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Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00318
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: October 1996
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00318
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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* UNIVERSITY OF Cooperative Extension Service

SFLORIDA Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences



VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication
lorticultural &cines Department P.O. 110690 Gainesville, FL 32611 Telephone 904/392-2134


Vegetarian 96-10


October 18, 1996


CONTENTS


I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

H. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Bacterial Spot '96.

B. National Pepper Conference Tentative Meeting
Schedule.

III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Broccoli in Your North Florida Garden.




Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors. The purpose of
trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing
information and does not necessarily constitute a recommendation of
the product.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.
rrAvneo A T irc cVTrCTCtXni IM AD I ArVFr1 TT TIT TD I;TIMR IAr nMMrr; TATF r Vl n RnA FAr, i TNTVERSITY OF FLORIDA.











I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

November 3-5, 1996. Florida State
Horticultural Science Meeting, Clarion Hotel,
Orlando, FL. Contact George Hochmuth.

December 8-11, 1996. National
Pepper Conference. Naples Beach Hotel and
Golf Club, Naples, FL. Contact Don
Maynard.

March 6-13, 1997. 1997 Florida
Postharvest Horticulture and Industry Tour.
Contact Steve Sargent, Coordinator, Hort.
Sci., UF, Gainesville (352) 392-2134 ext. 215.

(answer:459)


I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Bacterial Spot '96.

It's fall and bacterial spot is in the air! !
Several growers have asked about the efficacy
of different copper (Cu) formulations in
controlling spot. So Dr. Jeff Jones of the Gulf
Coast Research & Education Center in
Bradenton was contacted for guidance. Jeff
has been working with bacterial spot for over
15 yrs. and his work basically indicates the
following:
Cu can significantly reduce spot
compared to no treatment
No one Cu product is statistically
more effective than any other when applied
with mancozeb including Kocide, Citcop, Tri-
Basic, Copper Count N, and Basic Cu
Cu compounds used alone were less
effective than when used with mancozeb
Premixing Cu and mancozeb for up


to 4 hrs. prior to spraying does not lessen or
enhance spot control
Applying Cu-mancozeb twice weekly
provides better spot control than when applied
once per week
Only 22% (or less) of a Cu spray is
available 5 days after spraying (this data came
from a field study, so with frequently irrigated
transplants one can assume a lower %)
Dew collected from unsprayed
transplants or those sprayed only with Cu
allowed the bacterial spot organism to develop
but those sprayed with Cu + mancozeb did not
allow the bacterial spot pathogen to develop
Bacterial spot Tomato race 3 (Cu
resistant strain) is not resistant to Agrimycin.
A major problem in controlling spot in plant
house production is the plant population itself
At 600,000 to 700,000 plants per house it's
hard to get good airflow to dry foliage and
overhead irrigation splash simply encourages
spread. Suggestions for better control in the
house include:
Purchase clean seed (generally seed
from "seed savers" and seed from less well
established companies are more prone to carry
spot)
Do not allow plants to overnight with
free moisture on the leaves (a good rule of
thumb is 8 hrs. of leaf wetness increases the
chance of disease)
Overhead irrigate only when
necessary (remember ebb & flow irrigation
was developed to combat spot in FL!) and
never irrigate if foliage cannot dry before night
fall.
Rogue affected areas thoroughly and
avoid hand contact with plants whenever
possible.

(Vavrina, Vegetarian 96-10)




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SrtnalI


Sunday, Dec. 8 Announcement


1:00 pm till 5:00 pm Registration
Pick up materials (afternoon on your own)
5:00 pm Gala Reception on the Beach
-international pepper cuisine
-live music

Monday, Dec. 9

6:30-7:30 Continental Breakfast
8:00- 5:00 pm Pepper Industry Tour
-transplant houses
-seed companies
-production fields (drip & seepage irrigation)
-packinghouse
-more
Dinner on your own
8:00 pm Capsicum Genome Roundtable

Tuesday, Dec. 10

6:30-7:30 am Continental Breakfast
8:00-11:59 am Oral Presentations
12:00 Noon Lunch
1:15-4:00 pin Oral Presentations
4:00-6:00 pm Poster Sessions
7:00-10:00 pm Reception/Banquet

Wednesday, Dec. 11

8:00 am Optional Tour*
* Tour is dependent on number ofparticipants
choosing this option....please contact Dr. Charles
Vavrina if you would like to participate:
e-mail: csv@icon.imok. ufl.edu
far: (941) 657-5224


National Pepper
Conference


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ca n.
O 11 lB


8-11 December 1996
Naples Beach Hotel

and Golf Club





Location & Accommodations

* Naples, FL
Naples Beach Hotel & Golf Club on
the beach
Miles of beaches
Sunsets on the Gulf of Mexico
Golf course
Shopping

* Room Reservation by Nov. 8, 1996
1-800-237-7600
1-941-261-7380 (fax)
$90 single/double
mention Pepper Conference for special rate


Educational Program

* Over 60 presentations
major areas: breeding, pest management,
production, post harvest
11 countries & 16 states represented
Capsicum genome roundtable

* Posters

* Bound proceedings published by
Citrus & Vegetable magazine (a
subsidiary of Vance Publishing).
completed manuscripts & diskettes due Sept.
20*

* For details contact:

Dr. Don Maynard
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
5007 60 St. E.
Bradenton, FL 34203
tel: (941) 751-7636
fax: (941) 751-7639
e-mail: bra@gtnv.ifas.ufl.edu

Industry booth space


Registration



* $150 (if by Nov. 12, 1996)
gala reception on the beach
international pepper cuisine
live music
banquet & entertainment
continental breakfasts
lunches & coffee breaks (2)
high tea daily
tour of FL's pepper industry
proceedings & mementos
mail in form today!


Sponsors


Pickle Packers International Inc.
American Society for Horticultural Sciences
Florida Fruit & Vegetable Research & Education
Foundation
- Seed Companies
- University of Florida


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H. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Broccoli in Your North Florida
Garden.

Run out of cabbage and collard plants?
Then why not finish out that garden row with
broccoli. This certainly is the right time of
year to grow it, as broccoli requires cool
weather for those great big tightly formed
green heads.

CLIMATIC ADAPTATION Although
broccoli is a cool season vegetable, cold
weather can injure the plants, especially if they
are tender and not well conditioned. Over at
Hastings where cabbage is king, along with
potatoes, commercial plantings of broccoli
were wiped out one year by 30-36 hours of
temperatures around 26 degrees F. Even
when not killed, broccoli plants may be stunted
by temperatures in the 30's for several days.
To avoid chance of cold damage, it may be
best to plant in Feb-March rather than in the
fall or winter. In north Florida, best fall-winter
yields are to be expected when broccoli is set
out in Sept-Oct, and best spring yields occur
from plants set in Feb-Apr.

VARIETIES Broccoli is closely
related to cauliflower. Both form clusters of
unopened flowers called heads. While broccoli
heads are usually green and cauliflower white,
there are varieties of cauliflower with purple
heads. Also, there is a hybrid cross between
broccoli and cauliflower known as
"broccoflower". Its head is yellowish-green in
color and is tightly formed like cauliflower.

Varieties of broccoli vary considerably
in garden performance. The old standards
such as were grown around here in the 1940's
and 1950's were Waltham, Early Green


Sprouting and DeCicco. These oldtimers are
still available in seed catalogs, but now share
page-space with the newer higher yielding
hybrids such as Atlantic, Green Comet, and
Green Duke. Waltham 29 still leads the pack
in popularity, but not in yields. In a
Gainesville trial, the newer hybrids like Green
Duke out yielded the old standard 4 to 1.

PLANTING Seeding directly into the
garden row is not the best way to start your
broccoli, as erratic stands of plants usually
occur. It is best to seed into a transplant
container, then transfer the most vigorous
plants into the row. You may prefer to buy
plants direct from a garden supply store as
needed. As with collards and cabbages, select
plants that are about 4 to 6 inches tall, dark
green, and healthy (no disease spots). Space
your plants about 18 inches apart in 30-36
inch-wide rows. If you are using the wide row
system, plant 12 inches apart both ways. You
may plant even closer (8 inches), thus
increasing the number of plants in your plot.
However, as plant population increases, the
center head size decreases and fewer side
shoots are produced. If you prepare a raised
bed, I suggest you plant two rows of plants
per bed. Since the same general care and
cultivation requirements must be observed for
broccoli as for other members of the cabbage
family (crucifers), locate all members together
in one area of your garden. Thus, if you have
to spray for insect pests such as the cabbage
worms, you can mix up a batch of BT and
spray all these related crops at once.

Prepare your garden soil just as for
other vegetables. Soil pH should be about
6.0-6.5, as determined by your soil test.
Liming is necessary only if the pH is lower
than 5.8. Sandy garden soil should be
amended with compost, animal manure, or











other organic matter to improve its ability to
hold water and fertilizer and to promote
fertility. Regular garden fertilizer may be used
in preparing the planting beds and for side
dressing. Start out with about 4 pounds of 6-
6-6 per 100 sq ft, then sidedress every two
weeks with a little scattered along the row
edge.

HARVESTING YOUR BROCCOLI
Cut the head when it reaches at least 2 1/2
inches diameter. Include a portion of the
tender stalk (5-8 inches), along with attached
leaves. Do not let the heads grow too large,
as the flowers will begin to open and a
"woody" texture will set in, making the
broccoli less palatable. After the central head
is cut, you may continue to cut the side shoots
as they emerge. In commercial production,
only 25 to 50 percent of the total harvest
comes from the central heads. Of course,
varieties vary considerably in the amount of
side shoots that will be produced. Gardeners
often inquire about the edibility of broccoli
leaves. Actually they are quite palatable,
although less flavorful than the collard,
cabbage, and kale relatives. Here again, good
seasoning is the key.

October is pumpkin month. Can you guess
Florida's largest pumpkin? For answer see
Calendar.


259 lbs
359 lbs
459 lbs


STORING Broccoli is one of the most
perishable of vegetables. If you have extra
amounts and wish to keep it from turning
yellow, mushy, and moldy, be sure to place in
the refrigerator's cool area. You can keep it
up to two weeks at 36 degrees, and one week
at 41 degrees. Occasional sprinkling will also
help to keep it fresh. If wrapped, be sure to
ventilate the wrap.

NUTRITIONAL VALUE Broccoli
ranks very high nutritionally, and increased
consumer awareness of healthy eating habits
has led to a greater demand for broccoli as
both a cooked food dish and more notably as
a fresh salad item. Broccoli is a great source
of vitamins and minerals. A normal serving
provides more than twice the daily requirement
of vitamin C and about 80 percent of vitamin
A. And, it has a low 32 calories per 100
grams, so munch away!

(Stephens, Vegetarian 96-10)


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Chairman

Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor


Dr. S. A. Sargent
Assoc. Professor

Mr. J. M. Stephens
Professor-& Edito


ADr s. M.rofte
Assoc. Professor


Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Professor

Dr. S. M. Olson
Professor

Dr. W. M. Stall
Professor

Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Assoc. Professor




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