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Title: Vegetarian
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087399/00288
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: May 1993
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00288
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Horticultural Sciences Department P.O. 110690 Gainesville, FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134

Vegetarian 93-5

May 14, 1993



A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

B. New Publications.


A. Vegetable Field Day North Florida Research and
Education Center.

B. Lake Apopka HUA Project Carrot Study.

C. Lake Apopka HUA Project Sweet Corn Study.


A. Alternatives to Chemical Pest Control in Vegetable

Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors. The purpose
of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of
providing information and does not necessarily constitute a
recommendation of the product.

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.




A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

June 2-3. State Garden Club Short
Course. Reitz Union, U.F. (Contact Bob
Black, EH Dept.).

June 3, 1993. Organic Gardening
Field Day. Fifield Hall, U.F.
1:30 3:30 pm. (Contact Jim Stephens).

June 5, 1993. Urban Gardening
Harvest Fair. Jacksonville Agric. Center,
McDuff Ave. (Contact Jim Stephens).

June 10, 1993. Vegetable Field Day.
North Florida REC, Quincy. 1:30-5:00 pm
eastern daylight time. (Contact Steve

B. New Publications.

Disease Resistant Vegetable Varieties
for the Home Grower. December 1992.
PP/PPP 43. Georgina Sydenham, Gary W.
Simone, and Jim M. Stephens. Contact
Gary Simone or Chic Hinton.


A. Vegetable Field Day North
Florida Research and Education Center.


Thursday, June 10, 1993
North Florida REC, Quincy, Florida
1:30-5:00 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time


D.C. Herzog Center

Insect Management in Tomatoes -
J. E. Funderburk & R. K. Sprenkel.

Impact of Pesticides on Movement of
Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus -
D.O. Chellemi.

Whitefly and Tomato Mottle Gemini Virus
Update J. E. Polston.

Alternative Fumigants for Crop Production
- J. W. Noling.

Selective Wavelength Mulches for
Watermelon Production S. M. Olson.

Crop Production with Mushroom Compost -
F. M. Rhoads.

Soil Solarization for Crop Production -
D. 0. Chellemi.

Tomato and Onion Variety Trials -
S. M. Olson.
(Olson, Vegetarian 93-05)

B. Lake Apopka HUA Project Carrot

A carrot field demonstration site was
established in the fall of 1991 to be used in
a 4-year fertilizer management evaluation.
The objectives of the study were to
demonstrate the use of predictive soil
testing for managing phosphorus
fertilization and to determine the need for
starter fertilizer for carrots. Treatments
were: (1) P based upon soil test none
required; (2) grower applied rate 120 lb
P20/acre; (3) 1/2 grower rate 60 lb
P20/acre; and (4) liquid starter fertilizer in
a band over-the-row 17.3 lb N plus 58.5
lb P20/acre.

Soil test before fertilizing and planting
indicated the field to be high in P and that
additional P would not be needed.
Therefore, treatment number 1 received no
P. All treatments received 40 lb N and 96
lb KCVacre (the rate the grower applied).
Plots were 8 beds wide and 140 ft long and
replicated 5 times. Fertilizer for
treatments 1-3 were hand applied on
October 7, 1991. The liquid starter
fertilizer was applied October 14, five days
after planting. Harvest was on February
3, 1992, 119 days after planting. There


were no significant differences among
treatments for fresh weight of the carrot
tops, average weight per root for jumbo,
fancy, culls, or total marketable roots.
Yields per acre for jumbo, fancy, culls, or
total marketable carrots were not
significantly different. Yields for total
marketable carrots ranged from 700 units/
acre (1 unit = 48 lb) for treatments 2 and
4 to 621 unitsacre for treatment 1. Based
on this one trial, the crop nutrient
requirement for P was supplied from the
soil without a decrease in yield or size.
Soil testing was demonstrated to be a
valuable tool in managing P fertilizer

(White, Vegetarian 93-05)

C. Lake Apopka HUA Project Sweet
Corn Study.

Two sweet corn demonstration sites
were established in the spring of 1992 to
be used in a 4-year fertilizer management
evaluation for phosphorus (P). The
objectives of the demonstration were to use
soil testing to predict the need for P
fertilization and to determine if a liquid
starter fertilizer would increase yield.
Treatments were: (1) control, no P added;
(2) P based upon soil testing, none
required; (3) Grower applied rate of 72 lb
P0,/acre; (4) 1/2 grower applied rate, 36 Ib
P20/acre; (5) grower rate of P-K at 72-288
lb/acre; and (6) banded liquid starter
fertilizer of N-P-K at 5.9-20-0 lb/acre. Soil
testing indicated the fields to be high in P
and K; therefore, treatments 1 and 2
received no P. Fertilizer for treatments 3-
5 was applied by hand on February 18,
1992, for site 2 and on March 6, 1992, for
site 1. The liquid started fertilizer was
applied on February 28 and March 22 on
site 2 and 1, respectively. The planting
dates were February 26 and March 9 for
sites 2 and 1, respectively. Site 1 was
abandoned for this study due to poor
drainage in a large area of the trial.

Harvest of site 2 was on March 20,
1992, 84 days after planting. Each of the
four replications were 30 x 120 ft. Data
were taken from two 25 ft randomly
selected rows in each replication for each
of the 6 treatments. There were no
significant differences for husked ear
width, length, average ear weight or
maturity. There were no significant yield
differences for all of the treatments except
the liquid banded P was significantly lower
than the soil test P and control treatment
which did not receive any P fertilizer
(Table 1).

Table 1. Sweet corn yields on muck soils,
May 1992.

2. Soil test (no P)
1. Control (no P)
5. Grower rate (0-72-288)
4. 1/2 grower rate P (36)
3. Grower rate P (72)
6. Liquid P banded (6-20-0)


In this study, there was no yield increase
when P or K fertilizer was added to a
muck soil when the soil test indicated
there was an adequate amount already in
the soil.

(White, Vegetarian 93-05)


A. Alternatives to Chemical Pest
Control in Vegetable Gardens.

When I read all the press that
Alternative Pest Controls has been getting
recently I have to wonder, "is this what the
organic community has been calling for all
these years?" Even though current
technology is much farther advanced than
most organic gardeners, or anyone, for that
matter, could envision, the plea I have
always heard was "please quit using
synthetic chemicals which can also kill
natural predators, build up pest resistance,
pose possible health risks, and generally


harm the environment!" The warnings
and admonishment reflected in this plea
were often disregarded as unfounded
concern, and emphasis on chemical pest
controls continued as usual.

Then integrated pest management
(IPM) ushered in a new sense of
environmental sensitivity, especially here
in Florida. IPM still allowed the use of
chemicals for pest control, but to a much
lesser degree. The focus shifted toward
alternatives such as resistant varieties and
the wise use of cultural practices which
discouraged pest invasions.

Today the shift toward organic or
natural methods of pest control seems to
be going almost 180 degrees away from the
strict reliance on synthetic chemicals. In
vogue now are terms like "biorationals",
"biocontrols", "biosystems", and
"biotechnology". The April, 1993 issue of
Florida Grower and Rancher refers to it all
as "The Biorational Revolution".

The technological search for natural
pest controls which are environmentally,
safe is well under way. So far, most of the
products and practices are still
experimental, theoretical, and speculative.
However, those of us who are in positions
to advise gardeners should be aware of
some of the recent trends and
developments. Therefore, to this end this
article is written. No attempt will be
made here to assess or recommend any of
these products or practices as workable or
even as yet legal to use in gardening
situations. The following merely reflects
some of the progress underway, as good
news for the future.

Recent advances in biotechnology.

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) this bacterial
preparation (microbial insecticide) has
proven itself for several years now in
Florida gardens as an effective control for
Lepidopteran larvae control, particularly

for such hard to kill larvae as cabbage
loopers. Also called ICP (insecticidal
crystalline proteins), the many
formulations and trade names contain
protein crystals which cause gut
disintegration upon ingestion by the
caterpillars. While complete control is
seldom achieved, the remaining plant
damage can readily be tolerated, and the
product is harmless to mammals (us).

From the major subspecies called
kurstaki and aizawai. and so-called
"transconjugated strains," many product
brand names have entered the market.
Some of these are, in no particular order of

Biobit (DuPont) Condor (Ecogen)
Dipel (Abbott) Cutlass (Ecogen)
Agree (Ceiba Geigy) Foil (Ecogen)
XenTari (Abbott) Javelin (Sandoz)
Larvo Bt (Fermone Corp)

Some of these newer strains are
touted as being effective on other pests
such as Colorado potato beetles, ants,
mites, nematodes, and housefiles.

Parasitic nematodes. Still experimental,
these microscopic worms can migrate
through the soil, attacking insects in the
soil, infecting them with bacteria which
kill the insects.

Mighty mites. These predator mites can
attack spider mites, such as those that
cause a lot of trouble on strawberries in
Florida gardens.

Parasitic wasps. Some of these tiny wasps
are imported while others are native to
Florida. Cotesia plutellae comes from
Asia. The wasps are in a tube, which is
inserted in the ground. When the tube's
cap is removed, the wasps are released to
seek and attack fall armyworms and corn
earworms. When the wasps reproduce,
more predators join the attack. Cotesia
marginiventris is another imported species

that is said to attack armyworms.
Diadegma insulare, a native Floridan,
attacks the diamondback caterpillar.

Other insect predators: Lady beetles,
lacewings, praying mantis, green garden
spiders, etc.

Pheromone attractants. These
experimental synthetic sex attractants
tend to interrupt and confuse the insects'
normal mating cycle, thus keeping the
males from finding the females. Although
eggs are produced, they are infertile, so no

Usually, pheromones are released through
walls of tubes which are stretched on a
wire along the row. Some are contained as
absorbents in "twist-ties", while others
come in impregnated polymers and sprays.

One brand called "Rescue" is claimed
to call in soldier bugs as a predacious
insect. Another, called "SOS", is a
synthetic turpenoid, which simulates the
natural turpenoids released from the leaf
by feeding larvae. These turpenoids act as
distress signals attracting the predator
wasps to come to the rescue.

The Fermone Corp. has two
pheromone products of interest; "Stirrup-
M" is a mite-mover, causing the mites to
move about where they can be easily killed
or caught by the "Mighty Mites". "Bee-
Here" is supposed to attract bees for better
pollination. Other companies with
pheromone products are Dow Corning,
Phillips Petroleum, AgriSense, and
Biological Control Systems.

Pathogenic fungi. Even fungi have
potential against a range of insects.
Paecilomvces fumorosoroseus (PFR), is
under study for use against the silverleaf
whitefly. PFR was found on mealybugs at
the Apopka research center. It has
potential on several insects, especially in
greenhouse conditions.

Botanicals. Several natural biopesticides
have been in use for many years. Some of
the better known ones are pyrethrin,
rotenone, and ryania. Of recent interest is
the Indian Neem tree, which produces a
biopesticide called azadirachtin, said to
attack 200 types of insects, mites, and
nematodes. Some of the products of neem
already on the market are BioNeem
(Ringer Corp) and Margosan-O (Grace).
Neem cake, a residual from the extraction
of oil, has been used as fertilizer in some
countries where this form is said to
impart systemic protection to plants. So
far, Neem is experimental on food crops.

Other natural products. Among the other
natural organic products said to be
effective as pesticides, some of which are in
popular use today, are insecticidal oils and
soaps. Studies are underway with
combinations of vegetable oils and dish
detergents. But it should be cautioned
that these are not registered pesticides.
In summary, one can readily see that
the "biorational revolution" is well
underway. In the meantime, Florida
vegetable gardeners should use chemical
pesticides judiciously and only when
absolutely necessary to prevent loss of the
garden crop.
The wise use of preventive gardening
practices such as resistant varieties,
coupled with a greater degree of tolerance
for injured vegetables can go a long way to
a successful gardening experience and a
cleaner environment.

(Stephens, Vegetarian 93-05)


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists

Dr. D.J. Cantliffe

Dr. S.M. Olson
Assoc. Professor

Mr. J. M. Stephens

Dr. G.J. Hochmuth
Assoc. Professor

Dr. S.A. Sartent
Assoc. Professor
& Editor

Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Asst. Professor

Dr. D.N. Maynard

Dr. W.M. Stall

Dr. J. M. White
Assoc. Professor

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