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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: November 1992
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00282
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA










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INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


VEGETARIAN
A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Horticultural Sciences Department P.O. 110690 Gainesville, FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134


Vegetarian 92-11


November 17, 1992


Contents
L. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.
B. New Publications.

II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
A. IFAS Vine Crops Institute.
B. Field Establishment of Bell Pepper Transplants
as Affected by Planting Depth.
C. Seedless Watermelon Variety Evaluation
Spring 1992.

II. VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. Effects of Yard Waste Compost as a Soil
Amendment for Growing Vegetables.



Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors. The
purpose of trade names in this publication is solely for the
purpose of providing information and does not necessarily
constitute a recommendation of the product


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
Information and other services only to individuals and Institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA,
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING.


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


I


I









I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

November 16-20, 1992. National
Symposium for Stand Establishment in
Horticultural Crops. Sheraton Harbor
Place, Ft. Myers. (Contact Charles
Vavrina).
Jan. 26, 1993. Watermelon and
other Cucurbit Institute, 8:30 AM to 4:30
PM at Marion County Extension
Auditorium, Ocala, FL. (Contact George
Hochmuth).
Jan. 27, 28, 1993. 1992-93 Vegetable
Agents In-Service Training Program.
"Electronic Information Exchange for
Vegetable Extension Programs." Held at
Fifield Hall, Gainesville. (Contact George
Hochmuth or Steve Sargent).
March 4,5, 1993 Postharvest
Horticulture Institute. Holiday Inn West,
Gainesville. (Contact Steve Sargent).
March 8-11, 1993. Harvest and
Postharvest Handling of Horticultural
Crops. Tour of Central and South Florida.
(Contact Steve Sargent).

B. New Publications.

Circ. SP 109. Double cropping
vegetables on polyethylene-mulched beds.
(FOR SALE, IFAS Publications
Distribution Center, Bldg 664, Univ. Fla.,
Gainesville, FL 32611).
Circ. SP 110. Production of Florida
greenhouse vegetables in rockwool:
Greenhouse design and crop management.
(FOR SALE, IFAS Publications
Distribution Center, Bldg 664, Univ. Fla.,
Gainesville, FL 32611).


I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. IFAS Vine Crops Institute.

IFAS VINE CROPS INSTITUTE
8:30 AM to 4:30 PM
Tuesday, January, 26, 1993
Auditorium,
Cooperative Extension Service
Ocala, FL

PROGRAM

8:00 AM Trade Show set-up.
8:30 Registration, Visit trade show.
9:00 Cucurbit seed and transplant
quality Charlie Vavrina, IFAS,
Southwest Florida REC, Immokalee.
9:30 Watermelon N and K plant sap
testing program Chris Vann, IFAS,
Lafayette County Extension Office,
Mayo, FL.
9:50 Watermelon varieties and industry
panel Don Maynard, IFAS, Gulf
Coast REC, Bradenton, FL, and
Gary Elmstrom, IFAS, Central
Florida REC, Leesburg, FL.
10:20 Pollination pointers Malcolm
Sanford, IFAS, Entomology and
Nematology Department,
Gainesville, FL.
10:40 Standardized shipping containers -
Steven Sargent, IFAS, Horticultural
Sciences Department, Gainesville,
FL.
10:50 Muskmelon harvesting and
handling Steven Sargent, IFAS,
Horticultural Sciences Department,
Gainesville, FL.
11:10 Pumpkin production in Florida -
Bob Hochmuth, IFAS, Suwannee
Valley AREC, Live Oak, FL.
11:30 Marshmallow production an
opportunity for Florida? Don Rau,
Asgrow Florida, Alachua, FL.
11:50 Trade Show speakers.


12:00 Lunch provided.





-2-


1:30 Calabasa production in Florida -
Don Maynard, IFAS, Gulf Coast
REC, Bradenton, FL.
1:50 Weed control options in Cucurbits -
Bill Stall, IFAS, Horticultural
Sciences Department, Gainesville,
FL.
2:10 Nematode control, methyl bromide
update Joe Noling, IFAS, Citrus
REC, Lake Alfred, FL.
2:30 Watermelon virus update Susan
Webb, IFAS, Central Florida REC,
Leesburg, FL.
2:50 Watermelon fruit blotch Don
Hopkins, IFAS, Central Florida
REC, Leesburg, FL.
3:10 Disease control in Cucurbits Tom
Kucharek, IFAS, Plant Pathology
Department, Gainesville, FL.
3:40 Insect control in Cucurbits Fred
Johnson, IFAS, Entomology and
Nematology Department,
Gainesville, FL.
4:10 Questions
4:30 Adjourn

(Hochmuth, Vegetarian 92-11)


B. Field Establishment of Bell
Pepper Transplants as Affected by
Planting Depth.

By most south Florida "wisdom",
peppers should be planted no deeper than
the root ball. Yet, bare ground crop
cultivation often buries pepper stems
significantly. With the help of Dr. Phyllis
Gilreath and Karl Butts, studies were
conducted in Immokalee, Manatee county,
and Hillsborough county under commercial
conditions prevalent in those areas to
determine the effect of bell pepper
planting depth under polyethylene mulch
culture in south Florida. Commercially
grown 'Jupiter' pepper transplants were
planted at various depths in fall '91 and
spring '92, either to the top of the root
ball, the cotyledon leaves or to the first
true leaf.


Pepper transplanted to the
cotyledon (Immokalee, fall '91 or Manatee
and Hillsborough, spring '92) showed either
a significant yield increase or no difference
in yield from pepper transplanted to the
root ball (Table 1).
An infestation of pepper weevil in
Immokalee in the spring '92 resulted in
severe fruit loss negating the depth effect
on yield (Table 2). However, early stand
establishment parameters demonstrated
that planting pepper transplants deeper
was commercially beneficial. Transplants
planted to the first true leaf 30 days after
planting had more leaves, greater plant
weight (DW), and more blooms than either
transplants planted to the cotyledons or to
the root ball. Furthermore, these plants
exhibited reduced lodging compared to
transplants planted to the root ball.
(Deeper planting may alleviate the need for
staking and tying on the East Coast!).
Transplants planted to the
cotyledons had a greater DW and fewer
lodged plants than transplants planted to
the root ball. Transplants planted to the
root ball were taller than the other
treatments.
Yield benefits seen in Florida from
deeper transplants may be the effect of a
cooler root environment, earlier fertilizer
acquisition, and greater water availability.
Not all affects were positive, however. A
tendency toward a greater incidence of
bacterial spot may accompany deeper
plants in the fall due to the rapidity of
growth. Furthermore, a similar study with
Dr. Mike Orzolek (Penn State Univ.)
showed peppers planted 1 inch above the
cotyledons resulted in lower yields.
Orzolek intimated that a cold, wet spring
may have "set-back" deep plants. More
studies are under way to further
corroborate the FL (Shuler, Palm Beach)
and PA findings.








Table 1. Pepper Planting Depth Yields

Immokalee Fall '91 Harvest Manatee Spring '92 Hillsborough Spring '92

Depth 1st Total 1st Total 1st Total
----lbs/plot----
Cotyledon 21.2a* 46.2a 54.65a 69.32a 77.51a 89.75a
Root ball 16.9b 39.5b 57.43a 73.80a 67.35b 87.96a
Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different by LSD at p=0.05.



Table 2. 30 day Plant Sample for the Pepper Transplant Planting Depth Study

Depth Stem Length2 Leaves Plant Wt (Dry)3 Lodged Plants Early Bloom Yield

(cm) (#/plt) (grams) (#) (#) Ibs/plot
First Leaf 10.Sc5 44.3a 2.485a Ob 9.8a 15-9a
Cotyledon 13.1b 37.5b 2.049b 0.5b 2.0b 16.5a
Root ball 16.0a 32.7b 1.474C 11.2a 0.3b 14.7a.
1 Single plant/plot, replicated 6 times
Z Soil line to base of growing point
3 Stem cut at cotyledon, whether above or below around level
SMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different by LSD at p=0.05.

(Vavrina, Vegetarian, 92-11)


C. Seedless Watermelon Variety
Evaluation Spring 1992.

Seed for planting seedless
watermelons results from a cross between
a selected tetraploid female parent,
developed by treating diploid lines with
colchicine, and a selected diploid (normal)
male parent. The resulting triploid is
sterile and does not produce viable seed.
However, small, white rudimentary seeds
develop which are eaten along with the
flesh just as immature seeds are eaten in
cucumber.
Fruit enlargement in normal fruit,
including watermelon, is enhanced by
growth-promoting hormones produced by
the developing seed. Growth hormones are
lacking in seedless watermelons so those
agents must be provided by pollen. Since


flowers on triploid plants lack sufficient
viable pollen to induce normal fruit set,
normal watermelons are interplanted with
triploids to serve as pollenizers. An
adequate bee population is necessary to
insure that sufficient transfer of pollen
occurs. Seedless fruit (from triploid plants)
tend to be triangular shaped unless
sufficient pollination occurs.
Specialty vegetables are in high
demand and seedless watermelons offer an
attractive alternative for the discriminating
consumers and the food service industry.
Seedless watermelons are being actively
promoted by marketing organizations and
seed companies to stimulate demand. At
the same time, new varieties are being
developed that are superior to those
previously available.
The objective of this trial was to
evaluate the performance of seedless




-4-


watermelon varieties and experimental
lines under west-central Florida conditions.
Seeds of 20 seedless watermelon
entries were planted in a peat-lite growing
mix in No. 150 Todd planter flats on 31
January. The watermelon transplants were
grown by a commercial plant grower and
field planted on 4 March.
Watermelons were harvested on 29
May, 10 June and 18 June. Marketable
(U.S. No. 1 or better) according to U.S.
Standards for Grades were separated from
culls and counted and weighed individually.
Soluble solids were determined with a
hand-held refractometer on at least six
fruit from each entry at each harvest.
Early yields, represented by the
first of three harvests, ranged from 124
cwt/acre for 'Scarlet Trio' to 437 cwt/acre
for HMX 7928 (Table 1). Early yields of 15
other entries were statistically similar to
those of 'Scarlet Trio', whereas eight other
entries had yields similar to those of HMX
7928. Average fruit weight ranged from
10.0 lb for NVH 4296 to 17.0 lb for CLF
1025. Average weight of fruit at first
harvest of 11 other entries was similar to
that of NVH 4296, whereas 18 other
entries had average fruit weight similar to
that of CLF 1025. Soluble solids of fruit
from the first harvest varied from 12.1%
for 'Crimson Trio' to 14.4% for 'Cotton
Candy', however, these differences were
not significant. Accordingly, there were
few differences in yield, average fruit
weight, or soluble solids at the first
harvest.


Total yields (Table 1) ranged from
297 cwt/acre for CLF 1012 to 691 cwt for
'Millionaire'. Sixteen other entries had
total yields similar to those of CLF 1012,
whereas 15 other entries had yields similar
to those of 'Millionaire'. Average fruit
weight for the entire season varied from
9.8 lb for NVH 4296 to 16.0 lb for 'Cotton
Candy' and CLF 1011. Seven other entries
had similar average weights similar to
'Cotton Candy' and CLF 1011. Total yields
far exceeded the state average yield of
about 181 cwt/acre for the 1986-87 to
1990-91 seasons and were higher than
those reported from this location in 1991
but lower than those from the 1989 or
1990 seasons.
Soluble solids over the entire season
(Table 1) ranged from 12.7% for 'Crimson
Trio' and 'Tycoon' to 13.9% for 'HMX
7928'. Accordingly, soluble solids in all
entries far exceeded the 10% specified for
optional use in the U.S. Standards for
Grades of Watermelons.
Seedless watermelon variety trials
have been conducted at GCREC each
spring season since 1988. The highest
yields have ranged from 546 cwt/acre in
1991 to 970 cwt/acre in 1989. The highest
yield in 1992 was 691 cwt/acre which was
slightly below the five-year average yield of
730 cwt/acre. An undiagnosed vine decline
may have contributed to the lower than
average yield. 'Millionaire' was included in
four of the five trials, and was the highest
yielding variety in three of the trials and in
the statistically highest yielding group in
the other trial. The complete report of
this trial is available as GCREC Research
Report BRA1992-18.












Table 1. Early and total yields, average fruit weight, and soluble solids of seedless watermelons. Gulf
Coast Research and Education Center. Spring 1992.


Early Harvest' Total Harvest
Weight Avg. fruit Soluble Weight Avg. fruit Soluble
Entry Source (cwt/A)2 tW. (lb.) Solids () (cwt/A)2 Wt. (lb.) Solids (%)
Millionaire Harris Horan 264 a-d3 15.8 ab 13.4 a 691 a 15.5 ab 13.3 ab
90W146 Rogers NK 180 b-d 16.4 ab 13.0 a 670 a 14.5 a-d 13.2 ab
SUM 8702 Sakata 381 ab 14.0 a-c 13.1 a 617 ab 13.7 de 13.4 ab
Exp. 460015 Shamrock 288 a-d 14.7 a-c 13.2 a 606 ab 13.9 c-e 13.5 ab
Tiffany Asgrow 268 a-d 13.0 a-c 13.4 a 552 a-c 13.3 de 13.5 ab
------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Nova Sakata 222 b-d 12.2 a-c 13.2 a 551 a-c 11.5 f 13.1 ab
Crimson Trio Rogers NK 297 a-d 16.5 ab 12.1 a 536 a-c 15.4 a-c 12.7 b
Tri-X-313 American 264 a-d 15.9 ab 12.6 a 534 a-c 15.5 a-c 13.4 ab
Sunmelon
IHMX 7928 Harris Moran 437 a 11.9 a-c 14.3 a 504 a-c 11.7 f 13.9 a
Exp. 460023 Shamrock 272 a-d 15.7 ab 13.0 a 503 a-c 15.5 ab 13.0 ab
----- ---------------------------------------
NVH 4296 Rogers NK 350 a-c 10.0 c 12.7 a 483 a-c 9.8 g 12.8 b
Cotton Candy Harris Horan 184 b-d 16.7 a 14.4 a 471 a-c 16.0 a 13.6 ab
CLF 1025 CFREC-Leesburg 149 cd 17.0 a 13,3 a 468 a-c 15.5 a-c 13.2 ab
Exp. 460016 Shamrock 184 b-d 13.8 a-c 13.6 a 457 a-c 13.8 do 13.7 ab
CLF 1011 CFREC-Leesburg 167 cd 15.0 a-c 13.4 a 444 a-c 16.0 a 13.3 ab
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
90W145 Rogers NK 159 cd 13.7 a-c 13,6 a 424 a-c 14.0 b-d 13.4 ab
Tycoon Harris Moran 188 b-d 13.3 a-c 12.9 a 384 bc 12.3 ef 12.7 b
Scarlet Trio Rogers NK 124 d 12.6 a-c 13.3 a 378 be 13.0 d-f 13.3 ab
CLF 1003 CFREC-Leesburg 158 cd 12.4 a-c 13.1 a 362 bc 13.5 de 13.2 ab
CLF 1012 CFREC-Leesburg 177 cd 16.4 ab 13.3 a 297 c 15.7 a 13.0 ab
IEarly harvest based on first of three harvests.
2Acre 4840 lbf.
Mean separation in columns by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.


(Maynard, Vegetarian 92-11)







III. VEGETABLE GARDENING


A. Effects of Yard Waste
Compost as a Soil Amendment for
Growing Vegetables.

Yard Waste Compost (YWC)
Yard waste compost, as received
from the Tampa municipal facility in 1990
and subsequently from the Gainesville
Wood Recovery Center, was applied and
planted with various vegetables from 1990
to 1992 at the Organic Gardening Research
and Education Park, U.F., Gainesville. In
both cases the source of raw material for
the composting process included mostly


ordinary yard waste such as leaves and
woody trimmings and excluded metals,
glass, and plastic. While such compost is
variable in chemical composition, our
compost was considered to be in the range
of .5 1.0 percent nitrogen, and slowly
available, based on reports (Journal
Environmental Quality 21:318-329 (1992).

Spring 1990 Yard waste compost
alone (Box D) A finely ground yard-waste
compost (Tampa product) was applied to
the box at two rates: 1 lb/ft2 (east 1/2 box)
and 2 lb/ft2 per sq ft (west 1/2 box)








broadcast and incorporated (1 May, 1992).
'Clemson Spineless' okra and 'California
Blackeye #5' Southern peas were seeded
immediately.
Spring 1990 Yard waste compost +
organic fertilizer (Box E) In Box E the
YWC was applied in the same manner and
rates as for Box D. However, bands of
organic fertilizer (FertrellTM 3-2-3) were
placed beside each row of okra and So. peas
at planting at the rate of .16 lb/ft2.
Fall 1990 YWC (Box D) Additional
YWC (Gainesville product) was
broadcast/incorporated into both halves of
box at the rate of 2 lb/ft2 (12 Sept.).
Therefore, the total YWC applied in 1990
was 3 lb/ft2 in the east 1/2 of Box D, and 4
lb/ft2 in the west 1/2. 'Poinsett'
cucumbers and 'Florida Broadleaf mustard
greens were seeded immediately (12 Sept.).
Fall 1990 YWC + organic fertilizer
(Box E) No YWC was applied in the fall in
this box. However, more organic fertilizer
(FertrellTM 3-2-3) was banded beside rows at
the rate of .1 lb/ft2. 'Poinsett' cucumbers
and 'Florida Broadleaf mustard were
seeded the same day (12 Sept.).
Spring 1991 YWC (Box D) More
YWC was broadcast into the box. The east
1/2 received 2 lb/ft2 while the west 1/2
received 4 lb/ft2. With residuals from
1990, the east 1/2 of Box D now had 100
T/A, and the west 1/2 had 160 T/A
equivalent rates of YWC. 'Better Boy'
tomato plants were set the same day as
treatment (22 Mar.).
Spring 1991 YWC + organic
fertilizer (Box E) Additional YWC was
added to this box as described for Box D,
plus a supplement of .04 lb/ft2 FertrellTM 3-
2-3 banded around each 'Better Boy'
tomato plant at setting time (22 Mar.,
1991).
Fall 1991 YWC (Box D) To
observe effects of residual YWC from
earlier applications, no additions were
made in the fall of 1991. Two varieties of
Southern peas ('Cal BE #5 and 'PEPH')
were seeded on 6 Sept., and yields recorded
at harvest-time.


Fall 1991 YWC + organic fertilizer
(Box E) Likewise, on 6 Sept. the two
varieties of Southern peas were seeded in
the box containing residuals of YWC plus
FertrellTM 3-2-3.
Spring 1992 YWC (Box D) As
'Better Boy' tomato and 'Jupiter' pepper
plants were set on 26 Mar., 1992,
Gainesville YWC was incorporated in the
planting holes at two rates: .60 lb/ft2
(east), and 1.20 lb/ft2 (west).
Spring 1992 YWC + organic
fertilizer (Box E) In this box, plant-hole
applications of YWC at the two rates of .60
and 1.20 lb/ft2 were supplemented with
two rates of FertrellTM 3-2-3 at .1 and
.2 lb/ft2, respectively.

Results and Discussion

Spring 1990 The compost was not
available until 1 May, so the choice for
late-spring test crops was okra and
Southern peas. At both rates of compost (1
and 2 lb/ft2), fair yields of peas were
obtained. However, the okra, without the
nitrogen-fixing capability of the peas, grew
poorly at both rates of the compost.
Adding organic fertilizer (FertrellT")
to the compost resulted in improved yields
of peas and better growth of okra.
However, the okra never yielded, probably
due to insufficient nitrogen.
Fall 1990 More YWC was applied
to the box for the fall planting of
cucumbers and mustard greens. The
cucumber yields were poor, while the
mustard grew a bit better. However,
mustard yields were far lower than all
other treatments. Apparently, 6 months
was not sufficient time for the YWC to
supply the nutrient needs of these and
probably other vegetables. Again, the
addition of organic fertilizer (FertrellT) to
the compost was accompanied by enhanced
yields at both the high and low rates for
both mustard and cucumbers. The best
cucumber yield in the trial was recorded
for YWC plus FertrellT (210 oz/plot),









topping yields on Fertrell alone (160
oz/plot) and chicken litter (128 oz/plot).
Spring 1991 Further applications
of YWC to the box just prior to planting
'Better Boy' tomatoes resulted in fair yields
of fruit at the lower rate (2 lb/ft2), but
rather poor yields where twice the amount
(4 lb/ft2) was applied. The strong
implication again is that YWC by itself
needs sufficient time to decompose
properly for best vegetable response.
Larger rates tend to widen the C:N ratio,
thus retarding growth. However, in this
trial, the organic fertilizer (Fertrell'M)
supplement to the YWC was not
accompanied by a yield increase, most
likely due to the depressing effects of the
YWC. Tomatoes yielded 117 oz/plant with
FertrellTM alone compared with 62 oz/plant
where YWC was included.
Fall 1991 Good yields (28 oz/plot)
of 'California Blackeye' and 'Pinkeye
Purplehull' peas were harvested in the
YWC box at the high rate; however, a
better yield (32 oz/plot) was recorded at
the same rate of YWC with the FertrellTM
supplement. Apparently, with the passage
of time during the summer months, the
YWC became more productive. Even so,
the organic fertilizer supplement was
helpful.


Spring 1992 A good yield of
tomatoes (106 oz/plant) was obtained when
YWC was mixed into the plant hole at the
rate of .60 lb/ft2. This was about equal to
the yield of tomatoes (119 oz/plant) where
chicken litter had been used. There was
no increase in tomato yields from the
supplement of organic fertilizer; however,
pepper did respond to the supplement,
producing an average of 3.5 pods per plant
compared with only 1 pod with YWC alone.
When YWC was mixed with poultry
compost (Red RoosterTM) and placed below
tomato plants, the "burning" effects of the
poultry compost were eliminated (the
poultry compost used alone beneath the
tomato plants had killed plants).

Summary As had been expected, the
amendments containing poultry manure
were faster acting (thus more likely to
burn plants) than the plant-derived yard
waste compost. The yard waste compost
tested shows promise for growing
vegetables as a sole amendment, but better
when supplemented with the animal
manures and organic fertilizer. Indications
are that relatively large amounts (40
tons/acre) of YWC could be applied yearly
to garden soils if organic fertilizer
supplements are added and sufficient time
(several months) is allowed for its further
decomposition.


(Stephens, Vegetarian 92-11)


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D.J. Cantliffe
Chairman


Dr. S.M. Olson
Assoc. Professor



Mr. J.M. Stephens
Professor


Dr. G.J. Hochmuth Dr. D.N. Maynard
Assoc. Professor Professor


Dr. S.A. Sargent
Assoc. Professor
&Editpt


Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Asst. Professor


Dr. W.M. Stall
Professor



Dr. J.M. White
Assoc. Professor




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