Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: November 1993
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00294
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1 UNIVERSITY OF Cooperative Extension Service
SFLORIDA Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences



-_I VEGETARIAN


A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication
Horticultural sciencee Department P.O. 110690 Gaineville, fl 32611 Telephone 904/392-2134


Vegetarian 93-11


November 15, 1993


2).


Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors. The purpose
of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of
providing information and does not necessarily constitute a
recommendation of the product.






The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.


Contents
I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
A. Petiole Sap Test Guidelines.
B. Potato Disease Situation for 1993-94 Season.

Ill. VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. Organic Cucumbers and Muskmelons.





-2-


I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

January 8, 1994. Greenhouse and
Field Vegetable Shortcourse at the
Colosseum, Live Oak, FL. Contact Bob
Hochmuth, (904) 362-1725.

February 16-17, 1994. Florida
Agricultural Conference and Trade Show.
Orange County Convention Center,
Orlando, FL. Contact Larry Jackson,
CREC, Lake Alfred.

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Petiole Sap Test Guidelines.

Plant petiole sap testing has become
popular among vegetable growers and crop
consultants as a means to determine plant
N and K status. Fast turn-around of
results from a calibrated sap test


procedure can help growers make decisions
about fertilizer management, particularly
for drip irrigation users who are injecting
fertilizer. We have been gathering data on
sap testing for several vegetable crops in
Florida.

Some of our data for several crops
are presented in this article. Although the
data might be somewhat regional, I think
the values might have usefulness at least
as a starting point for trial. Users should
therefore view these values as guidelines.

Optimum sap testing should be
based on field research where yields are
measured for various fertilizer programs.
Fine tuning of the sap testing program
should be done by the grower for a
particular farm and season. Although
calibrating a sap test involves significant
work, I believe that sap testing holds
promise for improving our ability to
manage N and K fertilization of
vegetables.


IRISH POTATOES


Stage of growth

Plants 8-inch tall
First open flowers
50% flowering
100% flowering
Tops falling over
Tops down


Sap NO3-N


Sap K


-------------ppm -----------
1400-1600 4500-5000
1200-1400 4500-5000
1200-1400 4000-4500
900-1200 3000-3800
800-1200 2500-3000
200-800 <2000


ANNUAL HILL STRAWBERRIES
OCTOBER PLANTING


Stage of growth

November
December
January
February
March
April


Sap NO3-N Sap K
---------------- ppm -------------
800-900 3000-3500
600-800 3000-3500
600-800 2500-3000
300-500 2000-2500
200-500 1800-2500
200-500 1500-2000









BELL PEPPER


Stage of growth


First buds
First open flowers
Fruits half-growth
First harvest
Second harvest


Sap NO3-N


Sap K


------------- ppm --------------
1400-1600 3200-3500
1400-1600 3000-3200
1200-1400 3000-3200
800-1000 2400-3000
500-800 2000-2400


TOMATO


Stage of growth


First buds
First open flowers
Fruits 1-inch diameter
Fruits 2-inch diameter
First harvest
Second harvest


Sap N03-N


Sap K


----------- ppm --------------
1000-1200 3500-4000
600-800 3500-4000
400-600 3000-3500
400-600 3000-3500
300-400 2500-3000
200-400 2000-2500


BROCCOLI


Stage of growth


Six-leaf stage
Two-inch heads
At harvest


Sap NO-N

----- ppm ---
800-1000
500-800
300-500


EGGPLANT


Stage of growth


First fruit
First harvest
Mid harvest


Sap NO3-N


Sap K


--------------- pm ------------
1200-1600 4500-5000
1000-1200 4000-4500
800-1000 3500-4000


(Hochmuth, Vegetarian 93-11)


______I __I_ ___


____ _____ ___ ___ ____ ____









B. Potato Disease Situation for
1993-94 Season.

Wet weather in portions of the
midwest and northeast in 1993 and the
spreading of "new" strains of the potato
late blight fungus, Phytophthora infestans
around the world and in portions of the
United States have created a complex
situation for potato producers (commercial
and gardens). Current indications are that
the quality of much of the potato seed
tuber supply will be low. Excessive rains
where seed tuber production occurred in
1993 created favorable conditions for
invasion of potato tubers by bacteria that
cause soft rot and black leg, fungi that
cause drier rots, and the late blight
fungus. Although speculative at this point,
we think the seed pieces from some seed
production areas of the midwest and the
northeast will have fewer defects than
those from other areas. In general,
however, areas in the midwest that
incurred heavy rains are likely to have
higher levels of both soft rot bacteria
(including black let) and late blight than
other areas. Potatoes from some areas of
the northeast are likely to be infected with
the late blight fungus also, but damage
from bacterial diseases may be less.

Considering the complex situation,
we have prepared a list of considerations
for anyone (producers, co-ops, garden
supply operators, gardeners, etc) who will
be purchasing seed tubers and growing
potatoes. In the past, WE HAVE
LEARNED (often the hard way) THAT
HAVING GOOD QUALITY SEED PIECES
IS A MUST TO PRODUCE A HIGH
QUALITY END PRODUCT.

CONSIDERATIONS FOR ACQUISITION
AND HANDLING OF SEED TUBERS
AND SEED PIECES.

1. CERTIFIED seed potatoes (F.O.B.) can
not have more than 2% of the tubers with
any kind of defects. The limit for late


blight is 1%. Therefore, uncertified
potatoes should not be purchased or
accepted. Some problems exist here.
Some planting is underway in Florida and
some growers may have already accepted
defective potatoes or normal-appearing
tubers with levels of soft rot bacteria that
are higher than normal. Because of the
uncontrollable weather in the midwest in
1993, a large supply of potatoes may not be
certifiable within federal law. It is advised
that growers or grower groups call the seed
producers in various areas to determine
the quality of the seed production crop.
On-site visits may be necessary to inspect
for quality. Some growers have already
done this.

2. Before loads are accepted, they should
be carefully inspected for defects. It may
be advisable to ask for an inspection by the
Florida Department of Agriculture. Some
private consultants may provide this
service. As we understand, once the load
is accepted, there is no recourse. If
possible, potatoes should be air-dried prior
to storage because the cool potatoes will
form condensation immediately upon being
exposed to our humid air. Soft rot bacteria
can enter or increase in tubers during
production, storage, transit, planting, or
emergence periods.

3. Seed tubers should be stored in a
manner where condensation does not form
on the potatoes, bags, or pallets and moist
air is dissipated as soon as possible after
receipt. This will require the
establishment of forced air through the
storage area. If the air can be warmed,
drying and suberization of skinned and
bruised tubers will be enhanced. Bags and
pallets should not be packed tight.
Containers need to be spaced in a manner
that allows for movement of natural or
forced air. Forcing air through perforated
pipes among the storage containers is
recommended.





-5-


4. The land should be prepared in a way
that minimizes survival of old crop and
weed debris at least 30 days prior to
planting (e.g. bottom plowing) to minimize
young plant diseases. Rhizoctonia spp.,
Fusarium spp. and bacteria such as
Erwinia spp. can survive in the soil and
are likely to be in higher populations if old
crop debris is not decomposed. Provision
for drainage to minimize standing water
from excessive rains is advised, as is the
use of crop rotation.

5. Planting should be timed so that the
seed pieces and young plants are not
exposed to excessive moisture. Warm soils
that are wet are more likely to have
inoculum for bacterial soft rot diseases.

6. For this season, IT IS ADVISED THAT
ALL SEED-PIECE LOTS BE GRADED
ON THE FARM PRIOR TO CUTTING,
preferably at the time of arrival, by
rigorously separating defective tubers from
the intended planting stock. CULLS
SHOULD BE DESTROYED AND NOT
LEFT AROUND FIELDS OR HANDLING
FACILITIES. THOROUGHLY BURY OR
BURN CULLS. CULL PILES ARE
NOTORIOUS FOR PROVIDING
INOCULUM FOR PLANTINGS.
SEPARATE PERSONNEL SHOULD BE
USED FOR THIS OPERATION. THIS
MAY SEEM TO BE AN
UNCOMFORTABLE AND EXPENSIVE
TASK, BUT IN THE LONG RUN IT WILL
BE ADVANTAGEOUS. FURTHER,
PLANTING FEWER ACRES OF
QUALITY SEED PIECES WILL BE
EASIER TO MANAGE OVER THE
SEASON THAN A GREATER ACREAGE
WITH EXCESSIVE DISEASE
PROBLEMS.

7. After culling, seed tubers should be
handled with a minimum of bruising and
treated with a labelled DRY seed-piece
fungicide immediately after cutting. If
handling equipment becomes obviously
contaminated from mushy seed tubers, the


time should be taken to at least clean
(preferably disinfest) knives and other
equipment as often as practical. If a lot of
seed tubers has a high incidence of disease,
the equipment should be disinfested before
the next lot is processed. Diluted bleach
and commercial disinfestants are available.

Seed tubers and pieces should not
be wetted. Do not use wet gibberellic acid
for sprout stimulation unless necessary (as
in Dade County) where freshly harvested
seed tubers have to be used.

Dust formulations of captain and
Tops-2.5D are available for seed piece
treatment. Although not thoroughly
tested, it has been observed that treatment
with captain as a dust may reduce bacterial
seed piece decay at least slightly.
Mancozeb products such as Dithane M45,
Penncozeb, Maneb Plus Zinc F4, Manex II,
and Manzate 200 DF are labelled for seed
piece treatment as aqueous dips. Because
the seed pieces need to be treated wet with
the mancozeb products, it may not be a
good practice this year because of the
lower quality seed tubers.

8. Seed pieces should be planted as soon
as possible after the seed is cut and
treated with a fungicide. If seed pieces
need to be stored, they should be kept dry
as outlined above.

CONSIDERATIONS FOR SUPPRESSION
OF LATE BLIGHT ON EMERGED
PLANTS.
It is highly likely that late blight, a
disease of potatoes and tomatoes, will
occur in the 1993-1994 crop. Severe
outbreaks occurred in last year's crop in
Florida and in some of the seed tuber
production areas up north. In addition to
the inoculum that might be introduced via
seed tubers, the late blight fungus may
have survived in some fields in Florida
from the last crop. With the introduction
of the second mating strain last year or
sometime in the past, the overall





-6-


population may now have the ability to
produce a thick-walled spore oosporee) that
can survive in our fields. Prior to last
season, we have generally regarded
survival of the late blight fungus through
the hot summer to be minimal. It is a
cool-weather pathogen (55 to 65 F is near
optimal).

In addition, a strains) of the late
blight fungus that is resistant (insensitive)
to metalaxyl (e.g. Ridomil 2E) was found in
Florida and elsewhere in the U.S. last
season. Below are some considerations for
the chemical control of late blight.

A. Ridomil 2E is not labelled for
use on potatoes any more!!! It was labelled
for use as a soil treatment at seeding only.
It was never labelled as a foliar spray
because of the risk of creating ideal
conditions for buildup of resistant strains.

B. Metalaxyl-containing products
(MCP's) formulated with a COMPANION
FUNGICIDE SUCH AS MANCOZEB,
CHLOROTHALONIL, AND COPPER ARE
AVAILABLE. We strongly advise that
these products be used within the overall
spray program for potato production and
tomato production this season. Examples
of such products are RIDOMIL MZ-58 and
RIDOMIL BRAVO 81W.

Plant Protection Pointer NO. 6
should be consulted for details on the use
of the above listed fungicides as well as
other available materials. Limitations
related to application numbers and rates
are presented. When Ridomil MZ-58 is
used, tank mixing additional mancozeb (up
to legal limits of total mancozeb) to the
spray mix is advised so that ample
mancozeb is available for control of late
blight and other foliar diseases. The use of
non- MCP's such as mancozeb and
chlorothalonil without MCP's or
alternating them with MCP's are
additional options. With non-MCP's spray


intervals may need to be reduced to 5-10
days.

FORECASTING THE FUTURE IS
RISKY BUT WE BELIEVE THAT
GROWERS NEED TO BE ADVISED OF
POSSIBLE PRODUCTION PROBLEMS.
HOPEFULLY THEY WILL KEEP IN
CONTACT WITH COUNTY EXTENSION
FACULTY FOR NEW DEVELOPMENTS.
WE WISH THEM LUCK.
Scrutinize TAILGATE RUMORS, no doubt
there will be plenty.

(Kucharek, Weingartner, and Bartz,
Plant Pathologists. Vegetarian 93-11)


III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Organic Cucumbers and
Muskmelons.

Over in the Organic Gardening
Research and Education Park (Gainesville,
UF), this past Spring Dr. Steve Kostewicz
evaluated 15 cucumber and 42 muskmelon
varieties for home gardens under organic
culture. He applied 40 tons per acre of
poultry manure (that included some
bedding as a pre-plant fertilizer). The
aged poultry litter, which had been stored
under a tarp for several months prior to
application, was broadcast/incorporated 30
days before seeding. As the crops grew,
they were sidedressed weekly with an
application of fish emulsion (1 pint/1000 sq
ft) until harvest. Seeds were planted on
March 23, 1993, using the "hill" system (1
plant per 20 sq. ft.).

Results

Cucumbers were harvested 14
times. Twelve of the varieties yielded
heavy outputs of fruits. The highest yields
(lb/plant), were obtained from 'Slice Nice',
'Poinsett 76', 'Tasty Green', and
'Supersett'. The most fruits per plant
came from 'Slice Nice'.





-7-


Muskmelons: In spite of
unfavorable cool, wet growing conditions,
several varieties did develop some good-
size fruits. However, daily showers
resulted in foliage diseases and fruits with
low sugar content and growth-cracks. The
best early melons (80-90 days) were 'Sweet
'N Early', 'Eastern Star', and 'Star
Headliner'. The highest mid-season (90-
100 days) yielders were 'Magnum 45',
'Ambrosia', 'Primo', and 'Tangiers'. The
best of the late season (100+ days)
varieties were 'Grande Gold', 'Durango',
and 'Luscious Plus'.


In subjective tests to evaluate the
degree of sweetness, muskmelon varieties
that tasted moderately sweet were as
follows: 'Sweet'N Early', 'Eastern Star',
'Ambrosia', 'Grande Gold', 'Primo', and
'Luscious Plus'.

Readers wishing to know more
about these trials under organic growing
conditions are referred to the article by S.
R. Kostewicz on page 267, Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 105:1992.

(Stephens, Vegetarian 93-11)


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D.J. Cantliffe
Chairman



Dr. S.M. Olson
Assoc. Professor



/ M tephens
Profess & Editor


Dr. G.J. Hochmuth
Professor



Dr. S.A. Sargent
Assoc. Professor



Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Asst. Professor


Dr. D. N. Maynard
Professor



Dr. W.M. Stall
Professor



Dr. J. M. White
Assoc. Professor




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