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Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00317
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: September 1996
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00317
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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i UNIVERSITY OF Cooperative Extension Service

SFLORIDA Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication
j; s Hotticultural &icncc8 Dcpartment P.O. 110690 CGainvillc, FL 32611 Telephone 904/392-2134

Vegetarian 96-09

September 24, 1996



A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

B. New Publications.


A. The Florida Greenhouse Vegetable Industry.


A. Assure II Labeled on Snap Beans for Postemergence
Grass Control.


A. Pumpkins for Jack-O-Lanterns-and Other Odd
W:. Pleasures.

Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors. The purpose of
trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing
information and does not necessarily constitute a recommendation of
the product.

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.
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A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

October 1-2, 1996. 1996 Florida
Agricultural Conference and Trade Show,
Vegetable Program, Lakeland Civic Center.
Contact George Hochmuth.

November 3-5, 1996. Florida State
Horticultural Science Meeting, Clarion Hotel,
Orlando, FL. Contact George Hochmuth.

December 8-11, 1996. National
Pepper Conference. Naples Beach Hotel and
Golf Club, Naples, FL. Contact Don

B. New Publications.

The following publications are
available from the Horticultural Sciences
Department, UF. (352) 392-2134 ext. 226.

SV REC 96-2. George Hochmuth,
Robert Hochmuth, and Chris Vann.
Responses of watermelon yield and whole leaf
and petiole sap N seasonal profiles to N

SVREC 96-4. George Hochmuth,
Robert Hochmuth, and Chris Vann.
Responses ofwatemielon yield and whole leaf
and petiole sap K seasonal profiles to K

SVREC 96-6. George Hochmuth.
Evaluation of monopotassium phosphate-
based starter fertilizer solution effects on
vegetable production in Florida.

SVREC 96-7. George Hochmuth.
Evaluation of monopotassium phosphate-

based starter fertilizer solutions for tomato and
pepper production in Florida.

SVREC 96-8. George Hochmuth.
Monopotassium phosphate-based starter
fertilizers enhance snapbean yield in Florida.

SVREC 96-8. George Hochmuth.
Potato response to foliar-applied
monopotassium phosphate solution.

SVREC 96-11. George Hoclimuth and
Robert Hochmuth. Lists of suppliers of
greenhouses and greenhouse production

SVREC 96-12. George Hochmuth and
Robert Hochmuth. Survey of greenhouse
vegetable production in Florida.

Hochmuth, G. J. 1996. Commercial
Vegetable Fertilization Guide. Fla. Coop. Ext.
Serv. Circ. 225D.

Hochmuth, G., E. Hanlon, G. Snyder,
R. Nagata, and T. Schueneman. 1996.
Fertilization of sweet corn, celery, romaine,
escarole, endive, and radish on organic soils in
Florida. Fla. Coop. Ext. Serv. Bull. 313.

Hochmuth, G. 1996. Fertilization of
pepper in Florida. Fla. Coop. Ext. Serv. Cir.


A. The Florida Greenhouse
Vegetable Industry.

With the help of the county faculty we
recently finished a survey of the greenhouse
vegetable industry in Florida. Since our last

survey in 1991, there have been some changes
in the industry. Most notable has been a
decline in acreage to 57 acres from 66 acres in
1991. Much of this decline has come in the
northern counties with the loss of numerous
small growers. Many of these growers, with
marginal profitability decided not to rebuild
after the "storm of the century" in 1993.
Some counties have experienced growth such
as Hillsborough, Palm Beach, and Orange.

Another notable change since 1991 has
been the near total change from rockwool
media and nutrient film technique growing
systems to perlite bags. The major crop today
is still cucumber followed by an even amount
of tomato, pepper, and herbs, followed by

The results of the survey show that
Florida remains a major player in the national
greenhouse vegetable industry. Other
important states are Colorado, Pennsylvania,
Arizona, Texas, and California. It appears that
our biggest challenges are developing solid,
dependable marketing opportunities and
producing a consistent product with
predictable quality. There still appears to be
opportunity for greenhouse vegetables from
Florida. A recent article in the Packer
newspaper claimed that "hot house vegetables
were booming" in the country. The article
claimed that greenhouse vegetables were being
noted for consistent high quality and the prices
were coming down to where the greenhouse
vegetables are competitive in the grocery
Results of the 1996 survey can be
obtained from the Suwannee Valley AREC
(Bob Hochmuth) or from the Hort. Sciences
Dept. (George Hochmuth). Ask for Suwannee
Valley REC Extension Report 96-12.

Can greenhouse vegetables play a role
in the strengthening of the Florida vegetable
industry? Will vine ripe greenhouse tomatoes
replace some of the mature-green tomatoes
currently being grown with little profit? Will
innovative Florida vegetable growers be
interested in greenhouses or in protected
vegetable production? I wonder!

Fluctuations in Florida greenhouse
vegetable industry.
Total Square Footage
County Per County
1996 1991

Alachua 0 40,000

Baker 12,000 67,200

Bay 0 8,200

Bradford 12,000 12,000
Brevard 0 0

Broward 0 0

Calhoun 0

Charlotte 0 0

Citrus 0 0

Clay 4,800 0

Collier 0 -

Columbia 36,000 87,000

Dade 0 67,000

Desota 0 -

Dixie 12,000

Duval 0 44,000

Escambia 1,000 3,300

Total Square Footage
County Per County

Flagler 0 0

Franklin 0 5,000

Gadsden 0 0

Gilchrist 0 8,000

Glades 0 -

Gulf 0 0

Hamilton 8,000 4,000

Hardee 0

Hendry -

Hemando 16,000 18,000

Highlands 0

Hillsborough 198,350 8,000

Holmes 0 0

Indian River 1,000 20,000

Jackson 0 0

Jefferson 0 0

Lafayette 4,000 0

Lake 20,000 21,000

Lee 0 0

Leon 0 0

Levy 0 12,600

Liberty 0 0

Madison 16,000 8,400

Manatee 0 30,000

Marion' 40,000

Martin 0 0

Monroe 0 0

Total Square Footage
County Per County

Nassau 2,520 19,500

Okaloosa 2,500 0

Okeechobee 28,000 28,000

Orange 33,000 0

Osceola 0 0

Palm Beach (E) 177,000 92,000

Palm Beach(W)' 0

Pasco 0

Pinellas 0 0

Polk 46,000

Putnam 0 0

Santa Rosa 0 12,000

Sarasota 0 3,000

Seminole 41,000 43,560

St. Johns 0 0

St. Lucie 1,742,000 1,742,000

Sumter 0 0

Suwannee 152,000 336,000

Taylor 0 12,000

Union 0 8,000

Volusia 0 7,500

Wakulla 0 4,000

Walton '

Washington 0 1,500

TOTAL 2,507,170 2,871,000

(Hochmuth, Vegetarian 96-09)


A. Assure II Labeled on Snap Beans
for Postemergence Grass Control.

Assure II (quizalofop P-ethyl) now has
a label for the control of annual and perennial
grasses in snap beans. Applied at the
recommended rates and timings Assure will
control emerged grasses. Subsequent flushes
of grasses require additional treatments. The
herbicide should be applied to actively
growing grasses in the 3 leaf to pre-boot stage.

For ground application, always include
a nonphytotoxic petroleum based oil
concentrate at 1% v/v (4 qts/100 gals) or a
non-ionic surfactant at 0.25% v/v (1 qt/100

Labeled rates range from 6-12 ounces
of product per acre (0.04 lb ai 0.08 lb ai)
depending on the grass species to be

Reduction in grass control is possible
when Assure II is applied immediately prior to,
or sequentially after application of a post
broadleaf herbicide. Follow label directions in
applying sequential or tank mixed products.

Assure II may be tank mixed with
Basagran. Follow the labels for

Do not apply within 15 days of harvest.
Do not apply more than 14 oz of product per
acre per season. Follow all directions and
restrictions on the label.

(Stall, Vegetarian 96-09)


A. Pumpkins for Jack-O-Lanterns -
and Other Odd Pleasures.

The term "pumpkin" refers to certain
varieties of Cucurbita pepo, which includes
zucchini, straightneck, crookneck, acorn and
other summer and winter squashes. To
complicate matters even more, some varieties
of Cucurbita moschata, maxima, and mixta
are also called "pumpkins". Local tradition
and custom often dictate that a particular
variety is a squash in one area and a pumpkin
in another. Most varieties called pumpkins
have distinct differences from squashes.
Pumpkins have a coarser, more strongly
flavored flesh, and rinds that are softer at
maturity than the winter squashes but harder
than the summer squash.

Pumpkins come in many shapes, sizes,
and colors. These differences are due not only
to the large numbers of named varieties, but to
the ease with which pumpkins and squashes

Seeds are commonly saved by
gardeners, and seeds from these uncontrolled
crosses give rise to further odd shapes and

Most pumpkins are carved into jack-o-
lanterns, to sit grinning at trick-or-treaters"
on Halloween nights. A pumpkin suitable for
a jack-o-lantern should be in the 10 to 30
pound range, and be reasonably round in
shape. The base needs to be fairly flat so that
the punkinn head" doesn't roll over in the
night setting off a candle-lit blaze. Halloween
is supposed to be fun, but not that
exciting.'Connecticut Field' is the most
popular variety for making jack-o-lanterns. It

has many other common names such as
Kentucky Field, Big Tom, Indian Field, and

And, yes, it has fairly decent pie
quality, although the flesh is coarser and more
stringy than the traditional "pie punkin's".
Two other large size varieties for carving into
jack-o-lanterns are Big Max and Big Moon.
For small ones about the size of a man's head
try Funny Face and Spirit.

For making pies, there are hundreds of
"grandma's favorites" out there. These range
in size from around 2-10 pounds up to the 20-
30 pounders. Small Sugar is very popular, as
are Cinderella, Spookie, and Triple Treat.
Seminole is an excellent culinary type widely
cultivated by Florida's Seminole tribes.
Cushaw and Cheese, the latter so-called due to
its slightly flattened, round design, shows up
often at our local rural fairs, such as at Starke
and Callahan.

Those varieties that do not make good
pies because they are inedible are the so-called
"mini-pumpkins". Their main function is to
serve as theme decorations for such occasions
as Halloween parties and Thanksgiving feasts.
If you are planning to grow your own, search
your seed catalogs for these varieties:
Munchkin (3-4 inches diameter), Sweetie-pie
( 3 inches and 5 ounces), and Jack-Be-Little (2
x3 inches). Actually, these mini-pumpkins are
more correctly "mini-gourds", as they are hard
rinded like the gaily colored apple and pear

At the other extreme are the Great
Pumpkins! We all remember this bit of
chauvinistic humor:

"Peter, Peter, pumpkin eater,
had a wife and couldn't keep'er.
Put her in a pumpkin shell,
and there he kept her very well."

And how about Cinderella's Coach! I
confess that I saw nothing but fantasy in these
two make-believe situations until I found out
just how huge a pumpkin can grow. I really do
not know how much the largest pumpkin
raised around here would have weighed.
However, since I started keeping tabs on
Florida's giant veggies, the largest pumpkin I
have recorded weighed a whopping 459
pounds! It was an Atlantic Giant, as most
record sized ones have been, and was
harvested by gardener Tim Canniffin Manatee
County June 4,1996. What do you do with a
459 pound pumpkin? Carve it into the state's
largest jack-o-lantern, of course.

Worldwide, the search is still on for
one breaking the 1000 pound barrier! A
festival in San Francisco once offered $10,000
for the largest pumpkin brought in to the fair.
At that time (1984) the first 500 pounder was
weighed in. Today there is a World Pumpkin
Confederation with a membership of 3000 in
30 countries. It holds a pumpkin weigh-off
annually at the Great Pumpkin Commonwealth
contest in Vacaville, California. In 1993 an
exhibitor of a mammoth world record
pumpkin weighing 884 pounds collected over
$5000 in prizes at this event.

What are these gardeners' secrets to
gargantuan greatness? Like fishermen, none
will tell you, not exactly anyway. But you can
be sure that each grower, most of whom are
gardeners, starts out with seed from a
champion variety. That is absolutely essential!
Just about all of the gigantic ones I have
recorded were Atlantic Giant. Since this

variety was bred in 1979 by Howard Dill,
several world marks have been set with it.
Howard is a four-time World Champion. He
receives more than 5000 letters and seed
orders per year at his home in Windsor, Nova
Scotia. To order seed of his Dill's Atlantic
Giant Pumpkin V, or his book "The Pumpkin
King", write to: Howard Dill, 400 College
Road, Windsor, Nova Scotia, Canada BON2
TO. Or check him out on the inter-net.

After getting your seed, it will require
all the green on your thumb you can muster to
keep your prize enlarging at the rate of 5
pounds per day (some days gaining 20 lbs). A
pumpkin vine has an enormous spread, so give
it plenty of room (20x20'), and remove all but
one pumpkin fruit per vine to nourish. Canniff

says his whopper was the result of his first
attempt at growing anythi, much less a giant
pumpkin. He thinks any green-thumber out
there with richer soil and more room could do
much better rather easily. Be prepared to
camp out with it in bad weather and to protect
it from thieves, varmints, and vandals. Like
overpasses, big rocks, and old barns, these
gentle giants sometimes attract graffiti artists.
And whether to grow "organic" or not is
entirely up to you, for as the Fairy God-
Mother said to Cinderella, Who cares if it's
organic. You want a carriage, or don't

(Stephens, Vegetarian 96-09)

Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

Dr. D. J. Cantliffe

Dr. S. M. Olson

Mr. J. M. Stephens

Dr. G. J. Hochmuth

Dr. S. A. Sargen
Assoc. Professor & Editor

Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Assoc. Professor

Dr. D. N. Maynard

Dr. W. M. Stall

Dr. J. M. White
Assoc. Professsor

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