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Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00293
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: October 1993
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00293
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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UNIVERSITY OF Cooperative Extension Service

R, FLORIDA Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences



VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication
IHorticultural Sciences Department D.0. 110690 Gainesville, FL 32611 Telephone 904/392-2134


Vegetarian 93-10


October 15, 1993


Contents


I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
A. Florida Strawberry Leaf and Petiole Sap Analysis.
B. Watermelon Variety Trial Results, Spring 1993.

II. PESTICIDE UPDATE
A. A New Prowl Supplemental Label on Direct-Seeded and
Transplanted Dry Bulb Onions.

III. VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. Herb Directory.





Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors. The purpose
of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of
providing information and does not necessarily constitute a
recommendation of the product.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without reward tn race, rlor. sex, ape handicap or national origin.


- 4









I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Florida Strawberry Leaf and
Petiole Sap Analysis.

For the past two seasons, Earl
Albregts and I have been studying N and
K requirements of drip-irrigated
strawberries. We have conducted
numerous leaf and petiole nutrient
analyses, including K and nitrate-N
analyses of fresh petiole sap. Strawberry
yield in both seasons was only moderately
responsive to N fertilization above 0.25 lb
N per acre per day. Only during the heavy
fruiting period of March did yields respond
to up to 0.75 lb N per acre per day.

Soils used for these studies had
Mehlich-1 potassium in the low (1991) and
medium (1992) categories. Strawberry
yield was generally maximized at 0.25 lb K
per acre per day. Only in 1991 in March
did yields respond positively to more than
0.25 lb (up to 0.5 lb) K per acre per day.
Excessive K appeared to reduce strawberry
fruit size.


Nutrient management is important
for strawberries, not only because it saves
money, but reducing excessive fertilization
can result in a better yielding crop with
better quality fruit. In addition, optimum
fertilization helps in the overall
management of the strawberry plant.
Reduced nitrogen helps minimize
vegetative growth which can help
maximize pesticide coverage of the plant.
Harvesters are less likely to miss fruits
hidden by dense foliage.

There are many benefits to
improved fertilization management. The
guidelines are provided below for N and K
management for drip-irrigated
strawberries. The petiole values are
provided for a trial basis and can be used
to help guide adjustments being made in a
fertilization program.


FLORIDA STRAWBERRY LEAF AND PETIOLE SAP ANALYSIS

WHOLE LEAF


Growth stage N K
Initial Flowers 3.0-4.0 2.5-3.0
Initial Harvest 3.0-3.5 2.5-3.0
Main Season 2.8-3.0 2.0-2.8
Late Season 2.5-3.0 1.5-2.5


PETIOLE SAP (FOR TRIAL)


November
December
January
February
March
April


ppm
NO3-N K
800-900 3000-3500
600-800 3000-3500
600-800 2500-3000
300-500 2000-2500
200-500 1800-2500
200-500 1500-2000





-2-



STRAWBERRY INJECTION SCHEDULE


Stage
First 2 weeks
Second 2 weeks
Remaining 24 weeks


N and K20
lb/A/day
0.25
0.25
0.50 to 0.75 (0.75 in March)


(Hochmuth, Vegetarian 93-10)


B. Watermelon Variety Trial
Results, Spring 1993.

Standard watermelons weigh from
18 to 35 lbs and represent most of the
commercial crop grown in Florida. Icebox
watermelons weigh 6 to 12 lbs each and
are grown on a small acreage. Seedless
watermelons, weighing 12 to 18 Ibs, also
are grown in Florida on a limited scale.
Florida produced 9 million cwt of
watermelons of all types from 45,000
harvested acres in 1991-92 which provided
an average yield of 200 cwt/acre. The
average price was $6.95/cwt providing a
crop value exceeding $62 million which
accounted for 3.6% of the gross returns to
the state's vegetable growers.

Until recently, the Florida crop was
about equally divided among open
pollinated and hybrids of the Crimson
Sweet, Charleston Gray, and Jubilee types.
A noticeable decline in Charleston Gray
and Jubilee production has been replaced
largely by increased acreage of Allsweet
and blocky Crimson Sweet types.

The purpose of this trial was to
evaluate some of the recently introduced
varieties, hybrids, and experimental lines
of the Crimson Sweet and Allsweet types.

Twenty-five watermelon hybrids
were direct-seeded on 16 February in holes
punched in the polyethylene at 3 ft in-row
spacing in a replicated, randomized,
complete block design. Weed control in


row middles was by cultivation and
applications of paraquat. Pesticides were
applied as needed for control of
sweetpotato whitefly and gummy stem
blight.

The watermelons were harvested on
7, 15 and 28 June. Marketable melons
according to U.S. grades were separated
from culls and counted and weighed
individually. Soluble solids determinations
were made on two to six fruit of each entry
at each harvest.

Early yields, representing the first
of three harvests, ranged from 0 for
'Summer Flavor 400' to 304 cwt/acre for
'Rebel Queen'. Fifteen other entries had
early yields similar to those of 'Rebel
Queen.' Average fruit weight of early-
harvested watermelons ranged from 15.4 lb
for XPH 6190 to 25.8 lb for 'StarBrite'.
Five other entries had early fruit weight
similar to that of 'StarBrite' while ten
entries had early fruit weight similar to
that of XPH 6190. Total yields,
representing three harvests, ranged from
637 cwt/acre for XPH 6159 to 1026
cwt/acre for 'StarBrite'. Five other entries
had total yields similar to 'StarBrite' while
17 other entries had total yields similar to
those of XPH 6159. Average fruit weight
for three harvests ranged from 17.2 lb for
'Royal Majesty' and XPH 6190 to 24.9 lb
for 'Summer Flavor 610'. Soluble solids
ranged from 11.1% for RXW 105 to 13.0%
for 'Sultan'. Soluble solids in all entries










exceeded the 10% specified for optional use
in the U.S. grade standards.
Watermelon yields and quality were
considerably higher in this trial than those
obtained in 1991 when gummy stem blight
severely restricted yields and in 1992 when
yields were restricted by a vine decline
from an undetermined cause. Overall
yields were three to five times the state
average yield.

EARLY AND TOTAL YIELD, AVERAGE FRUIT WEIGHT, AND SOLUBLE SOLIDS OF STANDARD


WATERMELONS.


GULF COAST RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTER.


SPRING 1993.


Early Harvestl Total Harvest
Average Average Soluble
Weight fruit Weight fruit solids
Entry (cwt/A) wt (1b) (cwt/A) 2 wt (ib) (%)
StarBrite 123 a-di 25.8 a 1026 a 23.7 a-c 11.5 c-f
XPH 6144 187 a-d 20.9 b-e 992 ab 21.2 b-h 11.5 c-f
Mirage 48 cd 24.0 a-c 953 a-c 24.2 ab 11.8 b-f
Crimson Tide 72 b-d 17.8 e-g 932 a-d 20.7 c-j 11.9 b-f
Huck Finn 154 a-d 23.3 a-c 913 a-e 22.0 a-f 11.8 b-f

RXW 105 226 a-c 19.6 c-g 866 a-f 19.4 f-j 11.1 f
RXW 104 204 a-c 21.0 b-e 831 b-g 19.8 e-j 11.8 b-f
Summer Flavor 610 91 b-d 20.2 c-f 824 b-h 24.9 a 11.9 b-f
XPH 6194 175 a-d 22.6 a-d 815 b-h 18.5 f-j 11.4 d-f
Fiesta 209 a-c 16.8 e-g 797 c-h 18.2 h-j 11.7 b-f

Sangria 150 a-d 17.3 e-g 794 c-h 19.1 f-j 12.5 a-c
Summer Flavor 400 0 d 787 c-h 23.4 a-d 12.3 a-d
Royal Sweet 28 cd 21.0 b-e 786 c-h 21.8 a-g 11.4 d-f
ASM 6564 135 a-d 17.0 e-g 758 d-h 18.5 f-j 11.1 ef
Sultan 144 a-d 20.4 b-f 744 e-h 21.0 b-i 13.0 a

XPH 6190 261 ab 15.4 g 743 e-h 17.2 j 11.7 b-f
Royal Star 97 b-d 20.5 b-f 739 e-h 23.5 a-d 11.9 b-f
Royal Majesty 132 a-d 16.6 e-g 738 e-h 17.2 j 12.0 b-f
Regency 30 od 22.7 a-d 732 e-h 23.7 a-c 12.2 a-d
Summer Flavor 410 50 od 24.8 ab 699 f-h 23.1 a-e 12.1 b-e

RXW 106 192 a-d 17.9 e-g 682 f-h 20.1 d-j 12.1 b-e
XPH 6188 181 a-d 18.2 e-g 680 f-h 18.6 f-j 12.1 b-e
XPH 6189 213 a-c 20.2 c-f 669 gh 20.3 c-j 11.7 b-f
Rebel Queen 304 a 16.0 fg 639 h 17.5 ij 11.9 b-f
XPH 6159 86 b-d 16.5 e-g 637 h 18.3 g-j 12.5 ab

'Earlv harvest represents the first of three harvests.


Acre = 4840 Ibf.
3Mean separation in columns by Duncan's multiple range
(Maynard, Vegetarian 93-10)


test, 5% level.





-4-


II. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. New Prowl Supplemental Label
on Direct-Seeded and Transplanted Dry
Bulb Onions.

Supplemental labelinghas just been
received for the use of Prowl 3.3 EC in
direct-seeded and transplanted dry bulb
onions.

In mineral soils Prowl may be
applied as a broadcast treatment when
onions have 2 to 9 true leaves at a rate of
1.2 to 1.8 pts (.5 to .74 lbs ai).

In muck soils, Prowl may be applied
sequentially as follows:

a. Preemergence through loop stage
2.4 to 4.8 pts/A (1.0 to 2 lb ai).

b. Early postemergence (2 to 6 true
leaf stage) 3.6 to 4.8 pts/A (1.5 to 2 lb ai).

c. Late postemergence (6 to 9 true
leaf stage) 3.6 to 4.8 pts/A (1.5 to 2 lb ai).

Do Not apply more than 14.4 pints
per acre per growing season on muck soils.

Do Not apply preemergence through
loop stage if heavy rains are expected or
severe crop injury may result. If irrigating
after application at preemergence through
loop stage, Do Not irrigate in excess of 0.5
inch.

Do Not apply within 45 days of
harvest. Follow all restrictions of
rotational crops on the label.

(Stall, Vegetarian 10-93)


III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Herb Directory.

There has been considerable media
attention given lately to the use of savory
and medicinal herbs. The focus has been
in two areas: 1) possible unknown health
hazards from the use of herbs for flavoring
foods, and 2) the unknown risks from the
widespread use of herbs for medicinal
purposes.

One such herb that was used as an
example is comfrey. The media has
pinpointed it's use as a food item as being
suspect from a health risk standpoint.

Most of the Extension Service's
information we have available to hand out
in the public interest deals with the
production and use of herbs as food items.
We can give little if any insight into the
possible health risks from the use of these
and especially the medicinal herbs. For
these reasons, it might be advisable to
refer your clientele of herb enthusiasts to
other sources, of which there is a large
number.

Therefore, I want to provide you the
agent with the following information
sources on the production, chemistry, and
marketing of herbs, spices, and medicinal
plants.

A. The Herb. Spice, and Medicinal Plant
Digest. The Diest is published quarterly
by the University of Massachusetts and is
available by subscription and by direct
purchase of back issues.

Subscription rates: 1 year @ $10.40
2 years @ $20.40
3 years @ $30.40





-5-


Back issues:

Vol. 1, No. 1. The propagation of selected
herbs. ($2.90)

Vol. 1, No. 2. Introduction of Culinary
Herbs for Commercial Production. ($2.90)

Vol. 2, No. 1. Hazardous Herbs A Brief
Review. ($2.90)

Vol. 2, No. 2. Introduction to Sweet Basil
Cultivation. ($2.90)

Vol. 3, No. 1. Peppermint and Spearmint
Production in the Midwest. ($2.90)

Vol. 3, No. 2. The Cultivation of Ginseng.
($2.90)

Vol. 4, No. 1. Successful Parsley
Production Programs in New Jersey.
($2.90)

Vol. 4, No. 2. Post-Harvest Handling of
Fresh Culinary Herbs. ($2.90)

Vol. 4, No. 3. Organic Fertilizers for
Herbs. ($2.90)

Vol. 4, No. 4. Biochemicals from Tissue
Cultures. ($2.90)

Vol. 5, No. 1. Pesticides for Use in Herbs,
Spices and Medicinal Plants. ($2.90)

Vol. 5, No. 2. Legal Concerns in Owning
an Herb Business. ($2.90)

Vol. 5, No. 3. The Process Budget: A Tool
for Analyzing Your Production System.
($2.90)

Vol. 5, No. 4. Progress Towards Natural
Herbicides from Plants. ($2.90)

Vol. 6, No. 1. Field Performance of
American Basil Varieties. ($2.90)


Vol. 6, No. 2.
Culinary Herbs
Export. ($2.90)


Production of Fresh
in Central America for


Vol. 6, No. 3. An Introduction to the
Chemistry of Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal
Plants. ($2.90)

Vol. 6, No. 4. Catnip Production in North
Carolina. ($2.90)

Vol. 7, No. 1. Preventing Diseases in
Culinary Herbs. ($2.90)

Vol. 7, No. 2. The National Plant
Germplasm System: Herb and Spice
Resources. ($2.90)

Vol. 7, No. 3. Postharvest Preservation of
Fresh Herbs: Fundamentals and
Prospects. ($2.90)

Vol. 7, No. 4. Liming of Soils for
Production of Herbs. ($2.90)

Vol. 8, No. 1. Angelica Plant from the
North. ($2.90)

Vol. 8, No. 2. New Markets for Herbs in
France and Europe. ($2.90)

Vol. 8, No. 3. Mulches for Herbs. ($2.90)

Vol. 8, No. 4. Herbs and Volatile Oils.
($2.90)

Vol. 9, No. 1. Cultivation of Finnochio
Fennel. ($2.90)

Vol. 9, No. 2. Photosynthesis and the
Production of Herbs. ($2.90)

Vol. 9, No. 3. Harvesting and Cleaning
Herb Seeds. ($2.90)

Vol. 9, No. 4. Chinese Medicinal Plants in
the U.S. Nat'l Plant Germplasm System.
($2.90)





-6-


Vol. 10, No. 1. Chamomile: A Medicinal
Plant. ($2.90)

Vol. 10, No. 2. North American Herbal
Entanglement: Food, Drug, and
Nutritional Supplements. ($2.90)

Vol. 10, No. 3. Fertilizing Herbs. ($2.90)

Vol. 10, No. 4. Water and the Production
of Herbs. ($2.90)

B. The International Directory of
Specialists in Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal
Plants.
The Directory lists the names,
addresses, and interests (including plant
species) of over 900 specialists from 85
countries. It was compiled by University
of Massachusetts staff from mailing lists,
referrals, and literature references over the
past three years, then verified via
correspondence with each specialist. The
cost of the Directory is $37.00, unless you
are also listed in the Directory. If you are
a participant, your cost is $22.00.


To Order:
To order any of the three items
described above, indicate the item(s) you
desire, your name and address, and make
your check payable to the University of
Massachusetts. Mail to the Department of
Plant and Soil Sciences, University of
Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003.

(Summary of prices: Digest one year
($10.40); Digest-Back issues ($2.90 per
copy); Directory nonmember ($37.00);
Directory member ($22.00).

(Stephens, Vegetarian 93-10)


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D.J. Cantliffe
Chairman


Dr. S.M. Olson
Assoc. Professor


& Editor


Dr. G.J. Hochmuth
Professor



Dr. S.A. Sargent
Assoc. Professor



Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Asst. Professor


Dr. D.N. Maynard
Professor



Dr. W.M. Stall
Professor



Dr. J. M. White
Assoc. Professor




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