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Title: Vegetarian
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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: March 1993
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00286
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Horticultural Sciences Department P.O. 110690 Gainesville, FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134


Vegetarian 93-3


March 15, 1993


Contents

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

B. New Publications.


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. 40th Vegetable Field Day.

B. Gomash6 Pepper Spot of Chinese Cabbage.


III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Grow Big Tomatoes by the "Mound" Method.


IV. 1990-1992 VEGETARIAN INDEX



Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors. The purpose
of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of
providing information and does not necessarily constitute a
recommendation of the product.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA,
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING.


1 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA II




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1. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

May 18, 1993. 40th Vegetable Field
Day. Gulf Coast REC Bradenton. Contact
Don Maynard.


B. New Publications.

The following Suwannee Valley
AREC Reports are available from the
Suwannee Valley AREC (904/362-1725):

SVAREC 92-19. G. J. Hochmuth, R.
C. Hochmuth. Nitrogen Fertilization of
Summer Squash on a Sandy Soil.

SVAREC 92-20. George Hochmuth
and Bob Hochmuth. Placement of N-P-K
Fertilizer for Mulched, Drip-Irrigated
Watermelons.

SVAREC 92-21. Robert C.
Hochmuth and Catherine C. Ellis.
Eggplant Cultivar Evaluation, 1991.

SVAREC 92-22. Robert C.
Hochmuth, George J. Hochmuth, Michael
E. Donley, and Michael C. Ross.
Evaluation of Ten Greenhouse Tomato
Cultivar for Production and Quality in
North Florida in the 1991 to 1992 Season.

SVAREC 92-26. George Hochmuth,
Ed Hanlon, and Bob Hochmuth. Foliar
Nutritional Sprays Did Not Improve Yields
or Grade of Watermelons or Potatoes.


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. 40th Vegetable Field Day.

Tuesday, May 18, 1993
Field Day Coordinators -
Don N. Maynard and John Paul Jones

Moderator: Don N. Maynard, Extension
Vegetable Specialist

8:15 AM Registration.
8:45 Welcome and Introduction -
W. E. Waters.
9:00 IFAS Research Overview -
N. P. Thompson, IFAS Interim
Dean for Research.
9:15 New Release Possibilities from the
Tomato Breeding Program -
J. W. Scott.
9:40 Update on the Tomato Mottle Virus
J. E. Polston.
10:00 COFFEE BREAK
10:30 Tours (Choice of Tour 1, 2 or 3).
12:00 BOX LUNCH
12:45 Tours (Choice of Tour 1, 2 or 3).
2:15 Tours (Choice of Tour 1, 2 or 3).
3:45 Adjourn.
3:45-5:00 Individual Talks with Faculty

Three tours will be available:
1. Vegetable Crop Improvement.
2. Vegetable Crop Protection.
3. Vegetable Crop Production.

Tour Guides:
Phyllis Gilreath, Manatee Co. Ext.
Mark Kistler, Sarasota Co. Ext.
Russell Owens, GCREC-Bradenton.

B. Gomasho Pepper Spot of
Chinese Cabbage.

Pepper spot, black spotting disorder,
or gomashi (Japanese) has been a problem
in Chinese cabbage production areas this
winter. The physiological disorder causes
small black spots on the midribs of
heading leaves. According to the Asian









Vegetable Research & Development Center
(Chinese Cabbage, Proc. 1st Intnat'l
Symp., N.S. Talekar and T.D. Griggs,
Editors) pepper spot is believed to be
caused by an excess of nitrogen, though
excesses of magnesium and manganese, a
deficiency of boron, or cauliflower mosiac
virus may produce similar symptoms.
Pepper spot generally begins at
head formation and appears as a number
of black spots (about the size of broccoli
seeds) first on the midribs of outer heading
leaves, then eventually throughout the
head. Microscopy reveals that these spots
are areas where the cytoplasm has been
destroyed, possibly from nitrite (NO'-)
toxicity.
Pepper spot is believed to result
from a breakdown in nitrate (NO')
metabolism. Nitrate metabolism within
the plant is enzyme driven: NO3> NO,>
NH3> amino acid (protein). Nitrite and
ammonia (NH) are toxic to the plant in
high concentrations. In Chinese cabbage
leaves, nitrate is located in the midribs
and veins, and changes to amino acids in
the leaf blades. In cases where midrib
NO'3 levels are excessive, enzymatic
conversions to amino acid are backed-up
and localized pools of NO-2 result in tissue
death.
Pepper spot seems to be aggravated
by heavy fertilizer side-dressing after head
formation. Therefore a side dressing
program of say 90, 90, 90 lbs N/acre will
produce more pepper spot than a side
dressing program of 45, 0, 0 lbs N/acre.
Once head formation begins, side dressings
should be discontinued.
Cultivardifferences in susceptibility
to pepper spot have been implicated in
Japan. However, cultivars offered in the
US do not generally specify pepper spot
susceptibility or resistance. Susceptibility
of cultivars has been shown to vary from
year to year as well.
Post harvest storage of Chinese
cabbage with pepper spot is critical as
temperatures above 410 F aggravate the
condition. Care should be taken to reduce


head temperature to 32 340 F prior to
shipment and to maintain these
temperatures during transport.

(Vavrina, Vegetarian 93-03)

III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Grow Big Tomatoes by the
"Mound" Method.

Want to grow a tomato plant with
40-60 tomato fruits, both large and small
on it at the same time on just one plant?
I'm not talking about a cherry type or
some other small fruiting variety. I mean
the big ones the kind most of us prefer in
our gardens.
By using tomato mounds prepared
in a unique way, you can grow tomato
plants with almost unbelievable yields of
quality tomato fruits.
The mounds for your tomatoes are
easy to make. All you need are some
tomato stakes, cow manure, fertilizer, old
newspaper, and tomato plants. Just follow
these simple steps:

Soil Preparation
1. Prepare the soil as usual. Take a soil
test and adjust the soil to the proper pH.
Spacing Requirements
2. On the area you plan to plant, space
the mounds 3 feet apart. Measure this
distance from the center of each mound.
Mark the place each mound will be, so you
can find it for the next step.
Preparing the Mound
3. At each place you want to make a
mound, place a double layer of unfolded
newspaper flat on the ground. The paper
seems to keep the water and fertilizer in
the soil, where the plant roots can use it.
Then it rots away so the roots can go
deeper if necessary.
4. In the middle or center of the paper,
place one gallon of rotted cow manure (or
you can substitute composted yard waste).





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5. Make a cup-shaped hole in the center of
the manure with your fist or a trowel.
Make it deep enough so it is almost down
to the newspaper.
6. Pour one and one half cups of a
common garden fertilizer (6-6-6, 6-8-8 or 8-
8-8) into this cup-shaped hole. Do not mix
the manure and fertilizer together.
7. Use a hoe or rake and pull the soil up
around the newspaper, over the manure
and fertilizer, until three to four inches of
soil is mounded above the manure pile.
Again, do not mix the soil with manure
and fertilizer.
8. On top of the mound, dig a hole in the
center large enough to fit the tomato plant
in. Place the plant in the hole, water it
and then firm the soil around the stem of
the plant to get rid of any air pockets.
Care
9. Water the plant with or without a
liquid fertilizer solution for a week or two
until the plant starts to grow. Then, you
will not have to fertilize the plants for the
rest of the season because the plant roots
can reach the fertilizer you have put in the
soil.


10. Use a wire "cage", or place two to
three sturdy, 4 to 6 foot tomato stakes
around each mound. As the plant grows,
support it to these stakes with string.
11. Water and care for the plants as
usual. Remember you don't need to
fertilize or sidedress the plants. Most of
the plant roots will be in the mound where
the manure and fertilizer are, but some
will go through the paper into the soil
underneath. Withthe'Flora-Dade'variety
the plants do not have to be pruned. But
if you use an indeterminate type, such as
'Better Boy', prune it to 2 or 3 main stems.
12. Although the 'Flora-Dade' is the
variety suggested, I'm sure your favorite
variety would also grow well in mounds.
So experiment and enjoy higher yields of
quality tomatoes.
Harvest
Tomatoes can be picked full red-ripe, or
when they are pink and ripened at home.

(Stephens, Vegetarian 93-03)


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D.J. Cantliffe
Chairman



Dr. S.M. Olson
Assoc. Professor



Mr. J.M. Stephens
Professor


Dr. G.J. Hochmuth Dr. D.N. Maynard
Assoc. Professor Professor
&Editor .


Dr. S.A. Sargent
Assoc. Professor



Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Asst. Professor


Dr. W.M. Stall
Professor



Dr. J.M. White
Assoc. Professor




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