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Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00302
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: June 1995
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00302
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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UNIVERSITY OF Cooperative Extension Service

SFLORIDA Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences



VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication
Horticultural science Department P.O. 110690 Gainecville, FL 32611 Telephone 904/392-214


Vegetarian 95-6


June 19, 1995


Contents

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

B. Chinese Radish

H. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Tomato Institute Program.


II. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. "Non-vegetable" Vegetables.


S' .Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors. The purpose of
trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing
information and does not necessarily constitute a recommendation of
the product.








The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.
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I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

July 24-26, 1995. State 4-H Congress
Horticulture Events (Leadership Track).
Contact Jim Stephens, Hort. Sci. Dept., UF,
Gainesville.

July 27, 1995. Horticulture Contest.
Contact Jim Stephens, Hort. Sci. Dept., UF,
Gainesville.

September 6, 1995. Tomato Institute,
Ritz Carlton, Naples, FL. Contact C. Vavrina,
Southwest Florida REC, Immokalee.


H. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Chinese Radish

Although common radish is an
important commercial crop in Florida, Chinese
radish is rarely grown. The plants appear quite
different but both types are the same species -
Raphanus sativus. The root (hypoctyl + root)
of Chinese radish will continue to enlarge as
long as growing conditions are suitable. So,
roots weighing 20 pounds or more are
common. Since radish growth is best in cool
weather, it should be grown during late fall,
winter, and early spring in central and south
Florida.

A small trial was established at the Gulf
Coast Research and Education Center in
Bradenton by direct seeding on a raised bed at
4 inch in-row spacing on 24 January. Weeds
were controlled by hoeing but no pesticides
were needed as neither insects nor diseases
were detected.


The roots were harvested on 22
March, their diameter measured, and weight
obtained. A few roots were judged to be
unmarketable because they were misshapen.
The following data were obtained:
Average root diameter = 2.56 in.
Average root weight = 0.42 lb
Yield No. roots/100 row ft = 241
Wt. roots/100 row ft = 101 lb
Percent marketable roots = 90%

Root shape varied slightly from
globular to flattened globe. External root
color was creamy white and internal flesh
color was a pleasing rose-pink. We sliced the
roots and used them in a mixed raw vegetable
plate with dip. The roots are spicy, but not
pungent.

Chinese radish grew well under west
central Florida winter conditions, was pest
free, and produced a high proportion of quality
roots. A more extensive trial is planned for
winter 1996.

(Maynard, Vegetarian 95-06)




-2-
TOMATO INSTITUTE PROGRAM
Ritz Carlton, Naples
September 6, 1995
Morning Session
Moderator Ken Shuler, Palm Beach County Agricultural Agent

9:00 Introductory Remarks Dr. Richard Jones, Dean of Research

9:15 Competition with Mexico W. Hawkins (FL Tomato Committee)

9:35 The Situation and Competition Between Florida andMexico: The Rules of the Game Are Changing -

J. Van Sickle (Food & Resource Econ., Gainesville)

9:55 Regulations and the Regulators R. Carriker (Food & Resource Econ., Gainesville)

10:15 Changes in Tomato Spray Schedules--Long or Short Term Solution? -
M. Lamberts (Dade County Extension)

10:35 WPS Grower Compliance Strategies P. Gilreath (Manatee County Extension)

10:55 N Scheduling on Drip & Sap Testing G. Hochmuth (Hort. Sci., Gainesville)

11:15 Late Blight of Tomato and Potato.. or Who's on First? P. Weingartner (AREC, Hastings)

11:35 Management of Bacterial Wilt of Tomato D. Chellemi (NFREC, Quincy)

11:55 LUNCH

Afternoon Session

Moderator Suzanne Cady, Hillsborough County Agricultural Agent

1:30 European Tomato Industry S. Bures (IRTA, Barcelona, Spain)

1:55 The Use of Mating Disruption to Control Tomato Pinworm, Keiferia lycopersicella -
S. Swanson (Collier County)

2:15 Silverleaf Whitefly Management: What's to Come? P. Stansly (SWFREC, Immokalee)

2:35 Admire in the Plant House C. Vavrina (SWFREC, Immokalee)

2:55 Pathogenic Variation Within Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. J. Jones (GCREC,
Bradenton)

3:15 Bacterial Spot Resistance Breeding J. Scott (GCREC, Bradenton)

3:30 Outlook for TMoVand TYLCVResistance Breeding J. Scott (GCREC, Bradenton)

3:45 Industry Update 5 min. presentations on what's new

4:15 Adjourn


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II. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. "Non-vegetable" Vegetables.

Unusual parts

The culinary reputation of most
vegetables is based primarily on the edible
qualities of one or sometimes two primary
parts of the plant. For example, the tomato is
the leading garden vegetable due to the
popular appeal of its fruit, while the turnip
contributes both its root and its leaves as
tablefare. For home gardeners who grow and
have the entire vegetable plant at their
disposal, other plant parts may be edible,


although perhaps not so tasty as the main
product. For non-gardeners, however, there is
little option for eating parts other than those
offered for sale.

The following is a list of ordinary
garden vegetables with both commonly eaten
parts and less frequently eaten parts.
Obviously, in a list such as this, there may be
quite a few omissions.


VEGETABLE

Beans, snap
Beans, lima
Beets
Broccoli
Carrot
Cauliflower
Celery
Corn, sweet

Cucumber
Eggplant
Kohlrabi
Okra
Onions
Peas, English
Peas, Southern
Pepper

Potatoes, Sweet
Radish
Squash
Tomato
Turnip
Watermelon


COMMON EDIBLE PART

pod with seeds
seeds
root
flower head
root
immature flower
leaf stems
seeds

fruit with seeds
fruit with seeds
swollen stem
pods with seeds
root
seeds
seeds, pods
pods

roots
roots
fruit with seeds
fruits with seeds
roots, leaves
fruits-interior pulp and seeds


OTHER EDIBLE PARTS

leaves
pods, leaves
leaves
leaves, flower stem
leaves
flower stem, leaves
leaves, seeds
young ears, unfurled tassel,
young leaves
stem tips and young leaves
leaves edible but not flavorful
leaves
leaves
young leaves
pods, leaves
young leaves
leaves after cooking, immature
seeds
leaves and stem shoots
leaves
seeds, flowers, young leaves
leaves contain alkaloids

rind of fruit











Although many of the secondary plant
parts are edible, their popularity as food items
is diminished by lack of proper flavor or
unfavorable texture. For example, the leaves
of practically all the cabbage family are edible,
but the strong flavors of some species are
disagreeable or too strong for most people's
tastes.

The edible leaves and stem tips of
sweet potato vines are well known in many
parts of the world. Often considered a poor
man's food, sweet potato foliage has a rich
protein content that helps supplement the
nutritional value of the roots.

As for all vegetable parts, there is a
great deal of variation within varieties in flavor
and culinary characteristics of these secondary
parts. For example, some sweet potato stem
tips in certain varieties are bitter with a
resinous flavor that is too strong.

Quite often, cooking is necessary to
make the parts edible. Raw leaves eaten fresh
may even be slightly toxic in some cases.

Unusual Vegetables

The determination of the status of a
particular plant or species as to the
commonality of its usage is at best debatable.
Is it a common vegetable? Is it of minor
importance? If so, to whom, and if not so, to
whom? Is it even a vegetable at all. Does it
even matter? What seems most important is
the edibility of plant parts of any species in the
context of a vegetable.

There are the edible wild plants. For
those interested in edible use of weeds and
wild plants such as cat-tails, bladderworts, and
the mushrooms of the woods, it is best to


purchase one of the many books written on the
subject. The caution to be observed here is to
know the authority of the writer before taking
a chance on a certain species. Know how to
identify it or how to determine the proper
stage of edible maturity of the part, color,
plant part (seeds, root, etc). One must be
quite sure of one's knowledge of botany
before risking a chance mistaken identity when
it comes to deadly nightshade or mushrooms.
Three references on the subject of wild plants
for food use are:

a) "The Basic Essentials of Edible Wild Plants
and Useful Herbs", by Jim Meuninck (1988).

(b) "Stalking the Wild Asparagus", by Euell
Gibbons (1962).

c) "Edible Leaves of the Tropics" by F. W.
Martin and R. M. Ruberte.

To make sure no plant, common or
otherwise, is left out, the reader is referred to
the following list of references on vegetables,
both tropical and temperate.

1. Vegetables of the Dutch East Indies
(1931). A collector's item covers
vegetables used as pot herbs as well as
tubers, bulbs, rhizomes, and spices.


2. Tropical Crops:
(Purseglove, 1968).


Dicotyledons


3. Handbook of Tropical and Subtropical
Horticulture (Mortensen and Bullard,
1964).

4. Fundamentos, Botanicos de los
Cultivos Tropicals (Leon, 1968).
Spanish, on green leaf edibles.











5. Vegetable Growing in the Tropics and
Sub-tropics, Especially Indigenous
Vegetables (Terra, 1966).

6. Vegetable Production in Southeast
Asia (Knott and Deanon, 1967). The
best text on tropical vegetables.

7. The Samaka Guide (Samaka Service
Center, 1962). Philippine native and
introduced vegetables.

8. Useful Plants of The Philippines
(Brown, 1951).

9. List of Foods Used in Africa (Claude,
1967). 4000 items are included, over
1000 vegetables are listed.

10. Fruits and Vegetables in West Africa
(Tindall, 1965).


13. World Vegetables (Yamaguchi, 83).

14. Vegetable Gardening in the Caribbean
Area (USDA Ag. HB 323, 1967).

15. Manual of Minor Vegetables
(Stephens, SP 40, UF, 1988).

16. The Complete Book of Vegetables
(Buishard, 1986).

17. The Complete Book of Fruits and
Vegetables. (Bianchini and Corbetta,
1974).

18. The Vegetable Book (Lovelace, 1972).

19. Taylor's Guide to Vegetables ( 1990).


(Stephens, Vegetarian 95-06)


11. A Dictionary of the Economic
Products of the Malay Peninsula
(Burkhill, 1935).

12. Edible Leaves of the Tropics
(Martin/Ruberte, 1975).



Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D. J. Cantliffe
Chairman


Dr. S. M. Olson
Assoc. Professor


Mr. J. M. Stephens
Professor


Dr. G. J. Hochmuth
Professor


Dr. S. A. Sargent
Assoc. Professor


Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Asst. Professor


Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor


Dr. W. M. Stall
Profer


Dr. J. M. White
Assoc. Professor




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