Even at the
school gardens, the adults are involved in the
growing and care of crops.

Their prize garden is at the Silver
Ridge Elementary School. The parents grew
and prepared vegetables for students. Then
they gave the surplus to the needy and
homeless of the community. Donated
materials such as seeds, plants, topsoil, water
hoses, and supplies were obtained from
companies like Home Depot and Lesco.

Dade County
Mary Schneider reports that Dade
Extension has six very good adult community
gardens. Garden No. 1 is helped by a private
donation of $1000.00, seeds supplied by a
local farmer, and tools/equipment by the
Miami Police Dept.

Gardens 2 and 3 are supported by a
$30,000 grant from the Merck family
foundation to benefit East Little Havana. A
Haitian gardener who speaks Spanish heads up
those two gardens just underway.

Garden #4 is in North Miami at the
Enchanted Forest location of the Master


Gardeners. That garden receives funding
support from the City of North Miami.

Garden #5 is a 4H project at Amelia
Earhart Park. Five Dade Co. Master
Gardeners reorganized it and got planting
started in September.

Garden #6 is the prized, model garden
on 62nd Street. This garden receives many
raves and accolades due to the splendid social
impact it has had on the community. Many
lives have been changed by its presence in a
trouble ridden neighborhood. Criminal activity
has been abated by the social interaction
created by garden.

Duval County
The Duval County Extension Service,
directed by Harold Jones has received an
annual Federal government grant since 1978
for conducting community gardening
educational projects around the city of
Jacksonville. Barbara Daniels is hired half
time to assist with this Urban Gardening
program dubbed "Gardening Lots." The Duval
Co. Master Gardeners help out with their
community gardening activities. In 1997, they
have 19 active community garden sites that
include 190 plots, totaling 300,000 sq ft in
area and producing an estimated value of
$178,500 in produce. The program also
includes several school gardens.

Hillsborough County
In Tampa, Extension Agent Sydney
Park-Brown has a "Weed and Seed" grant that
employs Linda Bell as a community gardening
coordinator. In 1996 Linda started a
wonderful garden in the so-called "Suit-Case
City" area of Tampa. The /2 acre garden is
located in an economically depressed area of
Tampa, and serves 50 low-income families on











about 70 plots. They call it their "Garden of
Eden" and "Feed the Hungry." It has received
much news coverage for its social impacts.
For example, juvenile offenders work off time
by helping weed the garden and doing other
chores. In 1997 these youth put in 166 hours
of effort there. Twenty Master Gardeners
also help out there from time to time.

Summary Table 1 outlines the major
participation in community gardening going on
in Florida. I suspect there may be other similar
projects going on in Florida but which were
not reported.


Pinellas County
Agent Allen Cordell reports his county
has 6 active community gardens with 307
gardeners. All these gardens are supported by
26 Master Gardeners who gave 874 hours of
service toward the gardening project in 1997.

Sarasota County
1997 was the first year for the Sarasota
community garden. It won a "Keep Florida
Beautiful" award by giving 30 people in a low
income, multi-cultural neighborhood a chance
to grow their own vegetables using a lot of
yard waste compost.


Table 1. Community gardens supported by Florida Extension Service in 1996-97.


County

Broward


Agents

Vedaee


Gardens


Plots


Dade

Duval


Hillsborough


Pinellas

Sarasota


Schneider

Jones/Daniels

Park-Brown/Bell


Cordell

Melton


The topic of community gardening will be discussed as a training item during the Environmental
Horticulture Agents Conference scheduled for Oct. 28-30, 1997, in St. Augustine. Agents
responsible for the various community gardening projects will be present to share details.

(Stephens, Vegetarian 97-10)

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Chairman

Dr. S. M. Olson
Professor


Mr. J. M. Stephens
Professor


Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
I Professor & ditor

SDr. S. A. Sargent
Assoc. Professor


Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Assoc. Professor


Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor

Dr. W. M. Stall
Professor


Dr. J. M. White
Assoc. Professor


50

307

30




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