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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: July 1996
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00315
Source Institution: University of Florida
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* UNIVERSITY OF Cooperative Extension Service
SFLORIDA Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences



VEGETARIAN

t A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication
Horticultural Sciences Department P.O. 110690 Caincvillc, FL 32611 Telephone 904/392-2134


Vegetarian 96-07


July 16, 1996


Contents

L NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

IL COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
A. Tomato Varieties for Florida.

B. Tomato Institute Program.

C. Mechanically Harvested Jalapeno Pepper.

II. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Horticultural Events at 1996 State 4H Congress.


Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors. The purpose of
I trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing
information and does not necessarily constitute a recommendation of
the product.




The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.




-1-


I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

July 30-31, and August 1, 1996. 4H
Congress, Horticulture Events. Judging,
Demonstrations, Leadership Track. Contact Jim
Stephens.
September 4, 1996. Tomato Institute
Program, Ritz Carlton, Naples. Contact
C. Vavrina.
October 1-2, 1996. FACTS Program,
Lakeland Civic Center. Contact George Hochmuth.

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Tomato Varieties for Florida.

Variety selection, often made several
months before planting, is one of the most important
management decisions made by the grower. Failure
to select the most suitable variety or varieties may
lead to loss of yield or market acceptability.
The following characteristics should be
considered in selection of tomato varieties for use in
Florida:
*Yield The variety selected
should have the potential to
produce crops at least equivalent
to varieties already grown. The
average yield in Florida is
currently about 1300 25-pound
cartons per acre. The potential
yield of varieties in use should be
much higher than average.
*Disease Resistance Varieties
selected for use in Florida must
have resistance to Fusarium wilt,
race I and race 2; Verticillium wilt
(race 1); gray leaf spot; and some
tolerance to bacterial soft rot.
Available resistance to other
diseases may be important in
certain situations.
*Horticultural Quality Plant
habit, stem type and fruit size,
shape, color, smoothness and
resistance to defects should all be
considered in variety selection.


*Adaptability Successful
tomato varieties must perform well
under the range of environmental
conditions usually encountered in
the district or on the individual
farm.
*Market Acceptability The
tomato produced must have
characteristics acceptable to the
packer, shipper, wholesaler,
retailer and consumer. Included
among these qualities are pack out,
fruit shape, ripening ability,
firmness and flavor.

Current Variety Situation

Many tomato varieties are grown commercially in
Florida, but only a few represent most of the
acreages.
'Agriset 761' was grown on 41% of the
acreage in Florida in the 1995-96 season up
somewhat from the 35% planted the previous
season. 'Agriset 761' was grown on 54% of the
acreage in southwest Florida, 34% of the acreage in
west central Florida, and was the predominant
variety in north Florida.
'Solar Set' had over 13% of the state
acreage, a marked increase from 1994-95. It was
the most popular variety in Dade County, and had
significant acreage on the East Coast, in Palmetto,
Ruskin, and in north Florida.
'Sunbeam', 'Sunny' and 'Solimar' each had
between 5 and 10% of the state acreage. 'Sunny'
was the most widely planted variety in Florida for
many years, but is rapidly being replaced by other
varieties.
'BHN 26' and 'Florasette' each were grown
in about 5% of the acreage; and 'Bonita', 'Merced',
'Cobia', 'BHN 22' and 'Olympic' were grown on 1 or
2% of the Florida tomato acreage. Several other
varieties and experimental lines were grown on less
than 1% of the state acreage.

Tomato Variety Trial Results
Summary results listing the five highest
yielding and the five largest fruited varieties from
trials conducted at the University of Florida's Gulf
Coast Research and Education Center, Bradenton;









Indian River Research and Education Center, Ft.
Pierce; and North Florida Research and Education
Center, Quincy for the Spring 1995 season are
shown in Table 1. High total yields and large fruit
size were produced by 'Merced' at Bradenton and
'Agriset 761', 'Merced', and 'Solar Set' at Ft.
Pierce. 'Equinox', 'Merced' and RXT 3096
produced high yields at two of the three locations.
'Merced' and 'Sunbeam' produced large sized fruit
at all three locations in Spring 1995 trials. It is
important to note that the same entries were not
included in all trials.


Table 1. Summary of University of Florida tomato variety trial results. Spring 1995.
Total Yield Large Fruit Size
Location (ctn/acre) (oz)


Bradenton (1)


Ft. Pierce (3)


Quincy (4)


Equinoz


Florida 7514

RXT 3096

Florida 7578

Merced

Agriset 761


Merced


Florida 7579

Solar Set

Sunny

Monte Verde


Mountain Fresh

Equinox

Mountain Supreme

RXT 3096


2644

2605

2509

2451

2424'

1383

1183

1033

1007

9723

2482

2349

2298

2292

22685


XPH 10046

Merced

Sunbeam

RXT 3096

Florida 7658

Agriset 761

Merced

Sunbeam

Solar Set

Florida 7658

XPH 10046


Tango

Merced


Sunbeam

XPH 10047


'16 other entries had yields similar to those of 'Merced'.
214 other entries had fruit weight similar to that of Florida 7658.
'No significant yield difference.
48 other entries had fruit weight similar to that of Florida 7658.
'18 other entries had yields similar to those of RXT 3096.
"13 other entries had fruit weights similar to those of XPH 10047.


6.7

6.6

6.5

6.42


6.2

5.9

5.94

8.2

7.9

7.7

7.3

7.26




-3-


Seed Sources:
Agrisales: Agriset 761, Equinox.
Asgrow: Mountain Supreme, Solar Set, Sunbeam,
Sunny, XPH 10046, XPH 10047.
Ferry-Morse: Monte Verde, Mountain Fresh.
Rogers: Merced, Tango, RXT 3096
University of Florida: Florida 7514, Florida 7578,
Florida 7579, Florida 7658.
Summary results listing outstanding entries
in order from trials at the University of Florida's
Gulf Coast Research & Education Center,
Bradenton; the Indian River Research and Education
Center, Ft. Pierce; and the North Florida Research
and Education Center, Quincy for the fall 1995


season are shown in Table 2. High total yields and
large fruit size were produced by Florida 7514 and
Florida 7578 at Bradenton; Florida 7658, 'Agriset
761', 'Sunny' and 'Solar Set' at Ft. Pierce; and by
Florida 7514, Florida 7578 and Florida 7658 at
Quincy. Accordingly, high yields and large fruit
size were produced by Florida 7578, Florida 7514,
and Florida 7658 at two of the three locations. As
in the spring trial, not all entries were included at all
locations.


Table 2. Summary of University of Florida tomato variety trial results. Fall 1995.
Total Yield Large Fruit Size
Location (ctn/acre) (oz)


Bradenton (2)


Ft. Pierce (3)


Quincy (4)


Florida 7514

Equinox

Florida 7578

FT 4029

Solar Set'

Florida 7514

Florida 7658

Agriset 761

Sunny

Solar Set


Equinox

Florida 7514

Florida 7578

Florida 7658

Solar Set


2351

2285

2237

2151

2144

2684

2495

2471

2411

2380


1441

1423

1347

1335

12685


Merced


Florida 7658

Florida 7514

Florida 7578

Sunex 65902

Agriset 761


Merced


Florida 7658

Solar Set

Sunny

Bonita4

XPH 10035

Florida 7578

Florida 7658

Merced

Florida 75146


PSR 8618946 5.4
'10 other entries had yields similar to those of'Solar Set'.
213 other entries had fruit size similar to that of Sunex 6590.
37 other entries had yields similar to those of'Solar Set'.
46 other entries had fruit size similar to that of 'Sunny' and 'Bonita'.
'16 other entries had yields similar to those of'Solar Set'.
61R nthpr pntripe hard frit 6iPe similar tn that nfFlrida 7514 and PSR i18 R94









Seed Sources:
Agrisales: Agriset 761, Equinox.
Asgrow: Solar Set, Sunny, XPH 10035
Petoseed: PSR 861894.
Rogers: Bonita, Merced, FT 4029.
Sun: Sunex.
University of Florida: Florida 7514, Florida 7578,
Florida 7658.

For spring and fall trial results combined,
high yields and/or large fruit size were achieved by
'Merced' eight times, Florida 7658 seven times,
'Solar Set' and Florida 7514 six times, Florida 7578
five times and 'Equinox' and 'Agriset 761' four times
each.

TOMATO VARIETIES FOR
COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION

The varieties listed have performed well in
University of Florida trials conducted in various
locations.
Agriset 761. An early midseason, determinate,
jointed hybrid. Fruit are deep globe and green
shouldered. Resistant: Verticillium wilt (race 1),
Fusarium wilt (race 1 and 2), Altemaria stem
canker, gray leaf spot.
Bonita. A midseason, jointless hybrid. Fruit are
globe-shaped and green-shouldered. Resistant:
Verticillium wilt (race 1), Fusarium wilt (race 1 and
2), gray leaf spot.
Equinox. A determinate, jointed, heat-tolerant
hybrid that also performs well in the spring. Fruit
are flattened, globe-shaped with light-green
shoulders. Resistant: Verticillium wilt (race 1),
Fusarium wilt (race I and 2), and gray leaf spot.
Merced. Early, deep-globe shaped, green-
shouldered fruit are produced on determinate vines.
Jointed hybrid. Resistant: Verticillium wilt (race 1),
Fusarium wilt (race I and 2), gray leaf spot, tobacco
mosaic virus.
Olympic. A midseason determinate, jointed hybrid.
Fruit are deep oblate with green shoulders.
Resistant: Verticillium wilt (race 1), Fusarium wilt
(race 1 and 2), Altemaria stem canker, and gray leaf
spot.
Solar Set. An early, green-shouldered, large-
fruited, jointed hybrid. Determinate. Fruit set under
high temperatures (920F day/720 night) is superior
to most other commercial cultivars. Resistant:
Fusarium wilt (race 1 and 2), Verticillium wilt (race
1) and gray leaf spot.


Solimar. A mid-season, jointed, hybrid producing
globe-shaped, green-shouldered fruit. Resistant:
verticillium wilt (race 1), Fusarium wilt (race I and
2), Alternaria stem canker, gray leaf spot.
Sunbeam. Early mid-season, deep-globe shaped,
jointed fruit are produced on determinate vines.
Resistant: Verticillium wilt (race 1), Fusarium wilt
(race 1 and race 2), gray leaf spot, Alternaria stem
canker.
Sunny. A midseason, jointed, determinate, hybrid.
Fruit are large, flat-globular in shape, and are green-
shouldered. Resistant: Verticillium wilt (race 1),
Fusarium wilt (race 1 and 2), Altemaria stem
canker, gray leaf spot.

REFERENCES

1. Howe, T. K., J. W. Scott, and W. E.
Waters. 1995. Tomato variety trial results
for spring 1995. GCREC Res. Rept.
BRA1995-18.

2. Howe, T. K., J. W. Scott, and W. E.
Waters. 1996. Tomato variety trial results
for fall 1995. GCREC Res. Rept.
BRA1996-5.

3. Stoffella, P. J. Tomato variety trial results.
p. 45-46. In T. K. Howe and D. N.
Maynard (eds.). 1996. Vegetable variety
trial results in Florida for 1995. Fla. Agr.
Expt. Sta. Circ. S396.

4. Olson, S. M. Tomato variety trial results.
p. 47-48. In T. K. Howe and D. N.
Maynard (eds.). 1996. Vegetable variety
trial results in Florida for 1995. Fla. Agr.
Expt. Sta. Circ. S396.

(Maynard, Vegetarian 96-07)









Tomato Institute Program

Ritz Carlton, Naples
September 4, 1996


09:00 Introductions C.S. Vavrina, SWFREC, Immokalee

09:05 Extension's Role in Florida Tomatoes Dr. Christine Stephens, Dean for Extension

09:20 FL Tomatoes in a Global Market J. VanSickle, UF, Gainesville

Postharvest Session SA. Sargent, HortSci., Gainesville

09:40 Development of a Premium FL Tomato Program S. Sargent, UF, Gainesville

09:55 Tomato Response to Ethylene at High Temperatures: Are Pressure Ripening Systems Worth Considering? J.
Brecht, UF, Gainesville

10:10 Maintaining Clean Packing House Water Systems J. Bartz, UF, Gainesville

10:25 Quality Differences Between Mutant, Transgenic, & Commercial Cultivars L. Baldwin, USDA, Winter Haven

Alternative Tomatoes C. Vavrina, SWFREC, Immokalee

10:40 Cultivar Effects and N/P Fertigation on Tomato Yield and Graywall in Dade County J. Carranza, TREC,
Homestead

10:55 Varieties Which May Provide Alternatives to Conventional Tomato Growing in Florida J. Scott, GCREC, Bradenton

11:10 Heirloom & Unusual Tomatoes for Specialty Markets L. Sapp, Tomato Growers Supply, Ft. Myers

11:30 LUNCH

Entomology/Pathology Session P.A. Stansly, SWFREC, Immokalee

01:30 Yield Losses Associated with Foliar Diseases and the Benefits of Protectant Fungicides Ken Pernezny, EREC,
Belle Glade

01:45 Using Bacteriophages for Control of Bacterial Spot and Bacterial Wilt on Tomato J. Jones, GCREC, Bradenton

02:00 Biology and Management of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus J. Funderberk, NFREC, Quincy

02:15 New Insecticides for Control of Tomato Pests P.Stansly, SWFREC, Immokalee

02:30 Whitefly Vectored Clostrovirus in Tomato G. Simone, UF, Gainesville

Extension Session P Gilreath, Manatee County Extension, Palmetto

02:45 Use of Fungicides in Tank Mixes T. Kucharek, UF, Gainesville

03:00 How to Promote Agricultural: Examples from Palm Beach County T. Gregory, Palm Beach County Extension

03:15 Crises Management and the News Media: Lessons from the Mexican import Surge R. Gilmer, FFVA, Orlando

4:00 Industry Updates 5 min. presentations on whats new









B. Mechanically Harvested Jalapeno
Peoper.

Increasing competition, problems in getting
labor, WPS regulations, and spiralling production
costs have lead one local grower to mechanically
harvest his jalapenos. Working in conjunction with
Boese Equipment Co. (Saginaw, MI) a harvester
was designed to pick jalapeno fruit destine for Pace
Picante Sauce (San Antonio, TX). The grower
indicated that he was able to harvest approximately
3 times more fruit per day than a 10 person crew; a
savings in time and money.


Mechanically harvested fruit however, need
not meet the same specifications as fresh market
fruit Therefore we decided to compare mechanical
yield with hand picked yield to determine it's
potential for the fresh market on a bucket-for-
bucket basis. One bucket was taken from each of
five mechanically harvested and five hand harvested
jalapeno pepper rows. The contents of each bucket
were separated into several categories including
total weight, culled material (including small fruit,
leaves & stems, red fruit, sunburn, insect damage,
etc.), damaged fruit (cracked, sliced, chipped, etc.),
good fruit, and percent pack out (Table 1).


Table 1. Hand vs. mechanically harvestedjalapeno pepper yield at Nychyk Farms, Ft. Myers, FL in spring 1996.


Treatment Yield Weights (bs) Pack out
Bucket Culled Damaged Good
Machine 25.1 1.03 3.78 20.3 81%
Hand Pick 22.4 0.80 0.12 21.5 96%


The mechanical harvester picked more fruit
per bucket but lost more fruit to damage as well. To
estimate fresh market acceptability of machine
harvested fruit we took 30 "good" fruit from each
replicate of the machine and hand harvested buckets,
stored them for 4 days at 50 degrees, let them return
to room temperature, and regraded them (Table 2).
Over two thirds of the machine harvested jalapeno
pepper showed obvious punctures or bruising.
Several peppers exhibited multiple bruises and or
punctures after four days of storage. Of course the


Boese machine was not designed for the fresh
market so the results of this test were not surprising.
A spokesman for Pace commented that the fruit
picked by the Boese harvester during April and May
was totally acceptable for their purposes. Actually,
many of the damaged fruit were simply cracked,
bruised or chipped and could easily have been used
as sliced product in their sauces. If all of the
damaged fruit was salvageable by Pace, total pack-
out would be comparable between the two
harvesting methods.


Table 2. Postharvest quality of 30 Hand vs. mechanically harvested jalapeno pepper fruit.

Treatment Weight Fruit Fruit Total
Loss Punctured Bruised Bruises
(%) (No.) (No.) (No.)
Machine 4.16 a 6.6 a 19.6 a 30.0 a
Hand Pick 2.31 b 0.4 b 0.4 b 0.4 b
LSD 0.05 0.45 4.4 4.4 8.6
(Vavrina & Brown, Vegetarian 96-07)









III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Horticultural Events at 1996 State 4H Congress.

1. Plant Science Demonstrations (Tuesday, July 30 AM).
Name County
Individual Division
Jeremy Allen Citrus
Julia Cannon Union
Richard March Broward
Katie Mullins Santa Rosa
Jason Quisenberry Seminole
Natasha Walden Hillsboro
Team Division
Ashley Dobbs and Marion
Jenni Upton


Title

Growing Watermelons
Propagating a Plant
Grafting
The Core of Grafting
Gardening
Creating a Dish Garden

The Fabulous Fern


2. 4H ID and Judging Contest open (Tuesday, July 30 PM).
Items in the contest include fruits, vegetables, and ornamentals.

3. Horticultural Leadership Track (Wednesday and Thursday, July 31-August 1).
Class Instructor
Building a garden toolbox Harold Beckham
Tropical fruits Gene Joyner
Marcottage JeffWilliamson
Herb gardening Jim Stephens & Barbara Daniels
Honeybee story Ray Zerba & Tom Stanford
Flower arranging Linda Landrum
Making a totem Jackie Host
Bonsai Charles Fedunak

(Stephens, Vegetarian 96-07)



Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Chairman


Dr. S. M. Olson
Professor


Mr. J. M. Stephens
Professor


Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Professor


Dr. S. A. Sargent
Assoc. Professor & Eitor


Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Assoc. Professor


Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor


Dr. W. M. Stall
Professor


Dr. J. M. White
Assoc. Professor




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