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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: December 1992
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00283
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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UFA


1 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIOA


VEGETARIAN
A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Horticultural Sciences Department P.O. 110690 Gainesville, FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134


Vegetarian 92-12


December 10, 1992


Contents

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.
B. New Publications.
I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
A. Standard and Icebox Watermelon Variety
Evaluation Spring 1992.
B. Lake Apopka Hydrologic Unit Project.
III. PESTICIDE UPDATE
A. Special Local Needs Registration for Gramoxone
Extra on Cabbage (including tight headed
varieties).

B. Section 18 Label for Lactofen (Cobra) in Tomato
and Pepper Row Middles.

C. Roundup Labeling Clarifications.
IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. Harvesting Florida's Bounty.

Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors. The
purpose of trade names in this publication is solely for the
purpose of providing information and does not necessarily
constitute a recommendation of the product.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA,
US. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING.


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


__


I


I




-1-


I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

Jan. 26, 1993. Watermelon and
other Cucurbit Institute, 8:30 AM to 4:30
PM at Marion County Extension
Auditorium, Ocala, FL. (Contact George
Hochmuth).
Jan. 27, 28, 1993. 1992-93 Vegetable
Agents In-Service Training Program.
"Electronic Information Exchange for
Vegetable Extension Programs." Held at
Fifield Hall, Gainesville. (Contact George
Hochmuth or Steve Sargent).
March 4,5, 1993 Postharvest
Horticulture Institute. Holiday Inn West,
Gainesville. (Contact Steve Sargent).
March 8-11, 1993. Harvest and
Postharvest Handling of Horticultural
Crops. Tour of Central and South Florida.
(Contact Steve Sargent).

B. New Publications.

The following Suwannee Valley
AREC Reports are available from the
Suwannee Valley AREC (904/362-1725):

SVAREC 91-1. R. Hochmuth and G.
Hochmuth. Results of Four Muskmelon
Cultivar Trials During 1987-89.
SVAREC 91-2. R. Hochmuth.
Comparison of Degradable Mulches When
Growing Transplanted and Direct-Seeded
Watermelons in North Florida.
SVAREC 91-3. R. Hochmuth.
Degradable Mulches for Watermelons.
SVAREC 91-4. R. Hochmuth, S.
Olson, and G. Hochmuth. Short Day
Onion Cultivars for North Florida.
SVAREC 91-5. G. Hochmuth, E.
Hanlon, and R. Hochmuth. Nitrogen Crop
Nutrient Requirements for Muskmelons
Grown in Various Polyethylene Mulch
Systems.


SVAREC 91-6. R. Hochmuth and G.
Hochmuth. Muskmelon Cultivar Trial,
Spring 1990.
SVAREC 91-7. R. Hochmuth and G.
Hochmuth. Seedless Watermelon Cultivar
Evaluation, 1990.
SVAREC 91-8. R. Hochmuth and G.
Hochmuth. Seedless Watermelon Cultivar
Evaluation Spring 1989, Live Oak, Fla.
SVAREC-91-9. R. Hochmuth. Yield
and Quality of Standard and Precocious
Yellow Squash Cultivars.
SVAREC 91-10. R. Hochmuth, G.
Hochmuth, and M. Donley. Polyethylene
Mulch and Transplants Increase Early
Watermelon Production in North Florida.
SVAREC 91-11. G. Hochmuth, R.
Hochmuth, E. Hanlon, and M. Donley.
Responses of Florida Sweet Onions to N
and K Fertilization.
SVAREC 91-12. G. Hochmuth, R.
Hochmuth, E. Hanlon, and M. Donley.
Polyethylene Mulch Affects Yield of Sweet
Onions in Florida.
SVAREC 91-13. R. Hochmuth and
G. Hochmuth. Specialty Melon Cultivar
Trials 1987 and 1988.
SVAREC 91-14. G. Hochmuth, B.
Hochmuth, E. Hanlon, and M. Donley.
Nitrogen Requirements of Mulched
Eggplant in Northern Florida.
SVAREC 91-15. R. Hochmuth, G.
Hochmuth, and C. Morrison. Evaluation of
Seven Greenhouse Tomato Cultivars for
Production and Quality in North Florida in
the 1989 to 1990 Season.
SVAREC 91-16. G. Hochmuth and
B. Hochmuth. Current Status and Trends
of the Greenhouse Vegetable Industry in
Florida.
SVAREC 91-17. G. Hochmuth, R.
Hochmuth, and W. Carte. Preliminary
Evaluation of Production Media Systems
for Greenhouse Tomatoes in Florida.
SVAREC 91-18. R. Hochmuth and
G. Hochmuth. Nitrogen Requirement for
Mulched Slicing Cucumbers.


(Hochmuth, Vegetarian 92-12)









II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Standard and Icebox
Watermelon Variety Evaluation Spring
1992.
Standard watermelons weigh from
18 to 35 lbs and represent most of the
commercial crop grown in Florida. Icebox
watermelons weigh 6 to 12 lbs each and are
grown on a small acreage. Seedless
watermelons, weighing 12 to 18 lbs, also
are grown in Florida on a limited scale.
Florida produced 7 million cwt of
watermelons of all types from 36,000
harvested acres in 1990-91 which provided
an average yield of 195 cwt/acre. The
average price was $11.52/cwt providing a
crop value exceeding $80 million which
accounted for 4.9% of the gross returns to
the state's vegetable growers.
Until recently, the Florida crop was
about equally divided among open
pollinated and hybrids of the Crimson
Sweet, Charleston Gray, and Jubilee types.
A noticeable decline in Charleston Gray
and Jubilee production has been replaced
largely by increased acreage of Allsweet
and blocky Crimson Sweet types.
The purpose of this trial was to
evaluate some recently introduced
varieties, hybrids, and experimental lines.
Early yields ranged from 22
cwt/acre for 'Summer Flavor 200' to 304
cwt/acre for CLF 1041. Fifteen other
entries had early yields similar to those of
'Summer Flavor 200' and three other
entries had early yields similar to those of
CLF 1041. Average fruit weights for the
early harvest ranged from 8 Ibs for CLF
1029 to 23.4 lbs for 'Oasis', however, these
differences were not significant. CLF 1041
had a high incidence and severity of
hollowheart and 'Paradise', 'Sultan', and
'Crimson Tide' had a high incidence of the
disorder in the early-harvested fruit.
Total yields ranged from 239
cwt/acre for 'Crimson Tide' to 609 cwt/acre
for CLF 1030. Fifteen other entries had
yields similar to those of 'Crimson Tide'
and CLF 1030. Average fruit weight varied


from 9.0 lbs for CLF 1029 to 22.4 lbs for
'Royal Sweet'. Only one other entry had
an average weight similar to CLF 1029,
whereas ten other entries had average fruit
weight similar to 'Royal Sweet'. Soluble
solids ranged from 11.2% for 'Royal Sweet'
and 'Summer Flavor 400'to 12.9% for
'Summer Flavor 710'. Fourteen other
entries had soluble solids concentrations
similar to 'Royal Sweet' and 'Summer
Flavor 400', and sixteen entries were
similar to 'Summer Flavor 710'. Soluble
solids concentration in all entries exceeded
the 10% specified for optional use in the
U.S. Standards for Grades of Watermelons.
CLF 1030, WM5010, 'Summer Flavor 400',
'Summer Flavor 610' and 'Summer Flavor
700' were free of hollowheart, whereas
'Crimson Sweet', CLF 1041, 'Summer
Flavor 710', and 'Oasis' had a high
incidence and severity ofhollowheart. The
reason for the abnormally high incidence
and severity of hollowheart this season is
not known, however, commercial
watermelon growers in the area also had a
severe hollowheart problem in the Spring
1992 season.
Yields of standard watermelons were
somewhat greater than those obtained at
this location in the spring 1991 season
when severe gummy stem blight restricted
yields. However, yields were not as high as
expected in spring 1992 because of vine
decline from an undetermined cause.
Nonetheless, soluble solids were uniformly
high.














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B. Lake Apopka Hydrologic
Unit Project.

Lake apopka has long been labeled
as one of the most polluted lakes in florida.
There are several reasons for its eutrophic
condition including natural geographic and
climatic factors as well as external factors.
Some of the external factors include waste
material from processing plants and
municipalities up until 1977. However,
most of the "blame" is currently attributed
by some to the discharge of nutrient-rich
water from the vegetable production area
along the northern shore known as the
Zellwood muck area.
The rich organic soils were formed
from decaying plant materials underwater.
Parts of this area were drained and diked
in the early 1940s to provide food for our
country's needs for winter vegetables.
After over 45 years of producing crops such
as corn, radishes, lettuce, celery, and
carrots, the real impact of farming
practices on Lake Apopka has not been
documented by a scientific study. It is in
the best interest of the public, the state,
and the farmers to make the best possible
effort to minimize the potential
environmental impact of farming.
The Lake Apopka HUA is a 4-year
project cooperatively supported by the
United States Department of Agriculture
(USDA) through the Cooperative Extension
Service of the University of Florida
(FCES), the Soil Conservation Service
(SCS), and the Agricultural Stabilization
and Conservation Service (ASCS). Each
agency has a role to play in achieving the
common objectives.
The FCES is responsible for making
fertilizer recommendations and helping
farmers to manage nutrients in the most
efficient manner possible.
The SCS is providing conservation
planning and technical assistance that will
help farmers meet water quality standards.
Each farm is unique and has different
cropping systems, irrigation practices, and


drainage systems. Each plan is prepared
individually in consultation with the land
user.
A water table monitoring system is
already in place to determine the value of
existing water management practices, for
example mole drains. Water control
structures have been installed on some
farms in consultation with SCS to improve
water distribution and discharge. These, as
well as other practices, are being evaluated
for improving and protecting water quality.
Cost-share funding to help farmers
implement recommended practices are
available through monies earmarked for
the Lake Apopka hydrologic unit area
project. The agency responsible for
administering the funds is the Lake-
Orange County ASCS.
Eligible practices common to the
project area include irrigation water control
structures, sediment retention and water
control structures, and integrated crop
management. Long-term agreements are
available for 3 to 10 years, depending on
the extent of improvements. The
maximum payment for which each person
is eligible is $3500 per year for up to 10
years.
All three of the agencies involved
share the desire to see farms in the Lake
Apopka Basin prosper and overcome the
environmental concerns that they are
currently facing.

(White, Vegetarian 92-12 adapted from
Soil and Water Newsletter)









II. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. Special Local Needs
Registration for Gramoxone Extra on
Cabbage (including tight headed
varieties).

Gramoxone Extra (paraquat) has a
24(c) label for postemergence
direct/shielded application to cabbage
(including tight headed varieties) to control
emerged annual broadleaf weeds and
grasses and for top kill and suppression of
emerged perennial weeds after crop
emergence or establishment. Apply as a
directed spray using 1-1 1/2 pts per
sprayed acre in 40-70 gals. spray mix.
Apply with conventional ground equipment
directing sprays between the rows and
using shields to prevent spray contact with
crop plants. For best results apply when
weeds and grasses are succulent and weed
growth is 1 to 6 inches high. Weeds and
grasses emerging after application will not
be controlled. Do NOT allow spray to
contact cabbage plants as injury or
excessive residues may result. Outer
leaves should be stripped at the time of
harvest. Do not apply where Gramoxone
Extra has been used as a preplant
preemergence spray.
Always add a nonionic surfactant or
a crop oil concentrate at rates listed on the
label.
(Stall, Vegetarian 92-12)

B. Section 18 Label for Lactofen
(Cobra) in Tomato and Pepper Row
Middles.

The Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) has granted a specific
exemption (Section 18) for the use of
lactofen (Cobra) to control nightshade and
parthenium in tomato and pepper row
middles.
A maximum of two ground
applications is not to be exceeded. The
first application will be pretransplant,
preemergence at a rate range of 0.3 to 0.5


lb ai/A (19 to 32 fl oz per acre). The
second application is to be made
postemergence at the same rate as the first
application. Spray must be directed at the
tomato and pepper row middles.
A 30 day PHI must be observed.
Tomatoes treated under this emergency
exemption must be for fresh market use
only.
The specific exemption expires
August 31, 1993.
(Stall, Vegetarian 92-12)


C. I
Clarifications.


loundup Labeling


In the past there has been some
questions and confusion on the labeling of
Roundup herbicide especially in the area of
its use in postharvest applications. Dr.
Clair Erickson, Monsanto Co. has sent me
a "FACT SHEET" addressing postharvest
and several other aspects of Roundup
labeling.
"Fact Sheets" are not part of the
Federal or State labeling process, but are
covered under FIFRA Section 2ee, which
clarifies product usage on a labeled crop.
The Fact Sheet was submitted to EPA and
Florida DACS and is now part of the
Roundup file.
The essence of the FACT SHEET is
as follows:

Fallow applications Roundup can be
applied in fallow periods prior to planting,
transplanting or emergence of any of the
crops listed in the label booklet. Roundup
can also be used in fallow periods preceding
any crop not listed in the booklet, as long
as the application precedes planting or
transplanting by 30 days.

Preplant, Pretransplant and Preemergence
Applications Roundup can be applied
prior to the planting, transplanting or
emergence of many crops. Most cropping
systems may be treated with any of these
three application types with a few
exceptions. For example, prior to the




-6-


planting of certain vegetable crops,
Roundup can only be applied with at least
a 3-day interval between application and
planting.

Postharvest Applications Roundup can be
applied for weed control immediately
following the harvest of any crop. If
another crop is to be planted soon after
harvest of the first crop, then the labeled
recommendations for preplant, pre-
transplant and preemergence applications
to the following crop apply.
For specific application
recommendations for specific crops, refer
to the "CROPPING SYSTEMS" section of
the most recent Roundup label booklet.

(Stall, Vegetarian 92-12)

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Harvesting Florida's Bounty.

The Florida State Fair Authority
(FSFA) has just announced some
interesting new competitions for the 1993
Florida State Fair at Tampa. These
pertain mostly to vegetables, but do include
some other plants (forestry, field crops,
grasses, and legumes).
There are categories for youth,
adults, and senior citizens. If the Master
Gardeners in your county are looking for
projects of an educational nature, yet
offering a lot of fun for the participants,
you might check these out. And there is a
lot of prize money to be won. Here is a
summary of the competitions (as
announced).
A. Carrot Growing Contest Friday
Feb 5, 1993.
Biggest Carrot (wt)
Skinniest Carrot
Fattest Carrot
Most Unusual Carrot
Each winner gets a rosette and $10.00

B. Largest Vegetable Contest -
Tues. Feb. 9, 1993.


No age categories; each vegetable
winner gets a rosette and $10.00.
(Vegetables are: cabbage, carrot, cucumber,
eggplant, onion, potato, red radish, summer
squash, acorn/butternut squash, zucchini,
tomato, turnip root).

C. Vegetable Baskets Tues. Feb. 9, 1993.
Each winner gets a rosette and $25.00.

D. Seed Identification Display Sat. Feb.
6, 1993. Seeds mounted on sturdy material
measuring 24x36". Prizes up to $30.00 in
youth category. List of specific seeds is
given, including agronomic crops.

E. Creative Seed Pictures Sat. Feb. 6,
1993. Contestants enter one picture
created from vegetable and other seeds
(use same seed list). Each winner gets
rosette and $25.00.

F. Scarecrow contest Sat. Feb. 13, 1993.
Each exhibitor may enter 1 scarecrow
made according to rules stipulated.

General rules and regulations (as outlined
by FSFA) follow (see ANNOUNCEMENT
BROCHURE for specific events rules):

1. Exhibitors must pre-enter by submitting
the entry form attached to FSFA flyer.
2. All entry forms must be postmarked on
or before January 25th, 1993.
3. Each exhibitor will be mailed one (1)
daily Admission Pass. All exhibitors must
enter the Buffalo Avenue Gate and pay
Regular Parking Fee.
4. All entries must be brought to the Ag
Hall of Fame/Commodities Building on
Date and Time specified for each contest.
5. Exhibitor Name and Address must be
clearly written and attached to entry or
entry container.
6. Age Categories for all contests (except
Largest Vegetable Contest) will be: Youth -
17 years and under; Adult 18-61 years old;
Sr. Citizen 62 and over.
7. Each participant will receive a ribbon.




-7-


If any of you Master Gardeners are interested in entering or helping someone enter
these events, you will need to obtain the rules and regulations and entry form by contacting
the Florida State Fair Authority. Their address is: Agribusiness Department, Florida State
Fair, PO Box 11766, Tampa, FL 33680. Phone number is 1-800-345-FAIR Ext. 263. Ask for
Lisa, Tami, or Penny. The following is the Entry Form as it appears in the announcement
flyer.


FLORIDA STATE FAIR 1993 HARVESTING FLORIDA'S BOUNTY COMPETITION

Deadline January 25, 1993

Carrot Growing Contest Vegetable Baskets


Largest Vegetable Contest


Creative Seed Pictures


Seed Identification

Scarecrow Contest


Display


Exhibitor Name

Address


City


State Zip


Age as of January 1, 1993


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mail to: Agribusiness Department, Florida State Fair, P.O. Box 11766, Tampa, FL 33680
FOR OFFICE USE ONLY
CATEGORY: YOUTH ADULT SR. CITIZEN
AWARD:


(Stephens, Vegetarian 92-12)




Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D.J. Cantliffe
Chairman


Dr. G.J. Hochmuth Dr. D.N. Maynard
Assoc. Professor Professor


Dr. S.M. Olson
Assoc. Pr

J Stephens
Profesors Editor


Dr. S.A. Sargent
Assoc. Professor

Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Asst. Professor


Dr. W.M. Stall
Professor

Dr. J.M. White
Assoc. Professor




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