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Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00292
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: September 1993
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00292
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


VEGETARIAN
A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Horticultural Sciences Department P.O. 110690 Gainesville, FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134


Vegetarian 93-9


September 15, 1993


Contents
I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
A. More Results of Florida Drip Irrigation Survey.
B. Summer Squash Variety Evaluation Spring 1993.

III. PESTICIDE UPDATE
A. 1991-92 Value of Florida Vegetables.
B. Program: Integration of Cultural and Biological
Practices in Pest Management for Vegetables.

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. Bottled Vegetables A 4-H Fun/Learn Project.





Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors. The purpose
of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of
providing information and does not necessarily constitute a
recommendation of the product.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and Institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA. IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA,
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING.


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


I


I


I









I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Calendar.

October 18-19, 1993. County Agent
In-Service Training. Integration of
cultural and biological practices in pest
management for vegetables. TREC,
Homestead. (Contact Mary Lamberts)

October 20-21, 1993. Florida State
Horticultural Society. Doral Hotel, Miami
Beach, Florida.


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. More Results of Florida Drip
Irrigation Survey.

1. The five major crops for which drip
irrigation is used:


Tomato ......... 20,000 acres
Strawberry ....... 5,600
Pepper ........... 5,200
Watermelon ....... 3,500
Cucumber ........ 3,000


2. Percentage of drip irrigated crops that
are also on polyethylene mulch ... 97%.

3. Percentage of drip irrigated vegetables
that are fertigated .....86%.

4. Nutrients most often injected .....N and
K.

5. Percentage of tubing that is reusable
......20% and that is disposable ..... 80%.

6. Acreage of drip-irrigated vegetables
that is double-cropped ..... 40%.

7. Three reasons for using drip irrigation.

1. Better water conservation.


2. Better nutrient management/
conservation.

3. Better disease control.

8. Major challenges with drip irrigation.

1. High cost.

2. Emitter clogging if not properly
managed.

3. Easy to overwater.

9. Drip irrigation is increasing in Florida.

(Hochmuth, Vegetarian 93-09)


B. Summer. Squash
Evaluation Spring 1993.


Variety


During the 1991-92 crop year,
12,500 acres of summer squash were
harvested in Florida. Average yields were
344 bushels/acre, total production was 4.3
million bushels which sold for $10.65 per
bushel amassing a total crop value of
almost $46 million. About 40% of the crop
was grown in Dade County, but west
central Florida accounts for about 12% of
the acreage.
This trial was arranged quickly
following the loss of a portion of the
seedless watermelon trial in 'the storm of
the century' in mid-March. The objective
was to evaluate performance of some
yellow summer squash varieties in west
central Florida.
Squash seeds of nine entries were
planted in holes punched in the
polyethylene mulch at 3 ft in-row spacing
on 2 April. The plots were 15-ft long, had
five plants each, and were replicated four
times in a randomized, complete block
design. Weed control in row middles was
by cultivation and application of paraquat.
Pesticides were applied as needed for
control of sweetpotato whitefly endosulfann









and esfenvalerate), aphids endosulfann)
and downy mildew (chlorothalonil and
metaxyl-chlorothalonil).
Squash were harvested 12 times
between 6 May and 1 June. Marketable
fruit (U.S. No. 1 or better) according to
U.S. grades were separated from culls and
counted and weighed.
Early yields, based on the first four
harvests, ranged from 19 bushels/acre for
'Yellow Crookneck' to 108 bushelsacre for
'Dixie'. Early yield of'Pavo' was similar to
that of 'Dixie'. Average weight of early-
harvested fruit ranged from 0.23 lb for
'Yellow Crookneck' to 0.43 lb for PSX
2287.
Total yields varied from 532
bushels/acre for 'Yellow Crookneck' to 811
bushels/acre for 'Enterprise'. Yield of


'Dixie' was similar to that of 'Enterprise'.
Total yields of all entries far exceeded the
state average yield of 344 bushels/acre in
the 1991-92 season. Average fruit weight
for the entire season varied from 0.41 lb
for 'Yellow Crookneck' to 0.58 lb for PSX
2287. Five other entries had average fruit
weight similar to that of PSX 2287.
Based on these results, the
outstanding performance of three well-
established varieties: 'Enterprise', 'Dixie',
and 'Pavo' results in their continued
recommendation for commercial
production.


EARLY AND TOTAL MARKETABLE YIELD OF YELLOW SUMMER SQUASH
GULF COAST RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTER
SPRING 1993


Early Harvest' Total Harvest

Average Average
Yield Fruit Wt Yield Fruit Wt
Entry (bu/A)2 (lb) (bu/A)2 (lb)

Enterprise 65 be3 0.40 ab 811 a 0.56 a
Dixie 108 a 0.35 be 733 ab 0.54 a
Pavo 96 a 0.33 bc 712 be 0.54 a
PSX 2287 38 d 0.43 a 664 b-d 0.58 a
XPH 1733 58 c 0.29 de 660 b-d 0.49 b
PSX 41587 41 d 0.40 ab 626 c-e 0.56 a
XPH 1671 43 d 0.27 e 589 de 0.45 be
Lemon Drop L 76 b 0.33 ed 589 de 0.55 a
Yellow Crookneck 19 e 0.23 e 532 e 0.41 c


(Vegetarian, Maynard 93-09)


'Early harvest on first four harvests.
2Acre = 4840 lbf, bushel = 42 lb.
3Mean separation in columns by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.









III. PESTICIDE UPDATE


A.
Vegetables.


1991-92 Value of Florida


The value of Florida vegetable
production for the 1991-92 season totaled
$1.73 billion. According to the Vegetable
Summary, Florida Agricultural Statistics
Service, 377,175 acres of vegetables were
harvested during the 1991-92 growing


season, up 5.6 percent from the previous
year. 14 major vegetables had a total
value in excess of $20 million each. The
highest valued crop, as in years past, was
tomato, with 42.2% of the value at $728.58
million. Green peppers were worth
$170.78 million and strawberries and
potatoes valued at $94.7 and $92.9 million
respectively.


Acreage and Production Value of Florida Vegetables 1991-92


Planted Acreage


Snapbeans
Cabbage
Carrots
Celery
Sweet Corn
Cucumbers
Eggplant
Escarole
Lettuce
Green Peppers
Radish
Squash
Tomatoes
Other Vegetables
Watermelon
Potato
Strawberries
Total


32,430
11,600
9,400
8,000
52,800
20,000
2,650
3,000
9,350
21,400
24,900
13,500
51,300
41,210
53,000
41,200
4.700
400,440


Harvested Acreage Total Value
$1000 dollars


31,410
10,800
9,000
7,700
50,100
19,000
2,550
2,800
8,400
20,600
22,800
12,500
51,300
38,415
45,000
40,100
4,700
377,175


77,188
27,748
20,880
39,564
76,062
86,925
16,878
7,425
22,599
170,785
21,578
45,975
728,583
134,942
62,550
92,890
94,752
1,727,324


(Vegetarian, Stall 93-09)


B. Program: Integration of Cultural
and Biological Practices in Pest
Management for Vegetables.

The In-Service training on
integration of cultural and biological
practices in pest management for
vegetables will be held October 18-19, 1993
at the TREC, Homestead. A preliminary
listing of speakers follows:


Mary Lamberts, Dade County Coop.
Extension Service Sustainable
agriculture in vegetable production, a
current prospective.

T. A. Bewick, Horticultural Sciences Dept.,
Gainesville. Overview: Biological control
in weeds.









R. Charudattan, Plant Pathology Dept.,
Gainesville. Research in bioherbicides for
minor crops at the University of Florida.

R. McSorley, Entomology and Nematology
Dept., Gainesville. Overview: Biological
control for nematodes.

J. Noling, CREC, Lake Alfred. Nematode
management using chemical and cultural
controls; future of methyl bromide and its
alternatives.

Monica Elliot, Ft. Lauderdale REC.
Overview: Biological control for plant
pathogens.

R. McGovern, SWFREC Immokalee.
Research in cultural and biological control
of fusarium crown rot and other sand born
diseases.

D. Schuster. GCREC Bradenton.
Progress toward a more sustainable pest
management program.

Daks Seal. TREC Homestead. Biological
control of thrips, cowpea cucurbia and
cultural control of whitefly.

Jorge Pefia. TREC Homestead.
Integrated control of broadmite in pepper
and melonworms in cucurbits.

K. Pohronezny. Incorporation of cultural
and biological control in the Florida IPM
program.

The training will begin at 9:00 am.
October 18. A program planning
conference for 1994-95 will be held from
3:00 5:00 October 18, and will continue
after 6:00 if needed. October 19, the
program will run from 9:00 am to 3:00 pm.
For more details, contact Mary Lamberts
or Bill Stall.


IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Bottled Vegetables A 4-H
Fun/Learn Project.

Introduction

Agent, here is a 4H project idea.
Please pass it on to your 4H agent. Many
of them do not get this newsletter.

Here is a 4-H activity that let's you
learn about plants and have fun doing it!
Beyond that, it has almost no practical
value from a gardening sense. We're
talking about "growing vegetables in
bottles."

I'm sure you have seen miniature
ships completely enclosed in bottles and
jugs. "How did they do that," you wonder!
Then you realize they must have
constructed the ship through the bottle
opening bit by bit, piece by piece. In our
project we do the same thing, except
instead of a ship, the captive object is a
vegetable, such as a tomato, cucumber, or
squash. While we are the construction
foreman, we let Mother Nature do the
building.

The General Idea

You will need to have a young,
healthy vegetable plant that produces an
edible fruit. You can grow the plant
yourself, or work from your family or
neighbor's garden. When you have located
a young fruit just starting to develop on
the plant, gently insert the tiny baby
vegetable through the opening and neck of
the bottle into the widest central part of
the bottle. Take care of the plant, and as
the vegetable grows, it will enlarge to its
full mature size completely enclosed in the
bottle.


(Stall, Vegetarian 93-09)









Suitable Kinds of Vegetables


Of course, the kind of vegetable you
choose for this activity must produce a
fruit which will be visible inside the bottle.
At maturity, the vegetable fruit should
appear obviously too large to have been
squeezed into the bottle. Some suggested
vegetables are:

Tomato Use varieties that produce
large fruits. Do not use
Cherry types.
Pepper- Use Bell varieties, do not
use hot, ornamental types.
Eggplant Use varieties that produce
large fruits. Do not use
ornamental types.
Cucumber Use varieties that produce
large fruits. Do not use
picklers.
Squash Any variety will do.


Materials Needed


Bottles -









Plants -


String or
rubber band -

Cotton -


Tinfoil -


for this 4-H project you must
use a non-breakable, clear
plastic bottle. The 2-liter
size beverage bottles are
suggested. Do not use glass
which might accidentally
break while you are showing
off your vegetable. It's okay
if the bottom has a colored
section.
Either grow your own, or
adopt a plant growing in
your garden.

to secure the growing branch
to your bottle.
(1 puff-ball of common
cotton) to insert into the
neck of bottle.
One sheet approximately 6 x
10 for reflecting heat.


1. Prepare your bottle by removing
any paper or other label. Then
rinse thoroughly. Be sure to clean
the outside so that you can easily
see through the sides.


2. Select a healthy vegetable plant in
the garden and mark it with a big
stick so you can find it readily. Or,
you may grow a single plant for
your specimen. Find the plant by
the time it has started to set fruit.
The best time is when it first starts
to bloom.

3. Locate a branch that has a tiny
baby vegetable fruit just starting to
develop. The fruit will appear to
have a portion of the blossom still
attached. Caution: Be sure insects
have made their visits and that
pollination has been accomplished.
Usually that will be the case if the
fruit has reached 1/2 inch diameter
and the blossom has withered.

Pull off the remaining withered
blossom from the end of the fruit(s).
If you leave it on the fruit, it could
get a fungus and cause the fruit to
rot in the damp environment of the
bottle.

4. "Isolate" your fruit. This step is
particularly important when
bottling tomato, pepper, and
eggplant. These members of the
same family produce their fruits in
clusters, so you must "isolate" your
fruit from the rest.

To isolate, use scissors, snips, or a
sharp knife to cut away other
fruits, leaves and stem growth that
would interfere with the insertion
of the fruit into the bottle. What
you should have left is a slender


Procedure









stem with the baby fruit attached,
long enough to insert 3-4 inches
into the bottle.

It is possible and permissible to
place the entire cluster of tiny
fruits into the bottle. This often
renders an interesting and
intriguing effect.

With cucumber and squash it may
not be necessary to clip away much
growth. The fruit-stem is fairly
long and bears its fruit singularly.
5. Place the bottle on its side near the
fruit to be "captured". Position the
bottle so that the tiny fruit (or
cluster of fruits) can be inserted
into the opening of the bottle. Be
sure it is still attached to the fruit
stem and the fruit stem to the
growing plant.

6. Insert the fruit into the bottle as
near to the center as possible.
Wrap the cotton ball around the
stem loosely in the mouth of the
bottle. Keep it loose and fluffy so
that the little fruit can breathe as it
grows. The cotton will keep out
caterpillars and other insects that
might want to eat your fruits.


7. Use the rubber band or string to tie
the stem to the bottle so that it
stays together while the fruit is
growing. If string is used, tie it
loosely around the stem. If too
tight, the stem will be girdled
(injured). Note: Tape a piece of
tinfoil on top of the bottle to reflect
heat.

8. Now wait for your tiny fruit to
develop and grow within the bottle.
If it falls off, withers, or otherwise
dies, remove the bottle and repeat
with another fruit. Take care of the
mother plant. Observe the growth
and enlargement of the fruit daily
to keep it healthy and growing.

9. Keep a record of your activity.
Complete the record section (final
page not shown here).

10. When your fruit has reached the
size and maturity that suits you,
snip the stem one inch from the
bottle opening. Carefully store the
bottled vegetable in a safe place
until it is time to exhibit it.

Note: Agents wanting the complete record
form contact Jim Stephens.
(Stephens, Vegetarian 93-09)


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D.J. Cantliffe
Chairman



Dr. S.M. Olson
Assoc. Professor



Mr. J. M. Stephens
Professor


Dr. G.J. Hochmuth
Professor



Dr. S.A. Sargent
Assoc. Professor



Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Asst. Professor


Dr. D.N. Maynard
Professor



Dr. W.M. Stall
Professor & Edito



Dr. J. M. White
Assoc. Professor




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