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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: October 1992
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00281
Source Institution: University of Florida
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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE


VEGETARIAN

A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Horticultural Sciences Department P.O. 110690 Gainesville, FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134


Vegetarian 92-10


October 12, 1992


' I" Contents

I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.


"JJ HII. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. National Symposium for Stand Establishment in
SHorticultural Crops.

.. B. 1993 Florida Postharvest Horticulture Institute and
Industry Tour.

C. Yields of Vegetables in Florida.


IV. HOME VEGETABLE GARDENING

7 A. Vapam Use by Vegetable Gardeners.





Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors.
The purpose of trade names in this publication is solely
for the purpose of providing information and does not
necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.






The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA,
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING.


INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


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-1-


I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

November 3-5, 1992. FSHS
Convention. Hyatt Regency Westshore.
Tampa. (Contact Dan Cantliffe).
November 16-20, 1992. National
Symposium for Stand Establishment in
Horticultural Crops. Sheraton Harbor
Place, Ft. Myers. (Contact Charles
Vavrina).
Jan. 27, 28, 1993. 1992-93 Vegetable
Agents In-Service Training Program.
"Electronic Information Exchange for
Vegetable Extension Programs." Held at
Fifield Hall, Gainesville. (Contact George
Hochmuth or Steve Sargent).
March 4,5, 1993 Postharvest
Horticulture Institute. University Centre
Hotel, Gainesville. (Contact Steve
Sargent).
March 8-11, 1993. Harvest and
Postharvest Handling of Horticultural
Crops. Tour of Central and South Florida.
(Contact Steve Sargent).


H. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. National Symposium for
Stand Establishment in Horticultural
Crops.

The program is set and the U of FL
Office of Conferences is taking
registrations! If you are in the business of
vegetable production or its associated
industries you won't want to miss this one.

Beginning Monday, November 16
through Friday, November 20 the National
Symposium for Stand Establishment in
Horticultural Crops comes to Ft. Myers at
the Sheraton Harbor Place. This
conference will feature something for
everyone with presentations on seed
quality, seed technology, direct seeding,
mechanical seeders and transplanters,


mulches, transplant production,
transplant field establishment.


and


Top professionals from the seed
industry and universities world wide will be
presenting information on the latest
research and practical applications in the
field of stand establishment. Symposium
presenters hail from 14 states (CA, FL, GA,
MD, MN, NC, NE, NY, PA, OH, SC, TX,
VA, WA) and 3 countries (Canada, New
Zealand, Poland). Crops targeted include
artichoke, asparagus, broccoli, cabbage,
carrot, celery, cucumber, lettuce, pepper,
snap bean, squash, sweet corn, tomato, and
watermelon. Field tours, poster
presentations and display booths will round
out the meeting.

Tuesday, November 17 will be of
most interest to those whose major interest
is vegetable seed. Among the topics
discussed will be quality control, seed
health, germination in response to
temperature & growth regulator treatment,
matriconditioning, use of biological agents,
and dormancy releasing treatments.

Wednesday, November 18, will begin
the field establishment sessions with talks
on improving sh2 sweet corn stands, gel
seeding, rotational crop allelopathy, insect
dynamics on crop establishment, and in-
row plant spacing. The afternoon of the
18th we will tour CollierGro, a transplant
production facility, and visit SWFREC to
view demonstration plots of "common
problems" seen in SW Florida vegetable
production.

On Thursday, November 19, further
talks on field establishment and transplant
production will ensue. Topics such as
mulches, cover crops, composts,
pretransplant nutritional conditioning,
brushing for height control, storage of
cabbage transplants, endomycorrhizal
transplants, and planting depth will be
covered. Friday will be the industry tour
"from planted seed to packing house."





-2-


Interested persons should contact
the University of Florida, Offices of
Conferences (904-392-5930) for registration
and program information. A one day
registration fee is available for those
wishing to attend only a portion of the
program.

(Vavrina, Vegetarian 92-10)


B. 1993 Florida Postharvest
Horticulture Institute and Industry
Tour.

It's time to mark your calendars for
the 1993 FPHI and industry tour! This
third Institute will be held in Gainesville
on Thursday and Friday, March 4 and 5. It
is designed for horticultural professionals
involved in such diverse areas as extension
education, field and packinghouse
management, sales, import/export,
wholesaling, retailing, and students.

At the Institute the latest practical
information will be presented by University
of Florida faculty and industry leaders for
maintaining the quality of vegetable, fruit
(tropical and subtropical) and ornamental
crops during handling and shipping.
Topics to be presented will include:
principles of postharvest physiology,
harvest, handling and shipping operations,
postharvest quality evaluation, precooling
efficiency, postharvest treatments (e.g.,
gassing, modified and controlled
atmospheres, irradiation, disinfestation/
quarantine treatments) and marketing
horticultural crops.

The Institute Industry Tour will be
Monday Thursday, March 8-11. We will
see a wide variety of crops and commercial
operations throughout central and south
Florida, including harvest, packing,
shipping and export. Due to the
cosponsorship of the Florida Fruit and
Vegetable Association and participation of
the Florida industry, we are able to


subsidize expenses for extension agents
who wish to participate.

(Sargent, Vegetarian 92-10)

C. Yields of Vegetables in
Florida.

Average yields of vegetables are of
interest to growers, extension agents,
regulatory agencies, and others. They may
be used to compare crop performance on
an individual farm with the state average,
as one basis for selecting alternative crops
for a farm, or for settlement of claims
resulting from natural causes or failure of
a product to perform as advertised.

The commercial yields in the
following table are statewide ten-year
averages (Anonymous, 1992). Use of the
ten-year average minimizes the effects of
annual fluctuations due to weather or
market conditions. At the same time,
regular yield increases over the period due
to improved varieties or cultural practices
are masked by the ten-year average. In
addition, use of statewide averages masks
differences in yields from various Florida
production areas.

The experimental yields in the table
are from variety trials conducted in various
parts of the state for the number of
experiments indicated for each vegetable
(Maynard 1982-1992). The ten highest
yielding varieties in each trial were used to
calculate an average for that trial, and all
trials were combined to develop an overall
average which is shown in the table. The
validity of the experimental yield average
increases with the number of experiments
used in computing the average.
Experimental yields have the same
deficiencies as commercially-reported
yields except that they are not subject to
the effects of depressed markets or lapses
in the reporting system. Yields from
experimental plots are almost always












YIELDS OF VEGETABLES IN FLORIDA


Yield
Crop per acre Unit Commentsz


Bush Bean

Broccoli
Cabbage

Carrot

Cauliflower
Celery

Chinese Cabbage(napa)
Chinese Cabbage(bok-choi)
Collards
Corn, sweet

Cucumber

Eggplant

Escarole
Honeydew melon
Leek
Lettuce(crisphead)

Muskmelon
Okra
Onion(sweet,dry)
Pepper(bell)

Pepper(cubanelle)
Potato,Irish

Pumpkin (full-size)

Pumpkin(mini)
Radicchio
ladish(summer)

romaine
3now pea
southern pea
!quash(zucchini)

'quash(yellow summer)

squash(acorn)


124
175
486
442
1148
206
485
475
668
1120
895
410
1145
225
385
369
415
715
550
514
185
368
363
1065
325
770
635
577
1135
1075
216
285
195

123
1300
243
465
990
815
1725
228
495
228
430
205


30-1b bu
30-lb bu
23-1b crate
50-1b crate
50-lb crate
48 1-lb bags
48 1-lb bags
25-lb carton
60-lb crate
60-lb crate
50-1b crate
50-lb crate
25-lb crate
42-1b crate
42-1b crate
55-1b 1 1/9 bu
55-1b 1 1/9 bu
33-lb bu
33-lb bu
25-lb crate
cwt
cwt
50-lb carton
50-lb carton
cwt
30-1b bu
50-lb bag
28-1b bu
28-1b bu
25-lb bu
cwt
cwt
cwt

cwt
10-lb carton
15-lb carton
15-1b carton
22-lb carton
10-lb carton
lb seed
42-lb bu
42-lb bu
42-1b bu
42-1b bu
cwt


10-yr. state average
Avg. of 7 expts.
Avg. or 13 expts.
10-yr. state average
Avg. of 7 expts.
10-yr state average
Avg. of 4 expts.
Avg. of 9 expts.
10-yr. state average
Avg. of 19 expts.
Avg. of 6 expts.
Avg. of 5 expts.
Avg. of 8 expts.
10-yr state average
Avg. of 20 expts.
10-yr. state average
Avg. of 11 expts.
10-yr. state average
Avg. of 2 expts.
10-yr state average
Avg. of 6 expts.
Avg. of 3 expts.
10-yr state average
Avg. of 3 expts.
Avg. of 17 expts.
Avg. of 2 expts.
Avg. of 10 expts.
10-yr state average
Avg. of 15 expts.
Avg. of 3 expts.
10-yr state average
Avg. of 11 expts.
Avg. of 6 expts.

Avg. of 3 expts.
Avg. of 4 expts.
10-yr state average
Avg. of 1 expt.
Avg. of 2 expts.
Avg. of 1 expt.
Avg. of 4 expts.
10-yr state average
Avg. of 9 expts.
10-yr state average
Avg. of 8 expts.
Avg. of 4 expts.










Yield
Crop per acre Unit Commentsz

Squash(butternut) 200 cwt Avg. of 4 expts.
Sweet potato 1480 50-lb carton Avg. of 2 expts.
Strawberry 1794 12-lb flat 10-yr state average
2440 12-1b flat Avg. of 4 expts.
romato(staked) 1220 25-1b carton 10-yr state average
2275 25-1b carton Avg. of 24 expts.
Tomato(ground) 1230 25-lb carton Avg. of 8 expts.
Tomato(cherry) 4010 15-lb flat Avg. of 2 expts.
Tomato(plum) 1475 25-lb carton Avg. of 2 expts.
Watermelon(icebox) 510 cwt Avg. of 2 expts.
Watermelon(seedless) 655 cwt Avg. of 10 expts.
Watermelon(standard) 175 cwt 10-yr state average
545 cwt Avg. of 17 expts.


"The 10-yr state averages are
with reference No. 2.


from reference No. 1; other averages are from publications listed


higher than those from commercial fields because of the greater control of
achieved in small plots and the absence of the effects of depressed markets.


plant growth factors that can be


With all of the above-stated qualifications, it is apparent that these yield figures, although useful, are guidelines
rather than absolute figures, and they must be used judiciously.


References

1. Anonymous. 1992. Florida Agricultural Statistics. Vegetable Summary 1990-1991.
Florida Agricultural Statistics Service. Orlando.

2. Maynard, D. N. 1982-1992. Vegetable Variety Trial Results in Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Circs. S-306, S-314, S-325, S-338, S-341, S-358, S-363, S-371, S-382, S-384.


(Maynard & Hochmuth, Vegetarian 92-10)









III. HOME VEGETABLE
GARDENING.

A. Vapam use by Vegetable
Gardeners.

In the latest version of the "Vegetable
Gardening Guide", Sp 103 (printed 12/91)
the section on Nematodes included
directions on the use of metam (Vapam,
VPM, and Fume-V) for reducing heavy
populations of nematodes in home
vegetable gardens. However, a note at the
bottom of the article read: "Important: as
this publication goes to press, it is likely
that metam-sodium will become a
restricted-use pesticide."

Soon thereafter the prediction came to
pass, so now it seems an old reliable
practice must be abandoned or altered to
such an extent that most home gardeners
will not be able to use it. The following is
a summary of a memorandum sent to all of
use in Extension in September, 1992, by
Norman Nesheim, IFAS Pesticide
Information Coordinator.

"Vapam and Home Gardens we have
had several calls concerning the use of
VAPAM by home gardeners. VAPAM is a
soil fumigant that has been available in
small quantity packages to home
gardeners. Earlier this year EPA
announced tha VAPAM would be a
restricted use pesticide for use by certified
applicators or persons under their direct
supervision. EPA took this action based on
their review of animal studies, which show
that exposure of individuals (particularly
pregnant women) under current use
practices may pose a risk of birth defects in
the offspring.

The Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services (FDACS) will
certify home gardeners as private
applicators to permit them to use VAPAM
on their vegetable gardens. FDACS
considers the production of a vegetable


garden to be the production of an
agricultural commodity. Use of VAPAM on
turf or ornamental sites on private
residential property is not considered as
the production of an agricultural
commodity, and the application of VAPAM
to such sites should be done by a certified
commercial applicator. Home gardeners
may want to consider having applications of
VAPAM to vegetable gardens made by
commercial applicators, also.

Home gardeners, before purchasing and
applying VAPAM, need to be aware of
several other changes that may influence
their decision to apply VAPAM themselves.
The following protective clothing and
equipment are required to be used by
persons engaged in carrying out any
operations that are likely to involve direct
contact with VAPAM, including
mixing/loading, equipment calibrations or
adjustments, clean up and repair of
application equipment, sampling, cleanup
of spills, fumigant transfer, and rinsate
disposal, or by any other person engaging
in activities likely to result in direct
contact with the product:

a. A properly FIT TESTED NIOSH- or
MSHA-approved half-face respirator
with organic vapor cartridges plus non-
venting chemical goggles, or a NIOSH-
or MSHA-approved full-face respirator
with organic vapor cartridges.

b. Body covering that has long sleeves and
long pants. When a closed system is
not used, mixers and loaders must also
wear a chemical resistant apron or cloth
coveralls.

c. Chemical resistant gloves and boots.

The following Protective Clothing must
be worn at all times by persons
operating or monitoring application
equipment or entering treated areas
within 48 hours after completion of
application:




-6-


a. Chemical resistant footwear.

b. Body covering that has long sleeves and
long pants.

c. A properly FIT TESTED NIOSH- or
MSHA-approved half face respirator
with organic vapor cartridges plus non-
venting chemical goggles, or a NIOSH-
or MSHA- approved full-face respirator
with organic vapor cartridges must be
available. This equipment must be
worn when the pungent rotten egg odor
of VAPAM is detected.

Reentry and Worker Safety
Do not apply this product in such a
manner as to directly, or through drift,
expose workers or other persons. The area
being treated must be vacated by
unprotected persons. Do not enter treated
area for 48 hours after application unless
protective clothing is worn (Chemical-
resistant footwear and body covering with
long sleeves and long pants; and respirator,
if odor is detected, and chemical-resistant
gloves, if direct contact with product is
involved).

Tarping Requirements
The use of a tarp is required when the
product is applied near (within 1/2 mile)
populated areas such as residential areas,a
schools, hospitals, commercial or office
building, factories, etc.

NOTE: The VAPAM Soil Fumigant Label
for Small Areas/Nonagricultural Uses
contains 11 pages. This label will be sent
hard-copy to county extension faculty and
selected extension specialists in the
future." (End of memorandum).

Alternatives while there are no
chemicals or treatments that can be used
as a direct substitute for the soil-fumigant
metam, there are several practices that
have long been considered deterrents to
the nematode problem in Florida soils: As


Extension agents we need to be even more
mindful of the following practices than in
the past.

a. High level of organic matter in soil -
creates an improved soil-plant root
environment that helps plant withstand
nematodes to a greater extent than
without the O.M.

b. Crop rotation members of the same
family should not be grown in the same
spot in successive seasons. (Example -
never follow okra with okra).

c. Resistant varieties while resistance to
nematodes is not as extensive as for
diseases, there various degrees of
tolerance has been observed for quite a
few vegetable varieties. Two good
examples are the 'California black-eye
#5' southern pea, and the 'Better Boy'
tomato. Gardeners should look for the
"N" designating nematode resistance
when buying tomato seeds. It is not
always surefire under Florida
conditions, but it is at least a promise.

d. Soil solarization the practice of
covering an infested area with clear
plastic during the warmest period of the
summer has been shown to help reduce
the nematode population.

e. Marigolds many gardeners believe that
a marigold plant growing next to a
vegetable will keep the vegetable plant
safe from nematodes. While that wasn't
proven in University tests, certain
varieties of marigold were found to be
non-hosts. By growing these varieties
of marigold in the off-season, one could
hope to reduce the nematode
population.

f. Follow treatment nematode
populations tend to diminish in the
absence of suitable host-plants, thus





-7-


keeping a plot follow (clear of plants)
between gardening seasons, helps.

g. Cover cropping unless a particular
cover crop is highly susceptible to one
form of nematode or another, planting
a cover crop helps in at least two ways:
a) if resistant (as 'Cal Blackeye' pea),
nematode populations are suppressed;
and b) if abundantly grown, soil organic
matter is increased, thus helping as
mentioned already.

h. Mulching for many of the same
benefits as have been suggested for soil
organic matter, mulching helps the
plant overcome the effects of
nematodes. Roots underneath a mulch
may still be infested, but the plant
responds better than if unmulched.


i. Flooding not many gardeners can take
advantage of this practice, but where
the garden plot can be covered with
water for much of the summer,
nematode populations can be reduced.
Heavy rainfalls which cover the soil for
just a few days at a time are not
helpful.

j. Nematodes there likely will be an
avalanche of materials on the market
touted to control nematodes. We need
to classify them as "for trial only" and
refrain from endorsement until we hear
from our Extension Nematologist, Bob
Dunn, who will be scrutinizing these
products and their claims. The same is
true for the bio-controls as well as
chemicals.

(Stephens, Vegetarian 92-10)


Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D.J. Cantliffe
Chairman


Dr. S.M. Olson
Assoc. Professor


Mr. J.M. Stephens
Professor
fln 11 1)


c adlor


Dr. G.J. Hochmuth
Assoc. Professor


Dr. S.A. Sargent
Assoc. Professor


Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Asst. Professor


Dr. D.N. Maynard
Professor


Dr. W.M. Stall
Professor


Dr. J.M. White
Assoc. Professor




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