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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: December 1993
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00295
Source Institution: University of Florida
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SUNIVERSITY OF Cooperative Extension Service

SFLORIDA Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences



-V VEGETARIAN


A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication
Horticultural sciences Department P.O. 110690 CGaincsville, FL 32611 Telephone 904/392-2134


Vegetarian 93-12


December 15, 1993


Contents

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Spices add Variety to Life.

B. Will Deeper Planting of Watermelon Transplant Influence
Yield?

C. Florida Agricultural Conference and Trade Show.


II. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Composted Yard Trash Energy Saving.


8 Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors. The purpose
of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of
providing information and does not necessarily constitute a
recommendation of the product.




The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.


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-1-


I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

January 8, 1994. Greenhouse and
Field Vegetable Shortcourse at the
Colosseum, Live Oak, FL. Contact Bob
Hochmuth, (904) 362-1725.
February 9-10, 1994. 1994
Seedsman Seminar, Holiday Inn West,
Gainesville, FL. Contact C. Vavrina,
SWFREC, Immokalee.
February 16-17, 1994. Florida
Agricultural Conference and Trade Show.
Orange County Convention Center,
Orlando, FL. Contact George Hochmuth,
Horticultural Sciences Dept., Gainesville.

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Spices add Variety to Life.

While we in Extension have a lot of
information on herbs, we seldom receive
much about spices. Therefore, I want to
share with you some of the highlights of a
report by Peter J. Buzzanell of the USDA,
entitled 'The Spice Market in the U.S. -
Recent Developments and Prospects,' Oct.,
1993. The American Spice Trade
Association (ASTA) defines spices as "any
dried plant product used primarily for
seasoning."
Herbs and spices are similar in
many respects, but generally a herb
becomes a spice when the whole plant or
plant part is ground, dehydrated, or
altered in some respect from the whole
plant. For example, ASTA does not
consider fresh ginger a spice, but does so
the altered forms: ground, sweetened,
candied. Also, the artificial spice
flavorings which so far are merely in the
testing stages, are not included in the spice
trade as yet.
The USA is both a producer and
exporter of spices. In 1992, a record 338
million pounds of spices was produced in
the U.S.; however, this amounted to only
39 percent of total spices consumed in the


U.S., meaning 61 percent were imported.
Total consumption in 1992 was about 856
million pounds.

U.S. Production
While the USDA's statistics on
domestic spice production is incomplete
and overlaps herb production, we can still
get a fair picture of the current situation.
In the U.S., the main spices grown are
capsicum (red pepper and paprika, which
are produced mostly in California, New
Mexico, Louisiana, the Carolinas (over one-
half of which is consumed in the U.S.).
Montana and the Dakotas are among
several states which grow mustard seed.
Most of what we use is imported from
Canada.
California is responsible for much of
the herbs which become spices, such as
dill, fennel, basil, mint, parsley, and
thyme. Hawaii is becoming an important
spice producing state, with such crops as
ginger (11,000,000 pounds in 1992), basil,
parsley, and cilantro. It is notable that
Florida is not listed as a major supplier for
any of the spices. As an exporter, the only
two significant spices from the U.S. are
dehydrated onions and garlic.
U.S. Imports
The U.S. imported almost $400
million worth of spices in 1992, but this is
only a small part (1.6%) of all agricultural
imports, which were $24.6 billion in 1992.
Of the 40 plus primary types of spices
imported each year, about 75% of the total
annual value is composed of seven items:
vanilla beans, capsicums, black and white
pepper, sesame seed, cinnamon,mustard,
and origanum. These come from over 50
countries, the leading ones being
Indonesia, Mexico, Malaysia, India,
Canada, and Pakistan (2/3 of the annual
value).
Here are some of the leading spice imports:
Black pepper (Piper nigrum).
Vanilla beans (Vanilla planifolia).
Capsicum peppers (Capsicum spp).
Ginger (Zingiber officiall.





-2-


Cinnamon (Cinnamon zeylandica) includes
cassia. Cloves (Syzygium aromatic).
Sesame seed (Sesamum indicum).
Nutmeg/mace (Myristica fragrance).
Allspice (Pimenta officinalis).
Turmeric (Curcuma longa).
Saffron (Crocus sativus).


Mustard seed (Brassica juncea).
Origanum (0. vulgare). Others: anise,
basil, capers, caraway seed, cardamon,
celery seed, coriander seed, cumin, curry (a
blend of spices), dill, fennel, laural (Bay
leaves), thyme, mint, poppy seed, sage, and
oleoresin (spice concentrate).


Table 1. U.S. Imports and Exports of Spices, 1992.Y


Spice


Exports (lbs)


Anise (or Badian seeds)
Capsicum peppers

Caraway seed
Cardamom
Cassia and Cinnamon

Cloves

Coriander seed
Cumin seed

Curry
Fennel
Garlic, dehydrated
Garlic, whole
Ginger


Mace


83,335
7,221,239

53,572
59,745
1,276,000

61,290

85,540
264,000

157,410
14,990
6,000,000

2,818,000


Imports ($)

$ 2,235,000.00
$60,400,000.00

$ 3,007,000.00
$ 778,000.00
$26,000,000.00

$ 1,503,000.00

$ 1,497,000.00
$12,596,000.00

$ 1,511,000.00
$ 3,300,000.00
$ 2,649,000.00
$ 7,790,000.00
$ 9,800,000.00


127,200


Mustard seed
Mustard, prepared
Nutmeg

Onions, dehydrated

Pepper, Black/white

Pepper, Black only

Poppy seed

Saffron
Sesame seed

Thyme and bay leaves

Turmeric


1,671,545
9,880,455
100,750

32,593,130

4,417,180


105,800

12,785
2,761,950

203,046

95,680


$15,000,000.00
$ 8,000,000.00


$ 1,619,000.00

$50,090,000.00

$41,700,000.00

$ 3,126,000.00

$ 3,173,000.00
$42,700,000.00

$ 4,504,000.00

$ 4,000,000.00


Imports (Ibs) Leading Sources


2,265,000


7,206,000
372,000
33,170,000

2,547,000

5,101,000
14,187,000

1,028,000
6,956,000
5,858,000


Turkey
India, Pakistan,
China and Mexico
Netherlands
Guatemala
Indonesia,
Sri Lanka, China
Madagascar,
Brazil, Indonesia
Canada, Morocco
Pakistan,
Turkey,China
India, Japan
Egypt, India


19,800,000 Fiji, Indonesia,
India
485,000 Indonesia, Singapore,
Netherlands
122,847,000 Canada (99%)
Canada, France
3,715,000 Indonesia, Singapore,
Leeward Islands
2,653,000


89,486,000

10,762,000

7,048
77,146,000

3,930,000

5,744,000


Indonesia,
Brazil,India
Indonesia,
Brazil,India
Australia,
Netherlands
Spain (96%)
Mexico, Guatemala,
El Salvador
Spain (thyme)
Turkey (bay)
India, Indonesia,
China









Exports (Ibs)


Vanilla beans
Allspice (pimenta)


Origanum
Basil
Capers
Paprika
Celery Seed
Dill
Mint
Parsley
Sage
Others include Marjoram,
Rosemary, Savory, Tarragon

Imports total all spices (1992):


Spice


Imports (Ibs) Leading Sources


Imports ($)

$65,700,000.00
$ 1,700,000.00

$11,700,000.00
$ 3,038,000.00
$ 5,891,000.00
$ 6,054,000.00
$ 1,599,000.00
$ 764,000.00
$ 444,000.00
$ 730,000.00
$ 5,567,000.00
$ 6,555,000.00


Indonesia, Madagascar
Jamaica, Honduras,
Guatemala
Turkey, Mexico,Greece
Egypt
Spain, Turkey
Spain,Morocco,Hungary
India
India
Egypt

Albania


$368,656,000
549,400,000 lbs


Total all spices consumed in U.S. (1992): 856,548,000 lbs


YSource: U. S. Dept. Commerce, as reported by Peter J. Buzzanell, 10-93.

(Stephens, Vegetarian 93-12)



B. Will Deeper Planting of
Watermelon Transplant Influence Yield?


Last year, pepper growers were
encouraged to plant their transplants a
little deeper based on research generated
at the Southwest Florida Research and
Education Center and Extension
demonstrations in Hillsborough, Manatee
and Palm Beach counties. More recently,
Ken Shuler, Palm Beach County Extension
Vegetable Agent, noted that based on his
field demonstrations with deeper pepper
transplant plantings, over 2,000 acres of
pepper land was "converted" this fall to
deeper plantings!
Furthermore, research from North
Carolina in the late 1960's indicated larger
yields in once-over-harvest cabbage can be
obtained with deeper transplants. So
might deeper planting of watermelon
transplants prove beneficial for FL


growers? To answer that question, studies
were conducted over three spring
watermelon crops to assess transplant
depth effects on yield. Due to variability
legginesss) within the transplants from
year to year, we used the physical
positions of the top of the root ball and the
cotyledon (seed leaves) as depth markers.
Table 1 presents first harvest and
total yields for Crimson Sweet watermelon.
In only one of the three years studied did
deeper planted watermelon transplants
result in a significant yield difference and
then only at first harvest (p=0.07).
Visitors to the spring 1993 SWFREC
vegetable field day will attest to the added
vigor and greatly increased size displayed
by the deeper planted plants, however
dramatic yield differences were not
apparent. As with pepper transplants,
deeper planting of watermelon "tends" to


2,781,000
1,900,000

12,200,000
4,746,000
2,593,000
6,784,000
5,877,000
1,592,000
640,000
500,000
5,324,000
5,950,000









advance plant maturity resulting in
greater early yields, with no apparent
effect on total yield. No differences in
individual fruit weight were noted in any
year, therefore the increased yield was a
result of more fruit.
Deeper plantings seem to reduce
the stress exerted by wind on young
plants. This factor may explain the
increased growth in vine and foliage noted
in the field. More vigorous growth in the
first 30 days or so may also be an
advantage in combating early disease.
While all of the 1993 plants went through
the "Storm of the Century" with few losses,
the deeper plantings seemed to recover
more rapidly.


This transplant depth work has not
received the broad geographical testing
seen with the pepper study. While the
data are not convincingly strong to
warrant wholesale conversion to deeper
planting watermelon growers statewide are
encouraged to try a block of cotyledon
depth planting. Commercial transplant
growers generally do a good job of keeping
plants short and stocky. However, should
your plants prove to be leggierr" than you
would like, do not hesitate to plant them
deeper. Studies so far have not tested
even deeper plantings (first true leaf or
greater), but this is on tap for the coming
season.


Table


1. The effect of watermelon planting depth on yield in CWT/A.*


Treatment 1st Harvest Total Harvest


Spring 1990
Deep 175a 832a
Standard 162a 726a


Spring 1991
Deep 300a -**
Standard 293a


Spring 1993
Deep 169a 296a
Standard 135b 315a
Values followed by the same letter are not significantly different by LSD=10%.
S* Losses to gummy stem blight resulted in only one harvest.


(Vavrina, Vegetarian 93-12)





-5-


C. Florida Agricultural Conference and Trade Show.


FACTS VEGETABLES
Coordinators: George Hochmuth and Don Maynard


PROGRAM 1 PEPPER (Wed., Feb. 16)


9:00 AM 9:40



9:40 10:05



10:05 10:30


10:30 12:00


Growing and Marketing Specialty Peppers. Bob Hochmuth, Suwannee
Valley AREC, University of Florida, Live Oak, FL, Chuck O'Bern,
C & B Farms, Clewiston, FL, and TBA (Marketing).

Cultural Aspects Bell Peppers. Ken Shuler, Palm Beach County
Cooperative Extension Service, West Palm Beach, FL and Charlie
Vavrina, Southwest Florida REC, University of Florida, Immokalee, FL.

Tissue Testing Bell Peppers. Jim Fletcher, Madison County
Cooperative Extension Service, Madison, FL.

Panel Discussion Pepper Pest Management. Joe Noling, Citrus REC,
University of Florida, Lake Alfred, FL, Dave Schuster, Gulf Coast REC,
University of Florida, Bradenton, FL, Ken Pohronezny, Everglades
REC, University of Florida, Belle Glade, FL, Tom Mueller, Collier
Enterprises, Immokalee, FL, and Charlie Mellinger, Glades Crop Care,
Inc. Jupiter, FL.


PROGRAM 2 POTATO (Wed., Feb. 16)


2:15 2:45


2:45 3:15



3:15 3:45


3:45 4:15


Potato Fertilization. George Hochmuth, Horticultural Sciences Dept.,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Pest Management Observations in Florida Since Loss of Temik.
Fred Johnson, Dept. Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL.

Foliage Disease Management. Pete Weingartner, AREC, University of
Florida, Hastings, FL.

Potato Breeding and Varieties. Kathleen Haynes, USDA-ARS,
Beltsville, MD.









PROGRAM 3 SWEET CORN (Thurs., Feb. 17)


9:00 AM 9:20


9:20 9:40

9:40 10:00



10:00 10:20



10:20 10:40


10:40 11:00


11:00- 11:20


Sweet Corn Variety Trials in Zellwood. Marion White, Central Florida
REC, University of Florida, Sanford, FL.

Update on the IFAS Sweet Corn Breeding Program. Brian Scully,
Everglades REC, University of Florida, Belle Glade, FL.
Results of the Phosphorus Sweet Corn Trials in the Lake Apopka
Hydrologic Unit Area Project. Ed Hanlon, Soil and Water Science
Dept., University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Postharvest Handling of Sweet Corn: Consumer Packs and
Precooling. Jeff Brecht, Horticultural Sciences Dept., University of
Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Sweet Corn Aerial Application, Foliage Penetration Study. A. Welch,
E. I. Dupont and Company, Bradenton, FL, and Bill Bear, E. I. Dupont
and Company, Sarasota, FL.

Foliage Disease Management in Sweet Corn. Richard Raid,
Everglades REC, University of Florida, Belle Glade, FL.

Insect Management in Sweet Corn. Gregg Nuessly, Everglades REC,
University of Florida, Belle Glade, FL.


PROGRAM 4 SWEET ONIONS (Thurs. Feb. 17)


1:30 2:00


2:00- 2:30


2:30 3:00


3:00 3:30


Onion Production and Fertilization. Dale Hensel, AREC, University of
Florida, Hastings, FL.

Onion Varieties for Florida. Steve Olson, North Florida REC,
University of Florida, Quincy, FL.

Onion Disease Identification and Control. Dan Chellemi, North
Florida REC, University of Florida, Quincy, FL.

Harvesting and Handling for Optimum Postharvest Quality. Jeff
Brecht, Horticultural Sciences Dept., University of Florida, Gainesville,
FL.


(Hochmuth, Vegetarian 93-12)




-7-


III. VEGETABLE GARDENING


omposted Yard Trash-


Studies at the Organic Gardening
Research and Education Park, UF,
Gainesville, have indicated that composted
yard trash can be utilized effectively for
amending soils in vegetable gardens. On
an annual basis as much as 40 tons per
acre can be incorporated without
detriment, not including the animal waste
that should be included with it. Since
there are an estimated 7000 acres of
vegetable gardens in Florida, some 280,000
tons of the state's 3 million tons of yard
trash could be disposed of in vegetable
gardens as soil amendment. An additional
amount of 280,000 tons could be utilized as
mulching material (ground surface use), for
a whopping total of 560,000 tons recycled
and kept out of landfills.


If all the 6-6-6 inorganic fertilizer
were replaced with 1% nitrogen animal
manure (280,000 tons), the equivalent
amount of 6-6-6 would be about 46,000
tons. This is equivalent to 2,800 tons of
synthetic nitrogen. Since one ton of
synthetic nitrogen has an energy value
equivalent to about 500 gallons of diesel
fuel, this is like saving the BTU's from
1,400,000 gallons of diesel fuel! Think
about it.

(Stephens, Vegetarian 12-93)


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D.J. Cantliffe
Chairman



Dr. S.M. Olson
Assoc. Professor



JM. Stephens
Professor & Editor


Dr. G.J. Hochmuth
Professor



Dr. S.A. Sargent
Assoc. Professor



Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Asst. Professor


Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor



Dr. W.M. Stall
Professor



Dr. J. M. White
Assoc. Professor


A. Cc
Energy Saving.




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