INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
A Vegetable Crops Extension Publication
Horticultural Sciences Department P.O. 110690 Gainesville, FL 32611 Telephone 392-2134
August 17, 1992
I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.
II. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
-..- A. A New Standard Carton for Shipping Florida
B. Fertilization of Snapbeans.
C. Tomato Institute Program.
A. 1992 State 4H Congress Horticultural News.
Note: Anyone is free to use the information in this newsletter.
Whenever possible, please give credit to the authors.
The purpose of trade names in this publication is solely
for the purpose of providing information and does not
necessarily constitute a recommendation of the product.
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and Institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA,
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING.
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 0
I. NOTES OF INTEREST
A. Vegetable Crops Calendar.
August 26-28, 1992. State Master
Gardener Continued Training Conference.
Reitz Union, University of Florida.
(Contact Kathleen Ruppert).
September 9, 1992. Tomato
Institute. Ritz-Carlton Hotel. Contact
Charles Vavrina, SWFREC, Immokalee.
I. COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES
A. A New Standard Carton for
Shipping Florida Vegetables.
With as many as 550 shipping
container sizes being used in the U.S.
produce industry, there is a great need for
adoption of containers with standard
dimensions. In fact, the Organization for
Economic Cooperation and Development
has already developed international
standards for containers based on uniform
outside dimensions. The container sizes
are designed to cover from 95% to 100% of
the surface area on a pallet measuring 120
centimeters by 100 cm, or approximately
equal to the 40 inch by 48 inch pallet
currently used in the U.S. Depending on
the base dimensions, these cartons can be
stacked 5, 6, 8 and 10 containers per layer
on the standard pallet and the height is set
to accommodate the desired volume.
In response to the international
standards, the United Fresh Fruit and
Vegetable Association has promoted the
use of standardized shipping containers for
several years through Project MUM. MUM
stands for Modularization, Unitization and
Metrication. Adoption of MUM containers
not only facilitates domestic shipping but
also facilitates exports to European and
other markets. Several years ago the
Florida tomato and strawberry industries
adopted MUM cartons and virtually 100%
Many commodities, such as peppers,
cucumbers and eggplant, are currently
shipped in corrugated fiberboard cartons
with about 1-1/9-bushel capacity.
Although the carton volume is fairly
standard, there are almost as many carton
dimensions as there are shippers. In the
fall of 1991 we provided the Florida Bell
Pepper Growers Exchange, Inc., with
design criteria for a standard-size carton
which could be adopted by the Florida
pepper industry. Design parameters and
tests were developed by the postharvest
research group which included Mike Talbot
of the Agricultural Engineering Dept. and
Jeff Brecht, also of the Horticultural
Sciences Department, and was in
cooperation with several corrugated carton
manufacturers. Basic features of the
standard carton were selected to:
1) use standard container dimensions
to promote palletization, and reduce
handling costs and mechanical
injury to the product;
2) promote efficient precooling for
crops cooled by forced-air cooling by
incorporating larger vent openings
and proper alignment of vent holes
in the carton;
3) facilitate marketing by providing a
common carton volume for the
The carton dimensions are:
15 13/16 in. (Length) x 11 7/8 in. (Width)
x 12 1/2 in. (Height) [40 cm (L) x 30 cm
(W) x 32 cm (H)].
These base dimensions permit cross-
stacking of 10 cartons per pallet layer,
providing greater integrity during handling.
The volume is 3.56 decaliters (DKL), which
was determined by setting the carton
height as high as possible while
maintaining carton stability during packing
and handling. Vent holes were designed
with 5% openings per face and arranged so
as to remain aligned when cross-stacked.
The holes were located at the top and
bottom corners to maximize carton
strength and reduce blockage of the
openings by the product. Typical 1-1/9
cartons have only 2% to 4% vent openings,
depending on the carton design, stack 8
cartons per layer and have blocked vent
holes when cross-stacked.
The new carton improves cooling
efficiency over the 1-1/9 carton. In a
cooling test at a commercial forced-air
precooler, 3/4 Cooling of bell peppers was
achieved in 1.6 hours in the 40x30 carton,
while the 1-1/9 carton required an
additional 0.6 hours to reach the same
temperature. (3/4 Cooling means removal
of 75% of the field heat from the peppers,
based on the initial pulp temperature and
the cooling air temperature.) Peppers
which were room cooled in the cartons
cooled too slowly for commercial shipping,
regardless of carton style. However, the
40x30 carton cooled significantly faster,
achieving 3/4 Cooling in 10.7 hours;
peppers in the 1-1/9 carton required 16.3
hours. These latter data clearly reveal that
room cooling is an unacceptable method for
cooling a perishable crop such as bell
Samples of the new carton have
been shown to shippers and receivers in
several areas of the country by Reggie
Brown, Membership Director of the Florida
Fruit and Vegetable Association and
manager of the Florida Bell Pepper
Growers Exchange, Inc. Comments have
been quite positive. Pepper shippers have
agreed to begin using the new carton "cold
turkey" this fall season, and plan to use
these dimensions for cartons to pack other
vegetables as well. The capability of
delivering high quality vegetables to
distant markets requires careful handling
procedures from field to retail. The
adoption of this standard shipping carton
will greatly benefit the Florida industry
and, ultimately, the consumer.
(Sargent, Vegetarian, 92-08)
B. N Fertilization of Snanbeans.
A few years ago, Bob Hochmuth and
I took a look at the IFAS recommendations
for N fertilization of snapbeans on
overhead sprinkler irrigated sandy soils.
Several experiments were conducted on
placement, timing, and rate of N
fertilization. The studies were done at the
Suwannee Valley AREC near Live Oak, FL
in 1989 and 1990.
Our recommendations for N are for
60 lb N per acre. In two seasons of
research, bean yield leveled off at an
average of 72 lb N per acre according to
the linear-plateau statistical analyses of
data. Results are presented in Table 1.
The existing recommendations were
derived more than 25 years ago from
research with a 6-8-8 mixed fertilizer and
apparently are not quite high enough for
In another study, we evaluated
timing and placement of N. The main
objective was to determine if some of the N
could be split-applied "broadcast" by center-
pivot irrigation, a method commonly used
for snapbean irrigation in northern Florida.
Results in Table 2 show that various N
scheduling methods had little effect on
snapbean yield. More detail on both of
these experiments will be available in two
upcoming Suwannee ValleyAREC research
Table 1. Snapbean response to N fertilization.
N rate lodging Marketable yield Leaf-N
(Ib/A) ratingY (30-lb bu/A) (%)
-------------------- 1989 --------------------
0 1.0 58 3.0
40 2.2 171 3.0
80 3.2 260 3.6
120 3.7 279 4.2
160 4.0 247 4.2
200 4.0 274 4.4
Signif.z L**Q** *Q L**
R2 0.93 0.79 0.45
-------------------- 1990 --------------------
0 1.0 66 2.0
40 1.5 197 2.5
80 3.2 267 3.5
120 4.2 322 3.8
160 4.0 287 4.3
200 4.3 311 4.2
Signif. L**Q** L**** L**Q**
R2 0.75 0.63 0.89
YLodging rating: 1 no lodging; 5 severe lodging.
significant at 1% (** or 5% (*) probability level and
response was linear (L) or quadratic (Q).
Table 2. Response of snapbean to N scheduling.
N schedule Plant Marketable
At first first first lodging yield Leaf-N
No. planting true leaf buds bloom rating (30-lb bu/A) (X)
1 1/3 (B)Y 1/3 (B) 1/3 (B) 2.8 273 3.26
2 1/3 (B) 1/3 (BC) 1/3 (BC) 3.5 284 3.25
3 1/3 (BC) 1/3 (BC) 1/3 (BC) 3.5 278 3.60
4 30% (BC) 20% (BC) 20% (BC) 30%(BC) 3.8 273 3.84
5 30% (B) 30% (BC) 20% (BC) 20%(BC) 3.6 275 3.60
LSD .05z 0.5 NS 0.55
XLodging rating: 1
YBroadcast (BC) or
- no lodging;
5 severe lodging.
(G. Hochmuth, Vegetarian 92-08)
University of Florida
Horticultural Sciences Department
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
TOMATO INSTITUTE PROGRAM
September 9, 1992
Ritz Carlton Hotel
Moderator: Stewart Swanson, Collier County Extension Agent
9:00 AM Opening Remarks Daniel Cantliffe, Chairman, Hort. Sci. Dept, Gainesville.
9:10 Competition with Mexico and the Potential Impact from Free Trade John
Vansickle (Food & Res. Econ., Gainesville) and Daniel Cantliffe (Hort. Sci.,
9:30 New Developments in the Management of Tomato Viruses in Florida Jane
Polston (Plant Path., GCREC), D. Schuster (Ent., GCREC), R.J. McGovern
(Plant Path., SWFREC), and E. Hiebert (Plant Path., Gainesville).
9:50 The Sweetpotato Whitefly and Integrated Pest Management of Tomato. -
Philip Stansly (Ent., SWFREC) and D. Schuster (Ent., GCREC).
10:10 Fusarium Crown & Root Rot: Re-evaluation of Management Strategies -Robert
McGovern (Plant Path., SWFREC) and L. E. Datnoff (Plant Path., EREC).
10:30 Tomato Little Leaf Snydrome A Possible Explanation Steve Olson (Hort. Sci.,
NFREC), Dan Chellemi (Plant Path., NFREC) and S. S. Woltz (Plant Path.,
10:50 Irrigation Scheduling for Staked Tomatoes Gary Clark (Ag. Eng., GCREC).
11:10 Irrigation Deficit and Processed Sludge Affect Severity of Early Blight in
Tomato Thomas Obreza (Soil Sci., SWFREC) and Robert McGovern (Plant
11:30 Reducing Chlorine Levels While Effectively Controlling Pathogens in Tomato
Dump-Tank Water S. A. Sargent (Hort. Sciences, Gainesville).
Grade Classification May Affect Decay Susceptibility and Internal Quality of
Tomatoes S. A. Sargent (Hort. Sciences, Gainesville).
Moderator: Charlie Vavrina, Vegetable Horticulturist SWFREC
1:30 PM The Fate of Methyl Bromide in Florida Agriculture Joe Noling (Nematologist,
m. VEGETABLE GARDENING
A. 1992 State 4H Congress
As happens every year, two major
horticultural events were conducted July
30, 1992, during State 4H Congress in
Gainesville. These were the Horticulture
Judging and Identification contest and the
Plant Science Demonstrations.
Top winners in both events won the
right to represent Florida in national
competition during the annual convention
of the National Junior Horticultural
Association, this year to be held in late
October in Ohio.
The following are the results of the
competition at the University of Florida
during 4H Congress:
1992 State 4H Horticulture Judging/Identification Contest
(Total Possible Score 2700 points)*
Marion County (Coach Bob Renner)
St. Johns County
Correct Usage and Specifications of Spray Oils for Tomatoes Steve Fanning
Spray Oils: Mode of Action Jack Simons (JMS Flower Farms).
Spray Oil Questions and Answers Fanning & Simons.
Recycling Plastic Mulch: Why?, How?, Where?, When? Keith Williamson
Monsanto's Perspective on Biotechnology in Tomato Mark Stowers
Commercial Tomato Cultivar Trends in Florida Paul Sawyer (Abbott & Cobb).
(Vavrina, Vegetarian 92-08)
Individual Placings: (Total possible score 900 pts)
Highest Judging Score Allison Clarke (Duval) 197 pts. (Max: 200)
Highest Identification Score Stephanie Stancie (Marion) 630 pts. (Max: 700)
Highest Vegetable ID Score Jeb Smith (St. Johns) 150 pts. (Max: 200)
Highest Fruits ID Score Allison Clarke (Duval) 150 pts. (Max: 200)
Highest Ornamentals ID Score Stephanie Stancil (Marion) 345 pts. (Max: 400)
*footnote -Only the top three individual scores are added to determine the teams's score.
1992 Plant Science Demonstrations
Mike Griggs, Clay County
Missy Burchfield, St. Johns County
Rhonda Smith, Pasco County
Alicia Churchwell and Michele Thomas, Hillsborough County.
Demonstration Title: "Plants That Harm Animals."
The plant science Extension
specialists who conducted these two events
at Congress were: Bob Black,
(Environmental Horticulture); Kathleen
Ruppert, (Environmental Horticulture),
Jeff Williamson (Horticultural Sciences);
and Jim Stephens (Horticultural Sciences).
Reggie Brown Honored
The contest winners were not the
only ones honored during the Congress
awards ceremonies. Reggie Brown, Florida
Fruits and Vegetables Association (FFVA),
was presented a special plaque by the
Florida 4H Clubs in appreciation for his
leadership in obtaining financial support
for these and other 4H horticultural events
and activities, particularly the annual
convention of the National Junior
Horticultural Association, which Florida
hosted in Altamonte last fall. We who
work in Florida Extension are greatly
indebted to Reggie and the FFVA, along
with other supporters, for their role as
sponsors for all the program of projects and
activities in 4H horticulture.
(Stephens, Vegetarian 92-08)
Prepared by Extension Vegetable Crops Specialists
Dr. D.J. Cantliffe
Dr. S.M. Olson
Mr. J.M. Stephens
Dr. G.J. Hochmuth
Dr. S.A. Sargent
Dr. C. S. Vavrina
Dr. D.N. Maynard
Dr. W.M. Stall
Dr. J.M. White