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Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: February 1997
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00322
Source Institution: University of Florida
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SUNIVERSITY OF Cooperative Extension Service
FLORIDA Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


VEGETARIAN

Al, A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication
aHodicultural Scicnca Department P.O. 110690 CGaineavilc, FL 32611 Telephone 904/392-2134


Vegetarian 97-02


February 20, 1997


CONTENTS

L NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.
II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
A. Standard Watermelon Variety Trial Results Spring 1996.
I. VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. Revised Scoring System for Big Vegetables.


Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter. Whenever
possible, please give credit to the authors. The purpose of trade names in this
publication is solely for the purpose of providing information and does not
necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.





-1-


I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

March 10-14, 1997. 1997 Florida
Postharvest Horticulture and Industry Tour.
Contact Steve Sargent, Coordinator, Hort. Sci.,
UF, Gainesville (352) 392-2134 ext. 215.

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Standard Watermelon Variety Trial
Results Spring 1996.

Standard seeded watermelons weigh from
18 to 35 lb and represent most of the commercial
crop grown in Florida. Icebox watermelons weigh
6 to 12 lb each and are grown on a small acreage.
Seedless watermelons, weighing 12 to 18 Ib, also
are grown in Florida on a limited scale. Florida
produced 8.25 million cwt of watermelons of all
types from 33,000 harvested acres in 1994-95
which provided an average yield of 250 cwt/acre.
The average price was $7.49/cwt resulting in a
crop value exceeding $61 million which accounted
for 4.2% of the gross returns to the state's
vegetable growers.

Until a few years ago, the Florida crop
was about equally divided among open pollinated
and hybrid varieties of 'Crimson Sweet',
'Charleston Gray', and 'Jubilee' types.
'Charleston Gray' and 'Jubilee' production has
been replaced by increases in production of
'Allsweet' and blocky 'Crimson Sweet' types.

The purpose of this trial was to evaluate
some of the recently introduced commercial and
experimental hybrids of the blocky Crimson Sweet
and Allsweet types.

Soil samples from the experimental area
obtained before fertilization were analyzed by the
University of Florida Extension Soil Testing
Laboratory: pH = 7.2 and Mehlich I extractable P
= 42 (High), K = 15 (Very Low), Mg = 115
(High), Ca = 803 (Adequate), Zn = 3.3 (Adequate),
Cu = 1.8 (Adequate), and Mn = 2.5 (Deficient)
ppm.


The EauGallie fine sand was prepared in
early February by incorporation of 0-1.2-0 lb N-
P20,-K20 per 100 linear bed feet (lbf). Beds were
formed and fumigated with methyl
bromide:chloropicrin, 67:33 at 2.3 lb/100 lbf.
Banded fertilizer was applied in shallow grooves on
the bed shoulders at 3.1-0-4.3 lb N-P20O-K20/100
lbf after the beds were pressed and before
application of the black polyethylene mulch. The
total fertilizer applied was equivalent to 148-60-
206 lb N-P205-KO2/acre. The final beds were 32
in. wide and 8 in. high and were spaced on 9 ft
centers, with four beds between seepage
irrigation/drainage ditches which were on 41 ft
centers. The standard watermelons were planted in
rows adjacent to the ditches and also served as
pollenizers for seedless watermelons that were
being evaluated in the two center beds of each land.
Watermelon seeds were planted on 12
March in holes punched in the polyethylene mulch
at 3 ft in-row spacing. Twenty-nine entries were
included in the trial. The 24 ft long plots had eight
plants each and were replicated three times in a
randomized complete-block design. Weed control
in row middles was by cultivation and applications
ofparaquat. Pesticides were applied as needed for
control of silverleaf whitefly endosulfann and
esfenvalerate) and gummy stem blight
(chlorothalonil and metaxyl-chlorothalonil).

Watermelons were harvested 3-4 June, 10-
12 June, and 19-21 June. Marketable fruit (U.S.
No. 1 or better) according to U.S. Standards for
Grades of Watermelons were separated from culls
and counted and weighed individually. Soluble
solids determinations were made with a hand-held
refractometer on six fruit of each entry at each
harvest, and the incidence of hollowheart was
recorded for these fruits. The resulting data were
subjected to analysis of variance and mean
separation was by Duncan's multiple range test.

Temperature during the experimental
period was near normal. Rainfall was greater than
normal which did not provide good watermelon
growing conditions. Also, there was considerable
wind early in the season which caused some plant
loss and necessitated some resetting.




-2-


Early yields (first of three harvests)
ranged from 0 for 'Royal Sweet' to 195 cwt/acre
for WM 8007. Fifteen other entries had yields
similar to those of WM 8007 while 20 other entries
had yields similar to those of 'Royal Sweet'.
Average fruit weight varied from 13.7 lb for
'Summer Flavor 420' to 29.8 lb for 'Sultan'.
Soluble solids ranged from 9.9% for 'Mardi Gras'
to 12.5% for 'Royal Majesty'.

Total yields varied from 245 cwt/acre for
'Royal Majesty' to 439 cwt/acre for WM 8007.
Yields of all entries except LF 1402, 'Summer
Flavor 510', and 'Royal Majesty' were similar to
those of WM 8007. Average fruit weight ranged
from 15.8 lb for LF 1408 to 26.9 lb for 'Royal
Sweet'. Eight other entries had average fruit
weight similar to that of 'Royal Sweet'. Soluble
solids concentration for the entire season ranged
from 10.1% for 'Summer Flavor 500' to 12.2% for
'Royal Sweet'. Seventeen other entries had soluble
solids concentrations similar to those of 'Royal
Sweet'. Seasonal average soluble solids for all
entries exceeded the 10% specified for optional use
to designate very good internal quality in the U.S.
Standards for Grades of Watermelons. The
incidence ofhollowheart was highest in WM 8032
and the severity greatest in LF 1390, but each was
significantly different from only one other entry.


More than 50% of the fruit of 'Baron',
'Carnival', 'Regency', 'Royal Flush', 'Summer
Flavor 510', 93-32, and 94-08 were in the desirable
medium size 18-26 lb weight class. At least 80%
of the fruit of 'Carnival', HSR 602, 'Regency',
'Royal Star', 'Royal Sweet', 'Sangria', 'Sultan',
'Summer Flavor 500', WM 8032, WM 8043, 93-
32, and 94-08 exceeded 18 lb.

Watermelon yields were lower than those
obtained at this location in recent years. Weather
conditions, especially early in the season are
believed to have caused the lower than expected
yields. However, yields were higher than the state
average yield of 220 cwt/acre for the 1990-91
through 1994-95 seasons.

Based on results of this and previous trials,
the following 'Allsweet' type and blocky 'Crimson
Sweet' type varieties are expected to perform well
in Florida: 'Fiesta', 'Regency', 'Royal Star',
'Royal Sweet', and 'Sangria'. 'Mardi Gras',
'Carnival', and 'Royal Flush' performed well in
the 1996 GCREC trials and should be considered
in planning for the 1997 season. 'Starbrite' has
performed well in past trials and seed is being
advertised for the 1997 season.


Table 1. Total yields, average fruit weight, soluble solids and the incidence and severity of hollowheart of
standard watermelons. Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, Bradenton. Spring 1996.

Total Harvest
Avg. Fruit Soluble
Weight Weight Solids Hollowheart
Entry Seed Source (cwt/A)' (Ib) (%) (%) (in.)2
WM 8007 Rogers 439 a3 23.4 a-f 11.1 b-f 12 b 0.1 b
94-52 Sakata 432 ab 23.9 a-f 10.7 d-g 0 b 0 b
Mardi Gras Rogers 429 ab 22.8 b-g 10.4 e-g 0 b 0 b
WM 8038 Rogers 407 a-c 20.1 f-h 11.1 c-g 8b 0.1 b
Carnival Rogers 371 a-c 22.1 b-g 11.5 a-d 7b 0.lb

WM 8043 Rogers 371 a-c 25.0 a-c 10.2 fg 17 ab 0.1 b
Royal Flush Petoseed 366 a-c 18.9 g-i 11.5 a-d Ob Ob
HSR 602 Abbott & Cobb 364 a-c 24.6 a-e 11.4 a-d 8b 0.lb
WM 8032 Rogers 364 a-c 24.7 a-d 11.1 b-g 33 a 0.1 b
Summer Flavor 500 Abbott & Cobb 358 a-c 25.3 ab 10.1 g 0 b 0 b





-3-


95-03 Sakata 340 a-c 21.3 b-h 11.6 a-d 11 b 0.1 b
93-32 Sakata 337 a-c 21.9 b-h 11.1 b-f 6b 0.1 b
Baron American 335 a-c 19.8 f-h 11.6 a-d 6b 0.1 b
Sunmelon
W5023 Pioneer 334 a-c 20.1 f-h 11.0 c-g 0 b Ob
Summer Flavor 420 Abbott & Cobb 333 a-c 20.6 e-h 11.6 a-d 8b 0.1 b

Fiesta Rogers 321 a-c 21.0 c-h 11.1 c-g 0 b 0 b
94-08 Sakata 318 a-c 21.6 b-h 11.3 a-e 0 b 0 b
Royal Star Petoseed 302 a-c 24.7 a-c 11.3 a-e 7b O.lb
Royal Sweet Petoseed 297 a-c 26.9 a 12.2 a 0 b Ob
Sultan Harris Moran 296 a-c 24.7 a-d 11.9 a-d 0 b 0 b
----------- ------------------------------
LF 1408 Known You 287 a-c 15.8 i 11.4 a-d Ob Ob
LF 1390 Known You 287 a-c 17.9 h-i 11.3 a-e 11 b 0.7 a
W5025 Pioneer 277 a-c 21.6 b-h 11.5 a-d 13 b 0.1 b
Ferrari Shamrock 266 a-c 20.7 d-h 11.5 a-d 11 b 0.3 ab
Regency Petoseed 264 a-c 21.6 b-h 12.1 ab 11 b O.1 b

Sangria Rogers 263 a-c 21.6 b-h 11.7 a-c 7b 0.1 b
LF 1402 Known You 256 be 19.9 f-h 11.7 a-c Ob 0 b
Summer Flavor 510 Abbott & Cobb 247 c 19.2 g-i 10.2 fg 7 b 0.1 b
Royal Majesty Petoseed 245 c 20.4 f-h 12.0 a-c 7 b 0.2 b


'Acre = 4840 lb.
2Average width of fruit cracks of those fruit sampled.
3Mean separation in columns by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.

(Maynard, Vegetarian 97-02)


III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Revised Scoring System for Big Vegetables.

Scoring Big Vegetables
A comparative system for competition featuring Florida's largest vegetables.
J. M. Stephens.
Feb 1994 (revised 1-24-97).

Extra-large* Points per

Vegetable Ibs (oz) oz Ib Preparation rules

Beet 5 (80) 6.0 96 Trim top and bottom 1".

Boniata 10 (160) 3.0 48 No multiple roots.

Broccoli 5 (80) 6.0 96 Stalk trimmed to 1".









Extra-large"


--


Vegetable

Cabbage

Calabaza

Carrot

Cassava

Cauliflower

Celery

Corn, SW

Cucumber

Eggplant

Garlic

Gourds

Jicama

Kohlrabi

Lettuce

Malanga

Muskmelon

Mustard

Okra

Onion

Pepper

Potato, Irish

Potato, Sweet

Pumpkin

Radish, S.

Radish, W.

Rutabaga

Squash,
Butternut\Acor


Ibs

15

30

3

10

10

10

3

4

4

1

50

15

15

3

15

20

10

.5

3

1

3

15

175

3

15

15

15


(oz)
(240)

(480)

(48)

(160)

(160)

(160)

(48)

(64)

(64)

(16)

(800)

(240)

(240)

(48)

(240)

(320)

(160)

(8)

(48)

(16)

(160)

(240)

(2800)

(48)

(240)

(240)

(240)


oz

2.0

1.0

10

3

3

3

10

7.5

7.5

30

.6

2

2

10

2

1.5

3

60

10

30

10

2

.2

10

2

2

2


lb Preparation rules

32 Stalk trimmed to 1".

16 Stem trimmed to 2".

160 Leaves trimmed to 1".

48 No multiple roots.

48 Stalk trimmed to 1".

48 Stalk trimmed to 1".

160 Unshucked, base to 1".

120 No stem.

120 Stem trimmed to 1".

480 Roots and top trimmed to 1".

9.6 Stem trimmed to 1".

32 Stem trimmed to 2".

32 Root and leaf stems trimmed to 1".

160 Root stem trimmed to 1".

32 Trim even 1".

24 Stem trimmed to 1".

48 Stalk trimmed to 1".

960 Stem trimmed to 1".

160 Trimmed to 1" no (doubles).

480 Stem trimmed to 1".

160 No multiple tubers,

32 No multiple roots.

32 Stem trimmed to 2".

160 Leaves & tap root trimmed to 1".

32 Leaves & tap root trimmed to 1".

32 Leaves & tap root trimmed to 1".

32 Stem 1".


Points per





-5-


Extra-large* Points per

Vegetable Ibs (oz) oz Ib

Squash, Summer 5 (80) 6 96

Squash, Winter 50 (800) .6 9.6

Squash, Zucchini 10 (160) 3 48

Tomato 3 (48) 10 160

Turnip 15 (240) 2 32

Watermelon 100 (1600) .3 4.8

Winter melon 75 (1200) .4 6.4

Yam, true 15 (240) 2 32
Formula: 100-P/pz+normal size (oz.) x 5 = Extra-large.


Preparation rules

Stem trimmed to I".

Stem trimmed to 2".

Stem trimmed to 1".

Stem trimmed to 1".

Leaves & tap root trimmed to 1".

Stem trimmed to 1".

Stem trimmed to 1".

One continuous tuber.


(Vegetarian, 97-02)



Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Chairman


Dr. S. M. Olson
Professor


Mr. J. M. Stephens
Professor


Dr. G. J. Hochmuth Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor & Editor Professor


Dr. S. A. Sargent Dr. W. M. Stall
Assoc. Professor Professor


Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Assoc. Professor


Dr. J. M. White
Assoc. Professor




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