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Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: April 1993
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00287
Source Institution: University of Florida
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UFA


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIIA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN
A Vegetable Crops Extension Dublication

Horticultural Sciences Department P.O. 110690 Gainesville, FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134


Vegetarian 93-4


April 12, 1993


Contents
I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.
B. New Publications.

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
A. Wax Labelling Requirements for Produce.
B. Gray Wall of Tomatoes Revisited.
C. Watermelon N Fertilization.

Ill. PESTICIDE UPDATE
A. 24(C) Label for Dual 8E for Sweet Corn Grown in Muck
Soils in Florida.

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. Effects of Organic Soil Amendments on Collards.



Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors. The purpose
of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of
providing information and does not necessarily constitute a
recommendation of the product.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS. UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA,
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING.


/


t









I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

May 18, 1993. 40th Vegetable Field
Day. Gulf Coast REC Bradenton. Contact
Don Maynard.

June 3, 1993. Organic Gardening
Field Day. 1:30 3:30 pm. Contact Jim
Stephens.

B. New Publications.

The following Suwannee Valley
AREC Reports are available from the
Suwannee Valley AREC (904/362-1725):

SV AREC 92-23. Robert C. Hochmuth,
George J. Hochmuth, and Michael E.
Donley. Evaluation of 2 Standard and 3
Greenfleshed Muskmelon Cultivars for
Yield and Quality During the Spring of
1989.

SV AREC 92-24. Robert C. Hochmuth,
George J. Hochmuth, and Michael E.
Donley. Evaluation of Several Squash
Cultivars for Fall Production in North
Florida.

SV AREC 92-25. Robert C. Hochmuth,
George J. Hochmuth, and Michael E.
Donley. Evaluation of Several
Photodegradable Polyethylene Mulches for
Watermelon Production.

SV AREC 92-26. George Hochmuth, Ed
Hanlon, and Bob Hochmuth. Foliar
Nutritional Sprays Did Not Improve Yields
or Grade of Watermelons or Potatoes.

SV AREC 92-27. George Hochmuth, Ed
Hanlon, and Bob Hochmuth. Field-Testing
N Recommendations for Icebox and
Standard Watermelons in North Central
Florida.


SV AREC 92-28. George J. Hochmuth, Ed
A. Hanlon, and Bob C. Hochmuth.
Responses of Pepper, Muskmelon,
Watermelon, and Sweet Corn to P and K
Fertilization at Live Oak, FL.

SV AREC 92-29. George Hochmuth, Ed
Hanlon, and Bob Hochmuth. Response of
Pepper to N Fertilization in a Polyethylene
Mulch and Drip Irrigation Production
System at Live Oak, FL, Spring 1988.

SV AREC 92-30. George Hochmuth, Ed
Hanlon, and Bob Hochmuth. N and K
Fertilization of Red Potatoes at Live Oak,
FL, Spring 1988.

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Wax Labelling Requirements for
Produce.

The January 6, 1993, issue of the
Federal Register contained the Food and
Drug Administration's (FDA) final rule for
labelling all produce treated with
postharvest coatings. Shippers and
retailers have until May 8, 1994 to comply
with the new regulations. The following is
a summary of Shipper-Packer
Requirements:

All products that have been coated with a
postharvest coating must have one of the
following minimum statements on the
shipping container:

COATED WITH ANIMAL-BASED
WAX, COATED WITH
VEGETABLE-BASED WAX,
COATED WITH PETROLEUM-
BASED WAX, COATED WITH
BEESWAX, OR COATED WITH
SHELLAC-BASED WAX OR
RESINS. Although the terms,
"FOOD-GRADE" and "TO
MAINTAIN FRESHNESS" are
optional and not required, it is
suggested that shippers label
containers as follows:









Insert One of the Followine:


COATED WITH FOOD-GRADE (Insert)
TO MAINTAIN FRESHNESS


For instance:


ANIMAL-BASED WAX,
PETROLEUM-BASED WAX,
BEESWAX
SHELLAC-BASED WAX OR
RESIN


COATED WITH FOOD-GRADE PETROLEUM-BASED WAX
TO MAINTAIN FRESHNESS.


Any postharvest pesticides used must also be listed on the shipping container in addition to
the above requirements.

Source: Florida Tomato Review. Vol. 23(7). Feb. 1993.

(Sargent, Vegetarian 93-04)


B.
Revisited.


Gray Wall of Tomatoes


Immokalee growers report gray wall
incidence (gray or brown blotchy areas in
the fruit wall, often causing the skin to be
translucent) in the winter crop was the
worst they had seen in 15 years!
Hochmuth (Vegetarian 93-02) recently
addressed gray wall predetermining factors
and "control". Although he stated ".. 50
years of research (has not produced) a
definitive cause ...", new information has
come to light concerning cultivar
susceptibility.

Bob McGovern and I planted a
tomato variety trial in October in a
growers field to test Fusarium Crown and
Root Rot (FCRR) resistance. Variety
testing often provides us with the rare
opportunity to catch those "snapshots in
time" when weather events are working to
cause physiological problems. While the
results of the FCRR study will be
forthcoming in the proceedings of the '93
Tomato Institute (Sept), we were pleased
to find additional information related to
gray wall.


Standard harvest data from variety
trials in tomato generally include not only
yield and grade by harvest, but also a
detailed cataloging of cull types. This
determination helps develop the "big
picture" on a variety and lets us know if it
is prone to cat-facing or zipper scar or
other physiological problems. With the
winter of '92 being "ideal" for the
production of gray wall we were presented
with an excellent opportunity to determine
varietal susceptibility to gray wall.

The results from our study
presented in Table 1 show 'Solar Set' had
significantly more gray wall than any of
the other varieties tested. While over 13%
of the 'Solar Set' total yield was culled for
gray wall, it is interesting to note 63% of
all 'Solar Set' culls were the result of gray
wall! The small range of 0 4% culls due
to gray wall among the other varieties
afforded no opportunity for statistical
separation. However, the Rogers NK
varieties (NVH 4471 and Merced) exhibited
virtually no gray wall, and a significantly
smaller portion of their total culls were the
result of gray wall when compared to the
other varieties tested.





-3-


These results (one year only) should
not constitute your sole basis for varietal
selection, particularly if gray wall is not a
problem for another 15 years! However,
should you plant in the October time slot
and experience gray wall in your January
harvests these data indicate you may
likely have varietal differences in gray
wall occurrence.



Variety Trial: Grey wall, total of two harvests by number of fruit.

% of Total Yield % of Total Cull
Variety Source with GW with GW

Solar Set Asgrow 13.68 a' 62.98 a
Sunny Asgrow 4.19 b 32.31 b
Olympic Peto 3.52 b 29.29 b
PAP 34283 Peto 2.87 b 18.43 b
Agriset Peto 2.57 b 20.86 b
NVH 4471 Rogers NK 0.13 b 1.41 c
Merced Rogers NK 0.13 b 1.71 c

'Mean separation by Duncan's Multiple Range Test, 5% level.


(Vavrina & McGovern, Vegetarian 93-04)


C. Watermelon N Fertilization.

Our current target N
recommendation for watermelon is 120 lb
per acre for a production system with 8-
foot bed centers (5445 linear bed feet per
acre). This rate is often exceeded by
commercial growers and we are often
asked why our recommendation is low
compared to commercial rates. First of all,
keep in mind that 120 lb per acre is the
nutrient requirement which will result in
successful crops where leaching rains do
not occur. In the event of leaching rains,
the total N use might be higher than 120
lb per acre. This could happen for either
mulched or bare-ground crops, but would
be more likely for crops grown without
mulch.


The second aspect regarding the
120-lb recommendation is that it has a
significant amount of research behind it.
Some of this research was with mixed N-P-
K fertilizers (where most of the response
was probably to N). There have also been
several reports dealing solely with
variations in N rates. The results of four
of these studies are presented graphically
in the figure below. Nearly all studies
resulted in a quadratic relationship of N
rate and yield. Yield was maximized at
about 120 lb N per acre and in some
studies even appeared to decline at high
rates of N. Watermelon fertilization with
more than 150 lb N per acre would seem to
be questionable from the economic point of
view.





-4-


Literature

Hochmuth, G., E. Hanlon, and B.
Hochmuth. 1992. Field-testing N
recommendations for ice box and standard
watermelons in north central Florida.
Suwannee Valley AREC Res. Report 92-27.

Locascio, S. J., J. G. A. Fiskell, and H. W.
Lundy. 1973. Watermelon response to
sulfur-coated urea, mulches, and nitrogen
rates. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 86:201-
204.


I IV

100


70 -


30

20


Locascio, S. J., J. G. A. Fiskell, and G. W.
Elmstrom. 1978. Comparison of sulfur-
coated and uncoated urea for watermelons.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 37:197-
200.

Vann, C. D., R. C. Hochmuth, and G. J.
Hochmuth. 1993. Watermelon N and K
petiole sap testing. Proc. 1993 IFAS Vine
Crops Institute. Fla. Coop. Ext. Spec.
Series SSHOS-3:8-14.view.


150


200


250


300


NITROGEN RATE (LBS PER ACRE)


(Hochmuth, Vegetarian 93-04)


8
**



*








data from 9 experiments
SI 0 I I
* 6


--





-5-


II. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. 24(C) Label for Dual 8E for
Sweet Corn Grown in Muck Soils in
Florida.

The state of Florida has approved a
Special Local Needs 24C label for Dual 8E
for weed control in sweet corn grown in
muck soils.

Dual may be applied at 3-4 ptg/A (3-
4 Ib ai) either preplant incorporated or
preemergence for the control of the sedges
Cvperus odoratus, flatsedge (annual) and
Cyperus esculentus, yellow nutsedge and
other annual grasses.

Because of the high organic fraction
of muck soils, full season weed control is
not expected.

The label must be in the possession
of the user at time of application.

(Stall, Vegetarian 93-04)

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Effects of Organic Soil
Amendments on Collards.

Beginning in the spring of 1990, we
have been incorporating various amounts
of organic soil amendments into our
demonstration gro-boxes and observing
their effects on various kinds of vegetables
(mostly tomatoes and southern peas). The
boxes were amended each year generally in
the spring and sometimes in the fall.

The seasonal effects of these
applications were reported to the Florida
State Horticultural Society last fall and
proceedings will be published this summer
(1993). The cumulative effects were
evaluated utilizing a crop of collards (cvs.
'Vates' and 'Georgia') in the fall of 1993.


The following table shows the
cumulative treatments per plot for all
applications prior to planting the collards
in October, 1993.



Table 1. Cumulative amounts of organic
soil amendments applied 1990-1992.


Amendment


T


oak leaves, unshredded
oak leaves shredded
multiple organic
chicken, fresh, low rate
chicken, fresh, hi rate
turkey, compost, low rate
turkey, compost, hi rate
yardwaste compost, low rate
yardwaste compost, hi rate
YWC (o)
plus organic fertilizer
YWC (hi)
plus organic fertilizer
organic fertilizer, lo
organic fertilizer, hi
crabwaste compost, lo
crabwaste compost, hi
dairy compost, lo
dairy compost, hi
chicken compost, lo
chicken compost, hi


)ounds/sq ft
7
7
20
2.15
4.30
.15
.30
5.60
9.20
3.60
.30
7.20
.40
.38
.66
3.30
4.60
1.55
6.90
.55
2.30


The following Table (2) shows how the two
collard varieties taken together responded
to the cumulative treatments. The collards
were planted in October, 1992, harvested
(cut at ground level) and weighed in
January, 1993.









_Tia 9J RffanJ ca aJn an rim nvnc an^^J. 9iL nail erA V1701L0+iO ( and Q^r^ L4JIt. I.f AT, 1 I3 J. 1V A' %A.j J. WIA


Organic treatment'


Multiple

Cow, hi

Cow, lo

Crab, hi

Fertrell, lo


Oak, sh


YWC+F, hi

Sustane, lo

Crab, lo

Chick, hi


oz/plantz


62.25

33.50

26.25

25.25

24.25

23.25

23.00

22.00

20.25

19.25


Organic treatment

Oak, un

YWC+F, lo

YWC, hi

YWC, lo

Chicken compost, hi

Chic, lo

Fertrell, hi

Sustane, hi

Chicken compost, lo

Check


YOrganic soil amendments, low and high rates.

Yield, average weight of two plants harvested 1/22/93, per variety.


By far the biggest plants were
grown on the plot containing the highest
rate of organic amendments. The multiple
organic plot contained a mixture of oak
leaves, yardwaste compost, chicken, sheep,
and organic fertilizer. This plot contained
surplus available nitrogen, and the collards
responded well, averaging almost 4 pounds
per plant, compared with only 2 lbs per
plant for the next best treatment which
was dairy compost.


It should be noted that oak leaves,
when shredded, gave good yields of
collards, better than most of the other
treatments, including yardwaste compost
unless fortified with organic fertilizer.
However, all amendments gave increased
yields as compared with the check.

These studies are non-replicated,
and are continuing.


(Stephens, Vegetarian 93-04)


oz/plant

17.50

16.75

14.75

14.50


14.00

13.75

13.75

12.50

8.00

6.75


rPohln ~ RPCnn~o nP nnrron;n on;l ~monrlm~n+a ~r\


(7 n~llorrl ~rcrv;o~-;Do I)TTa~-nP' nrrrl 'r~nnra;at~





-7-


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D.J. Cantliffe
Chairman



Dr. S.M. Olson
Assoc. Professor



Mr. J. M. Stephens
Professor


Dr. G.J. Hochmuth
Assoc. Professor



Dr. S.A. Sargent
Assoc. Professor



Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Asst. Professor


Dr. D.N. Maynard
Professor



Dr. W.M. Stall
Professm



Dr. J. M. White
Assoc. Professor




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