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Title: Vegetarian
Series Title: Vegetarian
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Creator: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Horticultural Sciences Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Publication Date: September 1992
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087399
Volume ID: VID00280
Source Institution: University of Florida
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I UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA I


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VELGETAPIAN


A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication

Horticultural Sciences Department P.O. 110690 Gainesville, FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134


Vegetarian 92-9


September 17, 1992


Contents

I. NOTES OF INTEREST


A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

H. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Further Studies on Detergents Phytotoxicity.

B. The IFAS Fertilization Recommendation Process.

C. Scotch Bonnet Pepper.

D. Update on Introduction of Standard Shipping
Carton for Peppers.

I. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. IR-4 Future Thrusts.

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Oak Leaves as a Soil Amendment.





Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors.
The purpose of trade names in this publication is solely
for the purpose of providing information and does not
necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and Institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA,
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING.


INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE
EXTENSION SERVICE









I. NOTES OF INTEREST

A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.

October 10-12, 1992. National
Junior Horticultural Association
Convention, Radission Airport Hotel,
Columbus, Ohio. (Contact Bob Renner,
Marion Co.)
November 3-5, 1992. FSHS
Convention. Hyatt Regency Westshore.
Tampa. (Contact Dan Cantliffe).
Jan. 27, 28, 1993. 1992-93 Vegetable
Agents In-Service Training Program.
"Electronic Information Exchange for
Vegetable Extension Programs." Held at
Fifield Hall, Gainesville. (Contact George
Hochmuth or Steve Sargent).
March 4,5, 1993 Postharvest
Horticulture Institute. University Centre
Hotel, Gainesville. (Contact Steve
Sargent).
March 8-11, 1993. Harvest and
Postharvest Handling of Horticultural
Crops. Tour of Central and South Florida.
(Contact Steve Sargent).

H. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES

A. Further Studies on
Detergents Phytotoxicity.

The use of detergents for the
control of Sweetpotato Whitefly (SPWF) in
tomato has been heavy since Fall
'90/Spring '91. Fall '91 trials indicated
detergent sprays slowed plant weight gain
and could reduce and delay yield in
proportion to concentration and frequency
of application. To ease grower fears, the
key words here are CONCENTRATION
and FREQUENCY.
Detergent concentrations presently
used by growers (0.25%) are effective in
controlling whiteflies and when applied
once weekly should result in virtually no
yield loss either overall or in the extra-
large grade category. However, delayed
plant weight gain as a result of detergent


sprays under hot August and September
conditions could have differing
consequences in different years. Let's
review what we saw last fall and add some
information gotten from trials run this past
spring '92.
Fall '91 Recap "New Day"
detergent (similar to Tide) concentrations
(v/v) of 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% were
applied once or twice weekly, beginning
one week after planting (Sept. 27, 1991)
and continued through week 10 of the
tomato crop. Application volumes ranged
from 50 to 150 gallons per acre depending
on crop maturity. Application pressures
ranged from 150 to 200 psi. Plant dry
weight was determined at two week
intervals through week 9 of the crop. Yield
and grade were assessed as a result of
treatment.
Untreated plants had greater plant
weights throughout the sampling period,
weighing significantly more than all
detergent treated plants at week seven.
However, by week 9 the untreated plants
significantly outweighed only the 1% and
2% detergent-treated plants. Greater plant
weight reduction occurred when plants
were sprayed twice weekly rather than
once.
First Harvest The apparent
reduction in growth exhibited by the 1%
and 2% detergent-treated plants was
enough to significantly reduce yield at first
harvest. Untreated, 0.25% and 0.5%
detergent-treated plants yielded similarly
when sprayed once a week, however a
general reduction in yield occurred
compared to the control when 0.25% or
0.5% detergent was applied twice a week.
The reduction in yield appeared to
be a function of fruit size. A significant
reduction in extra-large fruit occurred
when 0.5% detergent was sprayed twice a
week and when 1% or 2% detergent was
applied regardless of the number of
applications.
Combined Harvests Data from all
three harvests showed that the untreated




-2-


plants and plants treated with 0.25% or
0.5% detergent had similar yields.
However, when 1% or 2% detergent was
applied, there were significant differences
in total yield.
Yield reductions in extra-large
tomatoes resulted from 1% and 2%
detergent when sprayed once a week.
Twice weekly applications of detergent in
concentrations of 0.5% or greater
significantly reduced the yield of extra-
large tomatoes.
It was concluded that 0.25%
detergent was a reasonably safe and
efficacious spray treatment for SPWF.
Spring '92 A modified study was
undertaken to test three detergent
products Tide Liquid (Proctor & Gamble,
Cincinnati, Ohio), M-Pede (Mycogen, San
Diego, CA), and LQ215 (Zohar Detergent
Factory, Kibbutz Dalia, Israel) at 0.25% and
0.5%, applied once and twice a week. The
study ran the course of the crop and
followed the protocol outlined in the fall
study above. Bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas
solanacearum) infected the crop during
development which complicated data
accumulation. Furthermore, detergent
applications were often followed by rain
events which may possibly have negated a
potential impact.


The spring trial resulted in no
significant differences among treatments
with respect to plant dry matter
accumulation, total or extra-large grade
yield at first harvest, total and extra-large
grade yield with combined harvests, or
frequency of application. Furthermore,
rate response was not consistent, that is
the 0.5% treatment did not always result in
lower yields compared to the 0.25% rate as
expected. Nevertheless production trends
overall were similar to the fall trial: a
reduction in yield among detergent-sprayed
plants (Figs 1 & 2), manifested by a
reduction in extra-large tomatoes (Fig. 3),
and greater yield reductions when
detergent was applied twice weekly (Fig. 4).
Nothing in these results contradicts
what was learned in fall '91, nor changes
the conclusions drawn from those studies.
However, the phenomenon of detergent
induced reductions in plant weight gain
and yield loss appear to require further
analysis. This work and other studies
designed to determine the effects of
detergents on tomatoes are ongoing at the
SWFREC in Immokalee.

(Vavrina & Stansly, Vegetarian 92-09)








FIGURE 1. DETERGENT YIELDS, SPRING '92
(FIRST HARVEST TOTAL YIELD)

LBS/PLOT*


CONTROL TIDE LQ215 M-PEDE
DETERGENT

L 0.25% E 0.5% M CONTROL

. PLOT 8 TOMATO PLANTS, ALL DATA NS


FIGURE 3. DETERGENT YIELDS, SPRING '92
(COMBINED HARVEST X-LG YIELD)

LBS/PLOT*


CONTROL TIDE LQ215 M-PEDE
DETERGENT

I] 0.25% M 0.5% M CONTROL

* PLOT 8 TOMATO PLANTS, ALL DATA NS


FIGURE 2. DETERGENT YIELDS, SPRING '92
(COMBINED HARVEST TOTAL YIELD)

LBS/PLOT-


CONTROL TIDE LQ215 M-PEDE
DETERGENT

1 0.25% E 0.5% M CONTROL

* PLOT 8 TOMATO PLANTS, ALL DATA NS


FIGURE 4. DETERGENT YIELDS, SPRING '92
(YIELD BY ONCE OR TWICE A WEEK)

LBS/PLOT*


1ST TOTAL 1ST XL COMB. TOTAL COMB. XL

I] ONCE M TWICE

* PLOT 8 TOMATO PLANTS, ALL DATA NS









B. The IFAS F
Recommendation Process.


ertilization


The concept of a fertilization
recommendation is to provide growers and
homeowners with guidelines for the proper
management of nutrients. These
guidelines are based on research/
experience with the various commodities
under Florida environmental conditions.
Fertilization recommendations must be
based on interpretation of scientific
research with a sensitivity for economic
and environmental concerns.
Recommendations result from a
process designed to ensure that the
guidelines are appropriate for a wide
variety of cultural situations. The
recommendations are not intended for
unrealistic growing conditions, inadequate
crop management, or grossly inefficient
water management.
Recommendations begin from a
gathering of research data which provide
information on prefertilization soil testing,
plant tissue analysis, water management,
and crop response. From the available
research information, the crop nutrient
requirement (CNR) is determined. The
CNR is the rate of fertilizer used when the
soil tests low for a specific nutrient and
plant nutrition must be supplied mostly
from fertilizer. Once the CNR is
determined, a calibration curve can be
developed from crop response to
fertilization on sites reflecting a range in
soil test values.
In addition to the fertilizer amount,
a recommendation also contains
information on proper fertilizer
management. If data are available,
recommendations concerning fertilizer
placement and timing are formulated.
Choices of placement should favor the
management technique that results in
more efficient fertilizer use.
Once recommendations are
formulated by Extension specialists, then
guidelines with supporting documentation
undergo peer review by other Extension


and research personnel. Upon final
administrative approval, the
recommendations are published and
available for dissemination to the IFAS
clientele. Recommendations are
incorporated into the Standardized
Fertilization Recommendation System for
use in soil testing reports.
The process described here ensures
that the IFAS recommendations represent
the research accurately. Recommendations
that have not gone through this process
must be considered opinions and could lead
to a lack of credibility.

(G. Hochmuth and E. Hanlon,
Vegetarian 92-09)

C. Scotch Bonnet Pepper.

Most cultivated peppers are
classified as Capsicum annuum; exceptions
are tabasco pepper (Capsicum frutescens)
and 'Scotch Bonnet' pepper (Capsicum
chinense). The specific epithet suggests
Chinese origin, but like other Capsicums,
it is of New World origin. Other peppers
in this group are 'Habanero' and
'Bahamian.'
The varieties in this group have
several similar characteristics: fruit size is
approximately 1 to 11/2 inch x 1 to 1 1/2
inch, the fruit wall is thin, and is very
pungent (hot). On the Scoville scale, a
subjective measurement of pungency, they
have 200,000 Scoville heat units compared
with 0 for bell peppers and about 2,000 for
jalapeno. Mature fruit color may be yellow,
orange, or red.
'Scotch Bonnet' is distinguished
from others in the group by fruit shape
and color. The fruit is depressed at the
blossom end to form a bonnet, whereas
fruit shape is conical or irregularly conical
in the others. Mature fruit color is always
yellow in 'Scotch Bonnet' pepper.
Commercial production of 'Scotch
Bonnet' is primarily in Jamaica where it is
used widely in local cuisine, as well as
being exported to the U.S., U.K. and





-5-


elsewhere where there are West Indian
populations.
In the spring of 1992, a small trial
was conducted at GCREC-Bradenton to
assess the potential for production in
Florida as part of the continuing program
of specialty vegetable evaluation. Seeds,
obtained from Jamaica, were planted. in
peat-lite mix in 1 1/2 inch cells on 10
February and were transplanted in the
field on 25 March. Seedlings and young
plants grow very slowly compared to bell
peppers so that about 4 weeks extra plant
growing and establishment time should be
provided. Plants were spaced 4.5 ft apart
in double rows 1 ft apart on a 32 inch bed.
A single plant row would be preferable to a
double row because the plants, once
established, grow vigorously and are at
maturity several times larger than a bell
pepper plant.
Fruit were harvested on 2, 8 and 13
July. Each plant produced an average of
41 marketable fruit having an average
weight of 0.32 oz for a total yield of 0.81
lb/plant. At 1936 plants per acre this
would equal 1568 lbs of marketable fruit
per acre. Additional trials to develop
cultural guidelines for 'Scotch Bonnet'
pepper are planned.

(Maynard, Vegetarian 92-09)

D. Update on Introduction of
Standard Shipping Carton for
Peppers.

The Florida pepper industry
continues full-speed ahead for the adoption
of the new MUM pepper carton (see article
in the August "Vegetarian"). Shippers are
ordering the new carton design from their
carton suppliers in two configurations, the
regular-slotted container (RSC folded
top/bottom) and the two-piece carton
(similar to the current tomato carton).
Many companies are also planning to use
this carton to ship other vegetables, such
as cucumbers, eggplant and squash. This
carton hopefully will become a standard


vegetable carton for Florida, thus
facilitating handling and marketing.
I attended a meeting of the Produce
Pallet Working Group in San Francisco in
August. This group consists of
representatives of major U.S. and Canadian
produce organizations, including the
United Fresh Fruit & Vegetable Assoc., the
Produce Marketing Assoc., the Florida
Fruit & Vegetable Assoc. and various
commodity and industry groups. There
was considerable discussion as to the
merits of the produce industry adopting
standard, reusable pallets. At the end of
the discussion, the group unanimously
voted to recommend that the industry
adopt the 40x48-inch reusable pallet.
Reggie Brown (Membership Director of the
FFVA) presented the concept of the new
pepper carton to the group as well as to
several industry groups throughout the
U.S. and has had a very positive response.
It appears that the national movement for
more efficient handling of produce is
growing, with our Florida vegetable
industry in the forefront.

(Sargent, Vegetarian 92-09)

III. PESTICIDE UPDATE

A. IR-4 Future Thrusts.

The IR-4 will hold a cooperators
meeting in St. Louis the first week in
October. The objectives of the meeting are
several, but two objectives are to
recommend future thrusts of IR-4 and to
introduce new pesticide clearance needs
and review and prioritize registration and
reregistration needs. I will be attending
the meetings and participating in the
prioritization of herbicide needs in minor
crops.
Some of the projects that have or
are being run in Florida in 1992 are:
Clomazone (Command) and Metolachlor
(Dual) on watermelon, paraquat (post-
directed) in watermelon (reregistration);
Metolachlor (Dual) on bok choy, Chinese









broccoli, collard, Chinese mustard, and
pigeon pea; Napropamide (Devrinol) on
leek, daikon and Chinese mustard;
Oxyfluorfen (Goal) on cabbage
(reregistration); Paraquat on collard, head
lettuce, okra, summer squash and turnip
greens; Pendimethalin (Prowl) on leek;
Sethoxydim (Poast) on daikon; and
Thiobencarb (Bolero) on broccoli, cabbage
and carrots.
I am soliciting those who have
herbicide needs on specific crops to contact
me so I may either introduce those needs
or help prioritize those needs higher in the
order. The prioritization process will
determine the national and southern
region projects for the coming 2 years.
One of the future thrusts of IR-4
may be in developing data for registration
of environmentally friendly or reduced-risk
pesticides that can be incorporated into
IPM strategies. The EPA has published an
article, seeking public comment, entitled
"Incentives for Development and
Registration of Reduced Risk Pesticides."
I am interested in any ideas on
possible projects that may be of great
benefit to Florida in reduced-risk
pesticides, and ideas in other possible
thrusts that IR-4 may undertake.
The time is getting short so call any
comments to me. 904-392-7913.

(Stall, Vegetarian 92-09)

IV. VEGETABLE GARDENING

A. Oak Leaves as a Soil
Amendment.

Throughout the years in Florida I
have visited some very nice vegetable
gardens, some of which were amended only
with oak leaves raked from the property
(yard). It just never seemed realistic that
vegetable plants could receive sufficient
nutrients from this lowly source to produce
the fine gardens that I saw.
When we started the Organic
Gardening Research and Education Park at


Fifield Hall, one of the first trials I wanted
to run was with oak leaves as a soil
amendment. So in the summer of 1990,
the first year, we filled a 5x10' grow-box
with oak leaves just as they came from
curb-side collection. The leaves were not
analyzed for nutrient composition, but we
estimated their N content at .5% or less.
The unshredded leaves were piled 3
to 4 inches deep in the box and then mixed
with the soil during the summer (about
May, 1990). No fertilizer or lime was
added. In September when we planted
other boxes amended with other types of
soil organic materials, we planted the oak-
filled box with two varieties of tomato
('Cherry' and 'Better Boy'), and 'Georgia'
collards. We harvested in November and
recorded our results.

Fall (1990) results: Growth of both the
tomato varieties and the collard greens was
poor. When we cut the collards and
weighed the leaves, we got only 3 lbs. of
leaves from the 10 ft-row as compared with
10 lbs of leaves cut from boxes with animal
manures.

Conclusion: This was about what was
expected. The leaves, being rather woody,
had not rotted sufficiently to overcome the
nitrogen depletion associated with
decomposition. Thus, crop growth and
yields were low.

Spring 1991
We decided to help accelerate the
decomposition process along by shredding
some of the leaves. One-half of the box
(westside) received 2 lbs/sq ft shredded
leaves, whereas the other side received
whole (unshredded) leaves at 2 lb/sq ft.
All leaves were incorporated in March, 91
and the boxes planted the same week with
'Better Boy' tomato.

Results: This season produced a much
better crop of tomatoes, particularly on the
shredded side of the box. We rated the
shredded side good, out of a rating scheme




-7-


of: poor, fair, good, and excellent. We
harvested 1 pound per plant more on the
shredded side than on the unshredded
side.

Conclusion: Obviously, with time the
decomposition process was beginning to
yield dividends in terms of nutrient
release. A surplus of nitrogen for crop use
over microorganism needs was taking place.
The shredding helped in this regard,
speeding the decomposition process. Still,
other boxes containing manures were
outstripping this box of oak leaves, but not
by too much. The main point was that this
box containing the oak leaves was
producing a crop of somewhat satisfactory
proportions. The check box (nothing
added) was far behind.

Fall 1991
With no further additions, but with
more time to decompose the leaves, we
planted two varieties of southern peas in
September, 1991.

Results: Yields were poor, with high
incidence of root knot nematodes.


Conclusions: Even the best treatments (of
organic amendments) suffered from
nematode damage, thus affecting yields.
Thus, the nutritional effects of the oak
leaves could not be evaluated.

Spring 1992
Additional oak leaves were placed in
the box containing the now well-rotten
leaves from the previous two years. One-
half was shredded while the other half was
whole leaves (the rate was 1 lb./sq ft).
We planted 'Better Boy' tomato and
'Jupiter' pepper in March, 1992.

Results: Both the tomato plants and the
pepper plants amended with shredded
leaves yielded in the top three treatments
of the trial. Other treatments included
animal manures, organic fertilizers, and
composts.

Conclusion: After three years, we were
shown that oak leaves of the sort we were
using would provide adequate yields of
some vegetables. Time for decomposition
was required, and would be helped by first
shredding the leaves.
Also, one could still expect
nematode damage even when organic
fertilizers were incorporated.


(Stephens, Vegetarian 92-09)



Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists


Dr. D.J. Cantliffe
Chairman


Dr. S.M. Olson
Assoc. Professor



Mr. J.M. Stephens
Professor


Dr. G.J. Hochmuth
Assoc. Professor


Dr. S.A Sargent
Assoc. Professor
& Editor 1,.<


Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Asst. Professor


Dr. D.N. Maynard
Professor


Dr. W.M. Stall
Professor



Dr. J.M. White
Assoc. Professor




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