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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: February 1993
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00285
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Full Text


INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN
A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Horticultural Sciences Department P.O. 110690 Gainesville, FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134


Vegetarian 93-2


February 15, 1993


Contents
I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

B. New Publications.

C. New Phone Numbers for Extension Specialists.

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Pepper Petiole Sap Testing.


B. Gray Wall of Tomatoes in Florida: Predetermining
Factors and Control.
C. Professional Certification.

; D. Promoting Standardized Shipping Containers.


III. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Florida County Agents Plan Use for Donated Seeds.


i Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors. The purpose
of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of
providing information and does not necessarily constitute a
Recommendation of the product.




The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex. age, handicap or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA,
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING.


1 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 1





-1-


I. NOTES OF INTEREST


A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

March 4,5, 1993 Postharvest
Horticulture Institute. Holiday Inn West,
Gainesville. (Contact Steve Sargent).

March 8-11, 1993. Harvest and
Postharvest Handling of Horticultural
Crops. Tour of Central and South Florida.
(Contact Steve Sargent).


B. New Publications.

The following Suwannee Valley
AREC Reports are available from the
Suwannee Valley AREC (904/362-1725):

SVAREC 92-10. Robert C.
Hochmuth, Jacque W. Breman, and
William D. Thomas. Jalapeno Pepper
Cultivar Evaluation, 1992.

SVAREC 92-12. Robert C.
Hochmuth, George J. Hochmuth, and
Michael Donley. Pumpkin Cultivar Trial,
1991.

SVAREC 92-13. Robert C.
Hochmuth. Short Day Sweet Onion
Cultivar Evaluation, 1992.


SVAREC 92-14.
Hochmuth and George J.
Watermelon Cultivar Trial
Types, 1992.


Robert C.
Hochmuth.
- "Allsweet"


SVAREC 92-15. George Hochmuth,
Bob Hochmuth, and Ed Hanlon. Field
Test of IFAS P and K Recommendations
for Snapbeans, 1992.

SVAREC 92-16. Robert C.
Hochmuth, George J. Hochmuth, and
Michael E. Donley. The Effects of Plastic
Mulch and Plant Spacing on Collard
Production and Quality, 1992.


SVAREC 92-17. Robert C.
Hochmuth and Catherine C. Ellis.
Specialty Muskmelon and Other Melon
Cultivar Evaluations, 1991.

SVAREC 92-18. Robert C.
Hochmuth and Catherine C. Ellis.
Muskmelon and Other Specialty Melons
Observational Cultivar Trial, 1991.

C. New phone numbers for
Extension Specialists.

Horticultural Sciences Department
in Gainesville has a new phone system.
Please dial 904-392-2134 and the
individual Specialist's phone extension.
Listed below are the new extension
numbers for the Vegetable Specialists.

George Hochmuth 208
Steven Sargent 215
Bill Stall 207
Jim Stephens 209


II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Pepper Petiole Sap Testing.

During the past two seasons, Jim
Fletcher, Madison County agent, has been
leading an effort to fill in a blank in our
sap testing data. This article summarizes
the results of the spring, 1992 pepper N
and K sap testing experiment. These
values should be considered preliminary
but should help discern deficient and
excessive fertilization situations. Yield
was maximized at 180 lb N per acre and
100 lb K20 fertilization. The sap N and K
petiole values are for those N and K
fertilization rates.




-2-


Date'
April 28 May 12


May 26


June 9


June 23


------------------ Petiole sap nutrient concentrations -------------------
----------------------------------- ppm -----------------------------------------

NO-N 1550 1600 1600 900 450

K 3300 3200 3200 3800 3900



ZDates were 35, 50, 64, 78, and 92 days after planting. Harvesting was on June 10
and June 23.

(Hochmuth, Vegetarian 93-02)


B.
Florida:
Control.


Gray Wall of Tomatoes in
Predetermining Factors and


Symptoms: Graywallis manifested
as gray or brown blotchy areas in the
tomato fruit wall tissue. Often the
discoloration is visible through nearly
translucent skin. The darkened tissue is
necrotic cells and the syndrome can render
more than 50% of a crop unmarketable.
Graywall can begin on green fruits as
small as one inch in diameter. Tomato
fruits cut open cross-ways reveal the
blackened tissue in the walls. Some
researchers consider "white tissue" in the
walls an early (non necrotic) stage of
graywall.

Predetermining Factors: Despite almost
50 years of research, a definitive cause for
graywall has not been determined. What
is known however, are several factors that
appear to play a role in predisposing
tomato crops to graywall. These are listed
below in estimated order of importance
(most important first).


1. Low-light conditions (winter season or
cloudy periods).

2. Excessive nitrogen.

3. Excessive irrigation, rain.

4. Potassium deficiency.

5. Soil compaction.

6. Temperature fluctuations.

What About Florida Factors? Probably by
far, the biggest factor for graywall in
Florida is the low-light factor. Graywall is
usually a problem in winter crops and it is
not uncommon to experience 10 to 15%
graywall from time to time. Graywall can
be very serious if we have prolonged cloudy
weather. Cool nights and warm cloudy
days seem to enhance graywall.

High nitrogen also plays a role in
increasing the severity of graywall. This
factor has been observed in several
research projects in Florida.





-3-


Controlling Graywall: Obviously, we
cannot control the weather conditions we
are dealt, but we can control some of the
factors that make a bad situation worse.
Recommendations are summarized below.

1. Use recommended nitrogen and
potassium fertilization programs.
Total N rate for the season should
be about 160 lb per acre. More
than 200 lb per acre and less than
120 lb N per acre were associated
with increased graywall in winter
tomato crops. For drip-irrigated
tomatoes, injection rate should not
exceed 2.0 to 2.5 lb N per acre per
day any time during the season.

Potassium rate should be about 160
lb K20 per acre per day although
very recent research on soils testing
very low in K showed that tomatoes
might need up to 200 or 225 lb K20
per acre. Graywall is enhanced in
plants that are deficient in K but
adding more K above the
recommended rate will not reduce
graywall (unless K has been
leached). Fertigation rates should
not exceed 3.0 lb K20 per acre per
day.

Some old work attempted to show a
relation of graywall to the ratio of
N to K in the fertilizer material.
The work did not show a relation of
a supposed ratio to graywall. What
was shown was that plants
receiving low potassium (100 lb K20
per acre) had more graywall. It
was a rate effect and not a ratio
effect.

Let's think a little more about this
"ratio" idea. How can we have a
"better ratio" without changing the
rate of either N or K20? The
answer is we can't. Therefore, it is
the rate and not the ratio that is
important to the tomato crop. The


idea of some magic ratio in the
fertilizer goes out the window when
we add that fertilizer to the soil.
That is because there is always
some nitrogen and potassium
already in the soil which changes
the ratio to something else once the
fertilizer is added to the soil.

2. Do not over irrigate. Wet soil
conditions have been associated
with increased graywall.
Overirrigation also leaches N and K
from the soil and could lead to
deficiencies that would lead to more
graywall. Growers should learn
about the new methods that help
determine crop water requirements
based on evapotranspiration. With
this method, growers can apply only
the water needed by the crop. Also
tensiometers, if properly
maintained can help guide
irrigation programs. In most
Florida soils, tensiometers should
be kept at about -8 to -12 centibars
on the gauge. Keeping the gauge
pegged at zero is sure to be
leaching N and K and overwatering
the crop.

3. Resist the urge to over-react. There
are no magic bullets for the control
of graywall except to follow
reasonable recommended cultural
practices. Adding extra fertilizer,
especially nitrogen, and water can
make a bad situation worse. Foliar
fertilizers have not reduced
graywall. If fertilizer and irrigation
programs are optimum, then it is
usually best to wait out the
problem rather than over-react.

(Hochmuth, Vegetarian 93-02)





-4-


C. Professional Certification.

County extension agents may wish
to become certified as a professional
horticulturist, professional agronomist,
crop scientist, soil scientist, plant
pathologist, or weed scientist. Professional
standards are needed for those whose
activities affect the well-being of the
general public. Professional standards
have been recognized in such professions
as medicine, law, engineering and
accounting. Problem solving in land-use
andhorticultural crop-production practices;
air-, water-, soil-, and horticultural plant-
quality standards; waste management; and
the use of agricultural chemicals create a
need for the services of professionals in
horticulture, agronomy, crops, soils, plant
pathology, and weeds. Such professionals
must be able to show evidence of their
qualifications. A certification program that
identifies professionals for educational,
scientific, and service activities with public
and private agencies is in the public
interest. The American Registry of
Certified Professionals in Agronomy,
Crops, and Soils was established to develop
standards and procedures for certification
of individuals with credentials as
professionals in horticulture, agronomy,
crops, soils, plant pathology, or weeds.
ARCPACS maintains and publishes a
registry of certified professionals in each of
these areas.
Certification is based on scholarly
preparation, and work experience
supported by references. Individuals
certified by ARCPACS have met the
educational and practical experience
standards, subscribe to the Code of Ethics,
and qualify for identification and
recognition as professionals. Credentials of
applicants are reviewed by a six member
certification subboard. Currently
ARCPACS is composed of six subboards of
six members each, who are appointed by
the President of ASA. Certification of
professionals is made by the appropriate
subboard.


The ARCPACS Registry identifies
trained professionals who are required to
participate in continuing education
programs in their field of specialization.
Certified Professionals are frequently
called on to provide information on issues
pertaining to the designated sciences and
public concerns. For example:

*consulting for industry and commercial
agriculture.
*advising agencies of government.

*giving expert witness testimony.


*providing valid information to
communication media.


the


Information and applications for
certification are available from American
Registry of Certified Professionals in
Agronomy, Crops, and Soils, 677 South
Segoe Rd., Madison, WI 53711. Tel (608)
273-8080, Fax (608) 273-2021.

(Maynard, Vegetarian 93-02)

D. Promoting Standardized
Shipping Containers.

In my previous article (Vegetarian.
August, 1992) I announced the
introduction of a newly designed shipping
container for bell peppers for the fall
shipping season. This MUM carton was
designed over a three-year period through
the cooperative efforts of IFAS, the Florida
Bell Pepper Growers Exchange, and the
Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association.
The goal was to introduce a standard
carton size which would promote and
facilitate palletization and which was
designed to cool rapidly. This carton was
also being adopted by shippers in other
production areas, including Mexico and
Texas.
Despite the benefits to all involved
in the industry, from shippers to receivers
to consumers, use of the new carton was





-5-


discontinued in December by Florida
pepper shippers. Pressure from some
buyers was the main reason for dropping
the program, despite the fact that this
innovation was welcomed by many buyers.
This lack of cooperation between shippers
and buyers reveals the importance of
developing closer ties with all parties when
developing and introducing a major change
in doing business.
There have been many benefits
achieved by the new MUM carton.
Although the volume of the new carton has
returned to 1 1/9 bushel, many shippers
have incorporated the new base
dimensions (40 x 30 centimeters) for
palletizing and also have used the
recommended vent hole arrangement for
optimum precooling. As an industry, we
need to continue to promote
standardization of shipping containers; this
latest effort is serving as a catalyst to help
us work closer together.

(Sargent, Vegetarian 93-02)


III. VEGETABLE GARDENING


A. Florida County Agents Plan Use
for Donated Seeds.

Agents and Master Gardeners in
several Florida counties are taking good
advantage of a generous offer by Burpee
Seed Company to donate about 10,000
packets of garden vegetable and flower
seeds to our Extension programs. Our
Federal Extension Horticulturist at USDA,
Washington, Rick Gomez, has made
arrangements for the seeds. Mr. Cliff
Buxbaum, Territorial Manager for Burpee,
says the seeds are older seeds that still
have good germination and vigor. Many of
them will be strange varieties for us in
Florida, but most of these will turn out
o.k., and some could yield excellent results.
Burpee's purpose in donating these
seeds is to provide an opportunity to grow
vegetables and flowers for individuals and


families who ordinarily would not or could
not buy seeds for their gardens. High on
the list of special needs in Florida are the
Hurricane Andrew relief effort, Urban
Gardening work with disadvantaged
families in Jacksonville, and similar
projects in other urban areas.
Following is a summary of the
projects which were proposed by Florida
county agents requesting a portion of the
seeds. Agents and Master Gardeners will
be involved in receiving and utilizing the
seeds when they arrive as follows:


County

Alachua



Baker


Bay


Brevard


Broward

Charlotte



Duval



Citrus


Dade




Escambia


Purpose

Elementary school vegetable
gardens. School landscape
gardens.


Low income
project.


gardening


Trial gardens. Alternative
High School project. Jr.
museum project.

Low income area community
garden.

SchooVcommunity gardens.

Cooper St. Community (low
income) Hort project. School
Hort project.

Low income Urban
Gardening projects and MG
wheelchair gardens.

Compost/mulch demo
garden.

Homestead/hurricane relief
projects; HUD projects; Sr.
citizens project; migrant
clubs projects.

Limited resource community
gardens.





-6-


County
Hernando


Highlands


Indian River


Lee


Marion


Martin


Nassau


Osceola


Purpose
Public school MG
gardens.

Mentally handi-
capped adult
gardens. After school
care gardens.
4HVMaster Gardener
projects.

Homeless families
garden projects.

Jr. Master Gardener
project.

Low income
community gardens
project.

Migrant workers
school project.

Community vegetable
gardens. (produce
for the needy
project).

County children's
home garden; "old
cannery" garden.


St. Lucie


Volusia


School gardens, MG
classes.

Jeff Briggs display
garden.


(Stephens, Vegetarian 93-02)


MG project
needy.


s


Habitat
Humanity
and Venice
garden.


with


for
project
School


4-H Hort training.

Garden Seminars


Pinellas


Sarasota




Seminole

St. Johns


s












Dr. D.J. Can
Chairman


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


tliffe J. Hochmuth Dr. D.N. Mayn
soc. Professor Professor
& Editor


ird


Dr. S.M. Olson
Assoc. Professor



Mr. J.M. Stephens
Professor


Dr. S.A. Sargent
Assoc. Professor



Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Asst. Professor


Dr. W.M. Stall
Professor



Dr. J.M. White
Assoc. Professor




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